Method for auxiliary beam identification in a satellite system

FIELD: satellite systems.

SUBSTANCE: system and method are claimed for detecting errors of temporal displacement in a satellite system, on basis of Doppler displacement and speed of Doppler displacement alteration. In accordance to the invention, user terminal determines first and second time displacements, respectively related to first and second satellite beams from respectively first and second satellites. Further, user terminal determines Doppler displacement and speed of Doppler displacement alteration, related to first and second satellite beams. Temporal displacement is estimated on basis of measured Doppler displacement and speed of Doppler displacement alteration and then compared to time displacement, determined by the user terminal. If the result of comparison does not match a specific threshold, beam identification error is stated.

EFFECT: ensured identification of satellite beams.

6 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl

 

This patent application takes priority of the provisional application for U.S. patent entitled "Method and System for Aiding Beam Identification In A LEO SatelliteSystem," No. 60/342,925, filed October 25, 2001, included in the present description in its entirety by reference.

The present invention in General relates to satellite communication and satellite communication systems. More specifically the present invention relates to the evaluation and compensation of propagation delays associated with the identified satellite beams in a satellite communications network.

Conventional satellite communication systems include one or more terrestrial base stations (below called gateways), user terminals, such as mobile phone, and one or more satellites, forwarding the communication signals between the user terminal and the gateway. The gateway receives the satellite signals and passes them on to the satellites that can be placed in low-earth orbit (IEO), handles connections or calls and connects or transfers calls to appropriate terrestrial network or out as required. Thus, the gateway enables communication based on ground-based devices, allowing the system user to communicate with other system users, or providing a line of communication with ground-based providers, such as matermania telephone network sharing (CTAD), data networks, wireless communications systems, or other satellite gateways.

Although mobile phones or wireless user terminals provide users with increased mobility and flexibility, rapid increase in the number of such phones has led to increased requirements to the respective communication systems. For example, in the case of a satellite communication system positioning system user is critical when establishing lines of communication with the phone, determining what to use provider's services, and the provision of services to determine the position of the user, not to mention the other.

Most communications satellites are projecting "trace", which includes several links or rays of communication signals, grouped in such a way as to provide coverage for communication with system users in the geographic area covered by the footprint. Specific user terminal may be assigned, albeit temporarily, to use a particular beam of the satellite for transmission of communication signals, based on the geographical position of the user terminal. Therefore, the gateway satellite communications system must know the position of the user terminal to provide the appropriate communication services to a specific user che is ez suitable serviced ray satellite. Thus, knowledge of a particular beam of the satellite providing service to a specific user, or geographic area is the base to enable the gateway to provide the service.

Another aspect of this process is appropriate to establish lines of communication with other service providers, such as CTAD and data network. These service providers are usually associated with specific geographic areas and only handle the communication line associated with their respective areas. For example, the network may have a state license or commercial agreements with customers about the service specific areas. Knowledge about the position of the user terminal is also necessary before you will be provided with these services, depending on geographic area. Identification of the satellite beam is a necessary step when determining the position of the user terminal.

To determine the position of the user satellite communication system there are a number of standard approaches. Some methods, for example, use the distance measurement between the user terminal and the associated satellite and determining the rate of change associated with the measured distance. When combined, are shown the measurements of the distances with other data can be exactly determined position of the user terminal. Methods of determining the position of the user terminal using the distance to the user terminal, and the rate of change of the distance set forth in U.S. patent No. 6078284, entitled "Passive Position Determination Using Two Low-Earth Orbit Satellites", 6327534 entitled "Unambiguous Position Determination Using Two Low-Earth Orbit Satellites and 6107959, entitled "Position Determination Using One Low-Earth Orbit Satellite". In addition, U.S. patent No. 6137441, entitled "Accurate Range And Range Rate Determination In A Satellite Communications System", describes a method of motion compensation satellites to improve the accuracy of the position information of the user terminal.

However, although the relative movement of the satellite and the associated user terminal can be determined, when such measurements are often errors occur due to effects such as the characteristics of the antenna gain, or, for example, because a particular satellite may be low on the horizon regarding the user's terminal. Mistakes often lead to the fact that the gateway mistakenly identifies the service or coherent beam of the satellite and, therefore, incorrectly determines the position of the user terminal. The end result of misidentification of the satellite beam is often a denial of service system or even a complete failure when establishing a radio connection for the corresponding user./p>

Another source of errors may occur as part of the implementation of certain methods of communication or access methods are used for user communication systems for coordination of multiple system users. There are many ways of providing access to the communication system, many system users. Two well-known method of multiple access include multiple access with time division multiplexing (MDRC) and multiple access frequency division multiplexing (MDCRC), are widely known in the art. However, the modulation methods with the extension of the spectrum, such as multiple access, code-division multiplexing (MDCRC), are much more preferred due to their ability to negotiate a variety of system users in terms of increasing restrictions on bandwidth.

Using methods MDCRC in communication systems with multiple access described in U.S. patent No. 4901307, entitled "Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Communication System Using Satellite Or Terrestrial Repeaters," and 5103459, entitled "System And Method For Generating Signal Waveforms In A CDMA Cellular Telephone System", the rights to which are owned by the copyright holder of the present invention and which are incorporated in the present description in its entirety by reference. The method of providing mobile communication MDCRC standardized in Soy is anenih States Telecommunications Industry Association's TIA/EIA/IS-95-B, entitled "Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular System", which in this description is called IS-95. Other communication systems or methods are described in the IMT-2000/UM, or International mobile communication system 2000/Universal mobile communication system, the standard covering the so-called broadband MDCRC (MDCRC), cdma2000 (such as cdma2000 1x or 3x) or TD-SCDMA.

