Mechanical design of highly efficient compensated split-phase generator
FIELD: electrical engineering; mechanical design of permanent-magnet excited synchronous machines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed compensated and permanent-magnet excited split-phase generator has two stators identically disposed on its longitudinal axis and two rotors disposed on generator center line; novelty is that stators have salient poles with stator windings placed about them; stator pole size along internal circumference of stators and size of rotor poles along rotor external surfaces is 90 electrical degrees, rotors being shifted relative to one another around axis of revolution by 90 electrical degrees; rotor poles are permanent magnets; stators and rotor backs are made of thin-sheet electric steel and covered with insulation.
EFFECT: simplified mechanical design of split-phase generators.
1 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the use of synchronous machines of special design with excitation from permanent magnets H 02 To 21/27.
It is now widely known construction of synchronous machines (motors and generators), including with excitation from permanent magnets.
The design of such synchronous machines are described, for example, in the book Men "Electric machinery and transformers", part II, Moscow, publishing house of the Higher school", 1976
Design description synchronous machine with excitation from permanent magnets can be taken as a prototype of the synchronous generator is proposed in the present invention.
The disadvantage of the existing synchronous machines is that the magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet poles of the rotor crosses the conductors of the stator winding placed in the slots of the inner surface of the stator. This generated electric power of the generator is equal to the required mechanical power applied to the generator rotor (without taking into account energy losses in the stator and mechanical energy losses in the rotor).
Therefore the effectiveness of all existing synchronous generators always less than one.
The technical result, which directed the present invention is to provide a simplified two-phase e is krichesky generator efficiency, larger units.
The generator consists of two stators arranged identically around a longitudinal axis, with the salient poles of the stator (C1 and C2), with the windings of the stators (OS), is wound around poles of the stator and two rotors (P1 and P2) with salient poles (PR), which are located on the same axis offset around the longitudinal axis by 90 electrical degrees to one another.
The stators consisting of poles of the stator (PS) and "backs" of the stators (SS), and "back" rotors (CF) is made of laminated electrical steel sheet with an insulating coating. Permanent magnet excitation (CEM) is a pole of the rotor (PR).
Length of stator poles along the inner surface of the stator (lPS) costs 90 electrical degrees; the length of rotor poles along the outer surface of the rotor (lCR) is 90 electrical degrees.
The number of stator poles (mC) is a multiple of two and is equal to mC=2P, where P is the number of pairs of poles in the machine. The number of rotor poles (mPalso equal to: mP=2P.
Schematic representation of the proposed design of two-phase generator with enhanced efficiency with P=3 is shown in figure 1.
The power generated by the generator Wgequal to
where mwith- the number on the Yusov stator;
- the voltage on the stator winding;
eOS=4,44f·WOS·fCmax[In] - the effective value of the electromotive force generated in the OS; WOSthe number of turns in the OS.
FCmax=BδMOUTH·SPS[WB] - maximum value of the magnetic flux of the excitation pole stator; SPS- cross section of the pole stator [m2];
BδMOUTH=About[hCEM/(hCEM+δ)] [T] - induction created by CEM in the air gap,
where hCEM- the height of the permanent magnet excitation (rotor poles) [mm];
δ - the value of the air gap.
Electromechanical braking torque in the generator is determined by the expression
where K is a coefficient determined by the design parameters of the generator;
FMOUTH- the magnetic rotor flux [WB];
FSTATthe magnitude of the magnetic flux of the stator [WB];
θ - the value of the electric angle between the axes of the magnetic fluxes of the rotor and stator [deg.].
Figure 2 linear expansions of stator poles and rotor for a single phase generator for basic mutual locations of the poles of the rotor relative to the stator poles (every 45 electrical degrees of rotation of the rotor) shows the axis and direction of the main part of the magnetic flux, R is the torus f MOUTHand stator fSTATcreated CEM and magnetizing forces of the windings of the stator (NMS) e, where e=IOSM·WOS[A]; IOSM- the instantaneous value of current in the stator winding.
Axis magnetic flux of the rotor shown in solid lines; the path of magnetic flux of the stator - dotted lines. The arrows "e" shows the direction of the NMS in the stator poles generated by the currents in the windings of the stator.
Due to the large value of the magnetic resistance in the circuit of the magnetic flux of the rotor defined by the magnetic resistance of saturated permanent magnet poles of the rotor and the air gap, the magnetic flux of the rotor is small, which determines the low value of the average values of the Electromechanical brake rotor torque Mtor em(see figure 2).
The magnitude of the forces acting on the rotor poles F1 and F2, and also the amount of brake electromagnetic moments Mtor emcan be easily determined with known structural parameters of the generator.
Figure 1 presents a schematic representation of the design of the generator with the number of pole pairs P=3.
In figure 1 the following notation:
1 - stator No. 1 (C1),
2 - stator No. 2 (C2)
3 - pole rotor (PR),
4 - "back" of the rotor (CF),
5 - shaft generator
6 - stator winding (OS)
7 - "the Inca" stator (SS)