In a satellite-based system that uses MDCRC, a large number of user terminals or user of phones, each of which has a transceiver connected through satellites and gateways, using signals spread spectrum communications. Using MDCRC associated frequency spectrum can be repeatedly reused, thereby allowing to increase the user capacity of the system. Thus, MDCRC has much higher spectral efficiency than other methods of user access. Although MDCRC is spectral-efficient system MDCRC are also to some extent affected by the problems associated with errors of incorrect positioning of the mobile station or terminal, as described above. One of the areas where systems MDCRC are particularly vulnerable, is an area related to the relay transmission users.

Relay transmission occurs when the and the session of the mobile station or the connection such as produce call or conversation goes from one of the satellite beam to another beam of the satellite. In General there are two types of relay transmission relay hard handover and soft relay transmission. While the hard-relay transmission, if the mobile station moves from the coverage area of one beam in the coverage area of another beam of destination or target beam, which should provide the service, the terminal disconnects the communication line with the support beam, and establishes a new line of communication with the beam destination. However, during the soft relay transmission to the mobile station establishes a connection with the beam destination to break its ties with the current beam. This process is known in the art as installation-before-break. Additionally, during the soft relay transmission determination of the correct identification of the beam destination is relative to the position of the operating beam. Thus, during the soft relay transmission to a mobile station is simultaneously connected with the support beam, and the beam destination.

Soft relay transmission described in U.S. patent No. 5267621, entitled "Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoff in a CDMA Cellular Communications System", the rights to which are owned by the copyright holder of the present invention and which is included in the present description in all its floor is OTE as a reference. In the system of patent '621 process soft relay transmission is based on the use of measuring the strength of the pilot signal transmitted by each beam to provide a specific mobile station for satellite access. In a background mode access to the communication system based on MDCRC, or communication signals to mobile stations, is provided in a straight line, i.e. in the direction from the satellite to the mobile station. Direct communication line includes three types of service channels: at least one pilot channel signal, a sync channel, and one or more channels of the call. These service channels are used by the system for establishing and managing communication sessions with the mobile station.

The pilot channel comprises transmitting the pilot signal, acting as a beacon for potential system users or subscribers, and is used by user terminals or mobile stations to obtain initial system synchronization and to provide reliable time tracking the frequency and phase of the signals transmitted by the base station. In communication systems, spread spectrum, for example, based on IS-95 base stations are characterized or distinguished by the phase offset in a pseudo-random noise (PN) codes, used to extend the communication signals, also known as the PN offset of the PI is from the signal. Usually all terrestrial base stations use the same pilot signal with different phase offsets of the code. Alternatively, what is more usual for satellite systems, the sequence PN code based on the unique PN polynomials are used in the communication system with the possible use of different PN codes for the various gateways and satellites in each orbital plane. For specialists in the art it is obvious that to identify the specific sources or signal repeaters in the communication system can be assigned as many PN codes as required.

In a satellite-based system to determine the appropriate beam assignment of the satellite, i.e. the beam covering the position of a user terminal, from the multiple beams in the candidate user terminal searches for the appropriate pilot signal, determining the power of the pilot signal and the PN code or a phase shift code. The process is carried out by performing a correlation operation for each potential code and phase shift code, and performs the correlation of all the received pilot signals with a specific set of values of the offsets of the PN codes. Method and device for performing correlation operations are described in U.S. patent No. 5805648, entitled "Method And Apparatus For Performirag Search Acquisition In A CDMA Communication System", the Rav which belong to the copyright holder of the present invention and which is included in the present description in its entirety by reference.

For the initial establishment of the communication line with the communication system, the user terminal must first take the pilot signal associated with the system. The user terminal receives information about the PN code and phase shift of the pilot signal, when it demodulates the pilot signal, and receives the system time parameters when demodulates the channel synchronization. However, before the user terminal switches to a new beam of the satellite, it must correlate the newly received pilot signals with a set of PN codes and values of the phase shift to determine the PSH of the shift of the most probable beam destination satellite.

The magnitude of the propagation delay between the satellite communication system and the user terminal is often significant and uncertain and may cause unknown shifts in the value of the designated PN offset. Therefore, the user terminal determines a greater phase shift due to the delay, and not from the source of the original signal. Such shifts can lead to a misidentification of the user terminal a new beam for switching or beam of the destination satellite. In these references the unknown propagation delay is especially likely when a new satellite usage is low on the horizon, compared with the current service is the Wayfarer.

So, need a way to compensate for the effects of delay spread, by providing the user terminal independent verification of dimensions PN offset associated with the satellites destination or new target satellites in a way that takes into account the propagation delay.

The present invention provides a system and method for independent verification of dimensions PN offset. Using the Doppler shift and the rate of change of Doppler shift for satellite applications, the user terminal may be an evaluation of the distance to the satellite. By using the filter specified measurements and using the built-in software, the user terminal may convert the measurement of Doppler shift estimate of the distance, which in turn can be converted into an estimate of the value of PN offsets. Then the evaluation of PN offsets can be compared with the value of PN offsets measured by the user terminal. If the evaluation of PN offset differs from the measured PN offset more than the predefined value can be ascertained error or measurement can be rejected.

In accordance with the principles of the present invention, disclosed and described in detail in the present description, the invention includes the persons identify errors, temporary shift in the communication system, such as a satellite system. The method comprises determining in the terminal the first time offset associated with the first signal from the first transmitter, such as the first beam from the first satellite. The method also includes determining at the terminal of the second time offset associated with the second signal from the second transmitter of the transmitter, such as a second beam from the second satellite based on the first time offset. Estimated first distance from the user terminal to the first transmitter or satellite and measured second distance from the user terminal to the second transmitter or satellite. In conclusion, determines the error between the difference in times of arrival of the signals and the difference between the estimated first and second distances.

In additional aspects of the evaluation of the first and second distances, respectively, includes the determination of the Doppler frequency associated with the first and second satellite beams and the rate of change of a particular Doppler frequency.

Also features a method for performing identification of the beam in the user terminal is configured to communicate through a low-orbit satellite system, and the user terminal includes a processor configured to receive the first satellite of the first beam, contains the first temporal offset from the first operating satellites, and performing a relay transmission from the first satellite beam on the second satellite beam, and the second satellite beam is radiated from the satellite to the destination. The method includes receiving a second satellite beam in the user terminal, determining a second temporal offset of the second satellite beam, based on the first time offset; identification of the second satellite beam, based on the second temporal offset; estimating a first distance from the user terminal to the satellite service; estimating a second distance from the user terminal to the satellite of destination; determining the time difference based on a difference between the first distance and rating of the second distance; calculating a difference between the second offset and a time difference and confirm the identification of the second satellite beam, if the difference between the second offset and a time difference exceeds a pre - a specific value.

Illustrative user terminal made according to the present invention includes a reception unit, configured to receive and demodulate the first and second transmitters, associated respectively with the first and second transmitter is mi, such as the signals of the first and second satellite beams, associated respectively with the first and second satellite beams. The first and second satellite beams are taken respectively from the first and second satellites. The user terminal also includes a processor associated with the block of reception. The processor is configured to (i) determine a first time offset associated with the first signal transmitter or satellite beam, and the first time offset is a representation of the first ID (identifier) of the beam, the first satellite beam (ii) determine the second time offset associated with the second signal transmitter or satellite beam, and the second time offset is determined based on the first time offset and is a representation of the second ID (identifier) of the beam, the second satellite beam, and (iii) measurement in the user terminal corresponding Doppler characteristics associated with signals of the first and second satellite beams, respectively, for verification of the first and second ID rays.

The corresponding Doppler characteristics are used to define the first and second distances, respectively connected with the user terminal and the first and second satellite. Ultimately, the user terminal done is n, with the possibility of conversion of the first and second distances in relative timing difference and determine the presence of errors in the second beam ID, based on comparison of this temporary difference and valuation difference of distances that contains the ID of the rays.

Distinguishing features and advantages of the present invention include the possibility of independent verification PN offset of the user terminal or the measurement beam ID. This ability improves the identification accuracy of satellite beams, thereby increasing the probability of access of the user terminal to the communication system. Can be determined and compensated unknown propagation delay, low altitude satellites above the horizon and resulting errors PN offset. Therefore, it can be enhanced accuracy custom terminal ID of the satellite beam, ray satellite destination. Accordingly, the user can use satellite communications system, being sure that the requested service will not be interrupted or the service will not be denied.

Accompanying drawings, included in the description and its component part, illustrate embodiments of the present invention and, together with the description, explain the objectives, advantages and principles of the present invention.

Fig. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a conventional low-orbit satellite communication system;

Fig. 2 is Illustra the iej, depicting soft relay transmission of the user terminal from one satellite to another satellite in the system of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a flowchart describing the format pattern of the beam of a satellite or a trace, in the system of Fig. 1.

In Fig. 4 shows the user within the coverage area of the traces of the two satellites in the system of Fig. 1;

Fig. 5 is a time chart describing the error identification beam resulting delay distribution;

Fig. 6 is a flowchart describing the normal procedure for determining the position of satellites terminal;

Fig. 7 is a flowchart describing the error in determining the position of the user terminal, which is a consequence of the delay distribution shown in Fig. 5;

Fig. 8 is a block diagram of a user terminal, designed and executed in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 9 is a flowchart that describes how to define a time offset associated with the first and second satellite beams from the respective satellites;

in Fig. 10 shows the relationship with certain vectors associated with the satellites and the user terminal;

Fig. 11 is a flowchart describing a method of determining the distance from the user terminal to the first and second satellites connected is; and

Fig. 12 is a flowchart describing a method of determining the temporary difference is associated with the distance defined by the method according to Fig. 10.

The following detailed description of the present invention refers to the accompanying drawings showing illustrative embodiments of the invention, compatible with the present invention. Other embodiments of the present invention, and may be made of modifications of the embodiments within the essence and scope of the present invention. Thus, the following detailed description does not limit the present invention. On the contrary, the nature and scope of the present invention defined by the attached claims.

For specialists in the art it will be obvious that the present invention described below can be implemented in many excellent options for the implementation of hardware, software, firmware and/or features illustrated in the figures. Any working code with specialized control hardware that implement these options implementation is not limiting the present invention. Thus, the operation and properties of the present invention will be described with regard to the possibility mo the of changes and modifications of the embodiments, what determines the level of detail in the present description.

In Fig. 1 shows an illustrative satellite communication system in which the present invention is applicable. Although it is assumed that the communication system uses the communication protocols and signals MDCRC, this is not required. Figure 1 is illustrative BUT (Leo) satellite communication system includes, respectively, the first and second satellites 102 and 104. Also it includes the gateways 106 and 108 and the portable user terminal 110, which includes block 111 connection for transmitting and receiving signals via the antenna 109. Finally, there is a mobile user terminal 113. Gateways 106 and 108 handle calls associated with the portable user terminal 110 and the mobile terminal 113, and provide a line of communication with the telephone network 114 and networks 115 data. The satellites 102 and 104 transmit RF signals, i.e. satellite beams, to ensure lines of communication between the gateways 106 and 108 and the user terminal 110 and 113. More precisely, the satellite 102 transmits satellite beams V2, V2, V2and V2and the satellite 104 transmits satellite beams V4, V4.

In this example, user terminals 110 and 113 each have or include the device or wireless communication, such as with the new phone, wireless telephone headset, data transceiver, pager or receiver positioning, not treating them as constraints. In addition, each user terminal may be a portable, portable, for example, installed on a vehicle (including, for example, on cars, trucks, boats, trains and airplanes), or fixed as necessary. For example, in Fig. 1 shows the user terminal 110 in the form of a portable device and a user terminal 113 in the form of a portable device placed on the vehicle. Wireless communication devices are also sometimes referred to as mobile wireless terminal, user terminal, mobile wireless communications devices, subscriber units, mobile units, mobile stations, mobile stations, or simply "users", "mobile devices", "terminals" or "subscribers" in some communication systems, depending on preference.

In General, satellites provide many rays inside the "traces", which should cover the individual, in General, non-overlapping geographic areas. Thus, the satellite beams W, V, W and W-V provide coverage satellites of different geographical areas with predetermined structure. the General case, many rays with different frequencies, which are called channels MDCRC, "under-rays or signals with frequency division multiplexing (CRC), frequency slots or channels may overlap the same geographic area. One of the options for implementing the illustrative system 100 includes multiple satellites moving in different orbital planes at an altitude of about 1400 miles, serving a large number of user terminals. However, the present invention is not limited to this configuration and can be used in different configurations of satellite systems and gateways, including other altitude orbits, distances and satellite groups, etc. In the illustrative system of figure 1 gateways 106 and 108 also controls the assignment of specific satellites to the user terminal. If you move a user terminal from one geographic coverage area to another geographic area of coverage is a relay transmission from one satellite beam to another satellite beam or from one satellite to another to provide continuous coverage of the user terminal.

In Fig. 2 shows the process of a relay transfer a user from one satellite beam to another satellite beam. Figure 2 portable user terminal re is asaeda axis 200 of time. At time t1, the terminal 110 is located within the coverage area of the beam V maintenance of the satellite. When moving terminal 110 in the direction x, at time t2 the user terminal will be located in the coverage area of a satellite beam V2the satellite 102 and the coverage area of a satellite beam V4the satellite 104. Here, before the service gateway, such as gateway 106 will be able to send messages and calls to the terminal 110, the terminal 110 must pass the gateway 106 precise identification of the satellite beams V and W. In the illustrative embodiment, the individual satellites can have up to 16 or more satellite beams at each frequency for this track. Thus, each satellite can provide users with a communication line at any of 16 different satellite beams, as shown in Figure 3.

In Fig. 3 shows an illustrative coverage area or footprint of the satellite. That is, the traces of each satellite 102 and 104 include a separate satellite beams V-V, and each has its position or structure within a trace. The traces are satellite beams W, V, W and W-120, shown in Fig. 1. Also, as discussed in more detail below, various satellites can simultaneously have the same configuration rays and identification number of rays. Separate Lu and one satellite may differ from each other based on their offsets of the PN code, as is discussed below. Rays from adjacent satellites can differ from each other on the basis of different PN of polynomials, as discussed below. Different PN offsets can also be used to distinguish between the beams adjacent satellites that have the same ID numbers rays, in some systems, for example, in which the parameters PN sequences, such as length, different.

In Fig. 4 shows a more detailed illustration of a user terminal 110 located within the coverage of the satellite beams V2and V4. Figure 4 terminal 110 must have a way to identify the beam V4destination. Although rays V2and V4use the same pilot signals, these rays differ in their associated PN offsets and/or PSH polynomials, plus some unknown propagation delay. Again referring to Figure 3, each of the satellite beams V-W has a unique PN offset corresponding to a common time sequence common to these rays. More precisely, in the illustrative communication system of figure 1 the difference in the timing (shift code) between the individual satellite beams is about 15 milliseconds (MS). Thus, the propagation delay approximately equal to or greater than 15 MS, can prevent accurate measurement of the PN offset of the user is Kim terminal 110. In may result in erroneous identification of the satellite beam V4. The offset of the PN phase associated with this satellite beam, is closely correlated with its ID beam. Additionally, other factors such as elevation and differences in antenna gains, can also contribute to the error level for accurate identification of the relevant satellite beams.

Fig. 5 illustrates the possible effect of the propagation delay between satellites in the satellite identification rays. In Fig. 5 relative time parameters associated with each of the satellites 102 and 104, shown for comparison on the respective time axes 502 and 504. As discussed above, in the present illustrative embodiment, the rays from one of the satellite have the same pilot signals, while each signal has a different PN offset. However, the satellite beams from adjacent satellites differ from each other by the difference in arrival time measured by the user terminal and is caused by the propagation delay between the satellites.

The time axis 502 represents the relationship temporal parameters between satellite beams V2-V2the satellite 102. The time axis 502 illustrates the potential connection timing between the beam V4the satellite 104 and beam V2the satellite 102. As shown, in this regard, temporary parametro what may be acceptable in small temporary error 506. Specified small transient error 506 is approximately equal to the maximum expected propagation delay between the satellites. This delay is approximately plus or minus 7.5 msec. However, the propagation delay exceeding this value can be converted to a measurement error PN offset code and, ultimately, can lead to erroneous identification of the corresponding satellite beam.

To illustrate satellite beam V2the satellite 102 is shown reaching the user terminal 110 at time t2on the time axis 502. However, the beam V4the satellite 104, shown on the time axis 504, can reach a given user terminal before or after it has reached the satellite beam V2the satellite 102. Thus, the beam V4the satellite 104 may arrive earlier than the time t2 on the time axis 502, by an amount equal to t2-x, or may arrive later than this point on the value t2+x due to the propagation delay. Therefore, propagation delay, as shown in Fig. 5, is approximately plus or minus 8.5 msec. In the illustrative system 100 communication gap between adjacent rays is only about 15 msec. Therefore, the delay is approximately equal to or greater than 15 msec will cause measurement error PN offset. Propagation delay plus or min is from 8.5 msec, it is shown in Fig. 5 is a delay of 17 MS, which can cause errors in measurements of PN offsets. Therefore, the user terminal 110 will mistakenly identify satellite beam V2the satellite 104 destination. The significance of this erroneous identification in more detail illustrated in Fig.6 and 7.

In Fig. 6 shows the relationship temporal parameters between the user terminal 110, the serving satellite 102 and the satellite 104 destination. In particular, in Fig. 6 shows the relationship between the offset PN114phase satellite beam V2and offset VS120phase satellite beam V4. As mentioned above, the PN offset for the different beams of the same satellite are correlated on the basis of the ID of the beam. PSH displacement of rays of different satellites are correlated in the same way. In Fig 6, for example, PSH120is a function PSH114offset plus the expected maximum propagation delay, WR, between the user terminal 110 and the satellite 104 destination. However, if the actual propagation delay differs from the expected maximum delay spread of the LA by an amount greater value 506, PSH120may be not well defined. The user terminal searches for the PN offset of the beams of the satellite destination by looking in the window of values available PN offsets (all possible the offset). Such search methods are well known in the art. However, such methods are not protected from error and can ultimately be the source of the error location determination or identification.

Fig. 7 illustrates the effects of an erroneous measurement of the offset PN code. 7 error user terminal 110 when measuring the propagation delay WR can cause error 702. Error 702 ultimately can cause the gateway 106 will assume that the satellite 104 is in the wrong position 704, and not in its actual position 706. The gateway 106 may also assume that the user terminal 110 is in the wrong position 708, and not in its actual position 710 and the result may assign the wrong service or to terminate the access of the user terminal 110. Thus, applying traditional methods, the user terminal does not recognize the specified PSH120the amount of PSH114SP and also includes error 720. This is especially important if the error 720 exceeds the expected timing between satellite beams per satellite.

The present invention provides a user terminal 110, is made with the possibility of independent verification of measuring the phase offset PN code of the satellite beam destination. Such independent verification may (facilitate) the mouth is the establishment of a more reliable lines of communication between the user terminals and gateways illustrative system 100 connection.

As shown in Fig. 8, block 111 connection includes a transceiver 802 to transmit and receive signals via the antenna 109 and block 804 modulation/demodulation for modulation and demodulation of transmitted and received signals, respectively. The processor 806 is electrically connected to the block 111 connection for signal processing. Processor 806 can include well-known standard elements or hardware General purpose or perform common functions, which includes a set of programmable electronic devices or computers running commands or built-in software, or instructions of the software to perform the required functions. Examples include the controller under software control, the microprocessor, one or more digital signal processors (DSPS), circuit blocks that perform the specified functions, and application-specific integrated circuits (specialized IP). When the user terminal first receives the servicing satellite, and later performed relay transmission to the satellite applications, the processor 806 for independent verification of dimension PN offset of the satellite assignment is the method or process shown in Fig. 9.

In Fig. 9 user terminal establishes a communication line, using the ill the administrative system 100 connection. Thus, the terminal 110 first receives satellite beam V2from the satellite 102, as shown in step 900. The pilot signal, acting as a beacon, notifies the user terminal 110 on the availability of satellite beam W. Because the user terminal 110 may be in the coverage area of other satellite beams, the user terminal 110 measures the signal strength of all received pilot signals in order to guarantee the connection with the intense beam of the nearest satellite. If the received pilot signal has an intensity exceeding a predetermined value, the pilot signal is transmitted from the receiver demodulator 802 804, where demodulation is performed.

After the user terminal 110 has successfully passed the pilot signal from the satellite 102 and, therefore, had the opportunity to demodulate the sync channel, the user terminal 110 determines the mixing of the PN code of the received pilot signal. As shown in step 902, PN offset represents the ID of the beam. In the present illustrative embodiment of the invention the user terminal 110 at this point knows that it takes a satellite beam V2the satellite 102. While the user terminal is active, it does not need again to demodulate the channel synchronization MDCRC. Thus, for a given user terminal Demod is the transmission of the pilot channel and the channel synchronization is required only once for a particular session. During that session, the user terminal 110 is notified of the ID of the satellite beam.

Knowing the ID of the satellite beam is critical because it is the key by which the appropriate gateway provides the user terminal access to the call channel. Call channel is the medium through which other messages related to the communication process, and the call information is sent to the user terminal. Thus, if the user terminal 110 must maintain his lines of communication, need access to the call channel.

Ultimately, service line or connection of the user terminal 110 will be transmitted during the relay transmission from the current serving satellite beam V2to the target or the new beam satellite destination, as shown in figure 2 and described step 904 in figure 9. When the user terminal 110 accepts a new pilot signal associated with potential beam satellite destination, it initially has no way of knowing the corresponding ID of the beam. To determine the beam ID of the user terminal 110 must first determine the PN offset of the new beam, as shown in step 906. To determine the PN offset of the pilot signal of the user terminal 110 searches the available values of the offsets of the PN phase (all possible offsets), which can be stored in a memory (not shown) of the processor 806. To perform the specified search user terminal 110 uses the PN offset of the serving satellite beam V2as a reference point. As more clearly shown in Fig.6, the value of PN offset PN120satellite beam assignment represents the sum of the values PN offset PN114servicing satellite beam and the maximum expected propagation delay WR. User terminal 110 performs this procedure, based on the standard time between satellite beams per satellite, as discussed above.

In the illustrative system 100 connection timing or offset pilot signals for adjacent satellite beams per satellite separated by about 15 MS. Thus, when the user terminal 110 searches and finds the pilot signal from the satellite beam assignment from another satellite, it uses pre-defined time steps and based on real-time separation, can be installed trial ID beam. This process is described step 908. In the communication system 100 supporting PSH the time offset determined at step 902, is a PSH114shown in Fig.6.

As mentioned above, this process takes into account the small mistakes PN offset, the same is how the error 506 in Figure 5. Errors of this order shall not be greater than the maximum expected propagation delay and less than 15 MS, separating rays. However, the propagation delay greater than the error value 506 may cause the user terminal 110 correctly perform measurements of the PN offsets of the newly received pilot signals. However, in the illustrative system 100 is an independent way of verifying PN offset as check the correctness or accuracy of the identification process PN offsets on the stage 906.

The method of independent verification uses the Doppler shift and the rate of change of Doppler shift of the satellite 102, performing routine maintenance, and satellite destination or target satellite 104, planned to implement the continuation of the service, to evaluate their relative distances from the user terminal 110. Thus, the user terminal 110 is configured to perform periodic measurements of Doppler shift and rate of change of Doppler shift of the pilot signals of the satellite. The use of Doppler characteristics provides a method of measuring the propagation delays of the signal related to the difference in the distance between the satellites and the user terminal 110.

By filtering the measurement of the Doppler change is and the user terminal 110 is capable of converting the measurement of Doppler shift in the distance. The difference between the estimated distances are then converted into a value estimate mixing PN code. The value specified for the evaluation of mixing PN code is then compared with the value determined at step 906. If the value of mixing PN code corresponds, within the expected propagation delay of less than or equal to the threshold value), the value defined at step 906, then the ID of the satellite beam destination determined at step 908 may be confirmed or verified. A more detailed discussion of the determination of the Doppler shift and rate of change of Doppler shift is given below, with reference to Fig. 10. One way of measuring the distance and speed of change of the distances of the satellites is described in U.S. patent No. 6137441, entitled "Accurate Range And Range Rate Determination In A Satellite Communications System", the rights to which are owned by the copyright holder of the present invention and which is included in the present description in its entirety by reference.

In Fig. 10 shows the relationship of the vectors existing between the satellites 102 or 104 and the user terminal 110. More precisely, the user terminal 110 measures the Doppler shift and the rate of change of Doppler shift of the satellite beams. Before discussing this procedure in Table 1 are some values that have to do with it.

ConstantValueDescription
F2,49·109HzThe frequency of direct lines of communication
c2,998·108m/sThe speed of light
v7,152·103m/sThe speed of the satellite
RE6,378·106mThe radius of the Earth
RH1.141·106mThe height of the satellite
RS7.792·106mThe radius of the orbit of the satellite, RE+ RH

The idea of the diagrams in Fig. 10 is that the satellite 102 or 104 is drawn around the Earth 1002 at approximately circular orbit. Although the Land is irregular in shape and, thus, is not perfectly round, when measuring the Doppler characteristics of these irregularities can be neglected. Figure 10 the vector v represents the velocity of the satellite, the vector v' is the acceleration of the satellite, and the vector r is the vector directed from the user terminal 100 to the satellite 102 or 104. Angle θ formed between the velocity vector v and the vector distance to the satellite r.

The task is to compute the length of the direction vector R=|r|, coloratura is defined as the distance from the satellites 102/104 to the user terminal 110. User terminal 110 must also determine how quickly changes the distance R, which is called the rate of change of the distance R'. The rate of change of the distance R' is given by the expression:

Using the above definition of R' and taking the derivative of both parts of equation (1), we obtain for the acceleration values change distance, which is expressed as:

where v' is the acceleration of the satellites, the function of the gravity of the Earth and r' corresponds to the speed of the satellites.

Next, each of the three terms of equation (2) can be transformed as:

Substitution of the above three terms in equation (2) gives,

R' can be converted and substituted in (3):

Thus, the acceleration of change of the distance R becomes

From equation (5) can be expressed R

To obtain R from equation (6) as Sinθand R". sinθ expressed through (1-cos2θ), that is, cosθ associated with a known value, namely the Doppler shift. R" is derived from the rate of change of Doppler shift, which is another known value. That is they way the equation can be rewritten with the Doppler shift, as indicated f:

Solving the equation for cosθ and using sin2θ=(1-cos2θ), we get sin2θ:

Next, equation (4) can be converted as follows:

Taking the derivative of R' for t, we obtain R":

f' in equation (10) is df/dt, the rate of change of Doppler shift, which is a value that can be assessed using known methods. Using equations (8) and (10), it is now possible to calculate R from equation (6). In the communication system 100, the distance R is calculated as for the maintenance of the satellite 102 and the satellite 104 destination.

Next, the calculated distance R to be converted to a value of the offset PN code, originally defined at step 906. To convert the distance R in the value of the PN offset difference of distances to the first and second satellites 102 and 104 is divided by the speed of light:

The described example of such procedures with reference to Fig. 2, 11 and 12, describing the procedure followed by the user terminal 110 to determine the PN offset, originally identified in step 906. First, the processing circuits is or elements (for example, specialized IP) in the user terminal 110 must be configured to perform the operations described by equations (1)to(11)above. Made in this way, the user terminal 110 is able to determine the Doppler shift and the rate of change of Doppler shift of the satellite beam V4as described in step 1100 in Fig. 11 and shown in Fig. 2. Next, the user terminal 110 measures the Doppler shift and the rate of change of Doppler shift associated with satellite beam V2as described in step 1102. With the well-known Doppler shift and rate of change of Doppler shift associated with satellite beam V2and V4user terminal 110 may determine the distance R104to the satellite 104 from the user terminal 110, as described in step 1104. User terminal 110 determines the distance R102to the satellite 102 from the user terminal 110, as described in step 1106.

In Fig. 12, as given in equation (10), PN offset of the satellite beam V4the destination can be obtained from the distances R104and R102,as defined earlier. For this purpose, as described in step 1200, the user terminal 110 determines the difference between the R104and R102and converts this difference in the difference of the W pilot signal satellite beam V 4. So now the user terminal has the value PN of the difference obtained at step 1200, and the value of a specific PSH difference obtained at step 906. The user terminal 110 can now compare scores PSH difference with certain PSH difference, as described in step 1202.

As described in step 1204, if the difference between the specific PSH difference and evaluation PSH difference is less than a predetermined value, the user terminal 110 can confirm previously performed at step 908 identification of the satellite beam V4. In the present illustrative embodiment, the predefined value is about 10 MS. Value amounting to about 10 MS, is consistent with the maximum expected propagation delay between the satellite 102 and 104, which, as you know, is about +/- 7,5 MS, as discussed above.

On the other hand, if the evaluation PSH difference in time (offset) phase 1200 exceeds a predetermined value, as described in step 1206, earlier identification of satellite beam V4regarded as erroneous and, therefore, discarded. Although illustrative variant implementation of the present invention uses the correlation window or the search window of about 10 MS, to determine whether a certain offset PN code and the estimated offset of the PN code or if they are in a predetermined time interval with respect to each other, it is clear that in this field of technology, if necessary, can be used with other window sizes.

To determine the distance an alternative way. Here, the distance can be determined using a quadratic approximation:

where G is the constant gravitational interaction, and MEis the mass of the Earth.

This expression can be converted to obtain:

where

The distance information can be obtained using the quadratic expression in equation (12), and the simulation shows that one of the roots is always positive, while the other root is always negative.

Using the method described above, the user terminal 110 has the ability to improve the identification accuracy of satellite beams destination, using the verification method ID of the beam to compensate for the propagation delay between the satellites. When the accurate identification of the satellite beam of the destination user terminal can more securely access the system resources of the illustrative system 100 connection. Thus, the present invention provides confirmation or verification for traditional identification methods of satellite beams.

is provided above description of preferred embodiments of the invention provides illustration and description, but should not be construed as limiting the present invention to the described variants. Possible modifications and changes that are compatible with the above principles or obtained during the implementation of the invention. Thus, the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims and its equivalents.

1. The way to confirm the identification of the satellite beam in low-orbit satellite system, and low-orbit satellite system includes at least one user terminal, configured to (i) receive the first satellite beam from the source of Sputnik, the first satellite beam includes a first temporal offset represents the phase shift of the pseudo-random noise (PN) code used for the identification of the beam, and (ii) perform relay transmission from the first satellite beam to the second satellite beam, and the second satellite beam is radiated from the satellite purposes, the method includes (a) determining the second time offset representing a phase offset of the PN code of the second satellite beam, used for the identification of the beam based on the first time offset;

(b) evaluation of the first distances from the user terminal is to the source of the satellite;

(c) a second distance from the user terminal to the satellite facilities;

(d) the detection of an error the second time offset based on a difference between the first and second distances.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the first and second timing offset represents the phase offset PN code used in the pilot signals transferred to the first and second satellite beams, respectively.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which the phase offset PN code interconnected by a communication system based on multiple access code division of channels.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which at least either the step (C)or step (d) includes determining the Doppler characteristics associated with the user terminal and the first and second satellites.

5. The method according to claim 4, in which the Doppler characteristics include Doppler frequency and the rate of change of the Doppler frequency.

6. The method according to claim 5, in which the first and second distances are estimated from the expression

where R is the acceleration change of the distance, R' is the rate of change of the distance, R is the distance from the user terminal to the satellite, REis the Earth's radius, RSis the radius of the orbit of the satellite, v I is is the velocity vector, G is the constant gravitational interaction and MEis the mass of the Earth.

7. The method according to claim 1, in which the evaluation stages of the first and second distances, respectively, contain the definition (i) of the Doppler frequency associated with the first and second satellite beams, and (ii) the rate of change of a particular Doppler frequency.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the first and second timing offset represents the phase offset PN code used in the pilot signals.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the phase offset PN code interconnected by a communication system based on multiple access code division of channels.

10. The method according to claim 7, in which the first and second distances are obtained from the following expression

where R is the acceleration change of the distance, R' is the rate of change of the distance, R is the distance from the user terminal to the satellite, REis the Earth's radius, RSis the radius of the orbit of the satellite, v is the velocity vector, G is the constant gravitational interaction and MEis the mass of the Earth.

11. The method according to claim 1, in which step (d) includes

(i) measurement of Doppler characteristics associated with the first and second satellite beams;

(ii) determining the Oia distances, associated with the first and second satellites; and

(iii) determining the time difference based on certain distances.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which, the first time offset and the second offset relative to contain the first and second phase offset PN code, respectively, and when this time difference represents the difference between the phase offset of the PN code that is specific to one of the first or second satellites.

13. The method according to item 12, in which the phase offset PN code of the pilot signal and the time difference interconnected by a communication system based on multiple access code division of channels.

14. The method according to claim 1, in which the first and second timing offset are the phase offsets of the code of the pilot signal.

15. The method according to claim 1, in which the first and second timing offset must match within a predefined time window.

16. The method according to item 15, on which a predetermined time window is less than the interval between the first and second satellite beams.

17. The method according to item 15, on which a predetermined time window is greater than a known propagation delay between the first and second satellite beams.

18. The method for performing the identification of the satellite beam in the user terminal, configured to realized what I communication using low-orbit satellite system, and the user terminal includes a processor configured to (i) receive the first satellite beam that includes a first temporal offset represents the phase offset of the PN code, the maintenance of the satellite, and (ii) perform relay transmission from the first satellite beam to the second satellite beam, and the second satellite beam is radiated from the satellite to the destination, the method includes

(a) receiving a second satellite beam in the user terminal;

(b) determining the second time offset representing a phase offset pseudorandom noise (PN) code of the second satellite beam, based on the first time offset;

(c) the identification of the second satellite beam, based on the second temporal offset;

(d) evaluation of the first distances from the user terminal to the satellite service;

(e) a second distance from the user terminal to the satellite facilities;

(f) determining the time difference based on a difference between the first distance and rating of the second distance;

(g) calculating the difference between the second offset and a time difference; and

(h) confirmation and is entifically second satellite beam, if the difference between the second offset and a time difference exceeds a predetermined value.

19. The method according to p on which a predetermined value is selected by the user.

20. User terminal, containing the reception unit, configured to receive and demodulate the first and second satellite beams, respectively associated with the first and second satellite beams respectively emitted from the first and second satellites; and

the processor associated with the reception unit and configured to (i) determine a first time offset representing a phase offset pseudorandom noise (PN) code associated with the signal of the first satellite beam, and the first time offset is a representation of the first identifier (ID) of the beam of the first satellite beam, (ii) determine the second time offset representing a phase offset of the PN code associated with the signal of the second satellite beam, and the second time offset is determined based on the first time offset, and is the representation of the second beam ID of the second satellite beam, and (iii) measurement in the user terminal corresponding Doppler characteristics associated with signals of the first and second satellite beams with the NGOs, for verification of the first and second ID rays;

moreover, the corresponding Doppler characteristics are used to define the first and second distances, respectively, associated with the user terminal and the first and second satellites; and a user terminal configured to convert the first and second distances in the third temporary offset and determine the presence of errors in the second ID of the beam, based on a comparison of the second and third temporal shifts.

21. User terminal according to claim 20, in which the signals of the first and second satellite beams include encoding schema-based multiple access code division of channels.

22. User terminal according to claim 20, in which the Doppler characteristics include at least the Doppler frequency and its associated rate of change.

23. User terminal according to claim 20, in which all timing offset includes a phase offset PN code for the pilot signal.

24. User terminal according to claim 20, in which the first and second timing offset must match within a predefined time window.

25. The user terminal point 24, in which a predetermined time window is less than the interval between the first and second SP is takovymi rays.

26. The user terminal point 24, in which a predetermined time window is greater than a known propagation delay between the first and second satellite beams.

27. User terminal, containing the reception unit, configured to receive and demodulate the first and second transmitters, respectively associated with the first and second transmitters; and

the processor associated with the reception unit and configured to (i) determine a first time offset representing a phase offset pseudorandom noise (PN) code associated with the signal of the first transmitter and the first time offset is a representation of the first identifier (ID) of the transmitter, (ii) determine the second time offset representing a phase offset of the PN code associated with the signal of the second transmitter and the second time offset is a representation of the second ID of the transmitter, and (iii) measurement in the user terminal corresponding Doppler characteristics associated with signals of the first and second transmitters, respectively, for verification of the first and second ID transmitters; and the corresponding Doppler characteristics are used to define the first and second distances, respectively, associated with the user is skim terminal and first and second transmitters; and a user terminal configured to convert the first and second distances to the temporary difference and determine the presence of errors in the second ID of the transmitter based on the comparison of the second time offset and a time difference.

28. The method for determining the time zone offset errors in a satellite-based system that includes (a) determining in a user terminal of the first temporal offset represents the phase shift of the pseudo-random noise (PN) code associated with the first beam from the first satellite;

(b) determining in the user terminal, the second time offset representing a phase offset of the PN code associated with the second beam from the second satellite based on the first time offset;

(c) evaluation of the first distances from the user terminal to the first satellite;

(d) a second distance from the user terminal to the second satellite; and

(e) the detection of an error the second time offset based on a difference between the first and second distances,

in this case, at least one of the evaluation steps C) and d) includes determining the Doppler characteristics associated with the user terminal and the first and second satellites, which include Doppler hour the GTC and the rate of change of the Doppler frequency,

while the first and second distances are estimated from the expression

where R is the acceleration change of the distance, R' is the rate of change of the distance, R is the distance from the user terminal to the satellite, REis the Earth's radius, RSis the radius of the orbit of the satellite, v is the velocity vector, G is the constant gravitational interaction and MEis the mass of the Earth.

29. The method for determining the time zone offset errors in the satellite system, which includes

(a) determining in a user terminal of the first temporal offset represents the phase shift of the pseudo-random noise (PN) code associated with the first beam from the first satellite;

(b) determining in the user terminal, the second time offset representing a phase offset of the PN code associated with the second beam from the second satellite based on the first time offset;

(c) evaluation of the first distances from the user terminal to the first satellite;

(d) a second distance from the user terminal to the second satellite; and

(e) the detection of an error the second time offset based on a difference between the first and second distances,

this evaluation stages of the first and second distances contain, respectively, the determination of (i) the Doppler frequency associated with the first and second satellite beams, and (ii) the rate of change of the determination of the Doppler frequency,

while the first and second distances is obtained from the expression

where R is the acceleration change of the distance, R' is the rate of change of the distance, R is the distance from the user terminal to the satellite, REis the Earth's radius, RSis the radius of the orbit of the satellite, v is the velocity vector, G is the constant gravitational interaction and MEis the mass of the Earth.



 

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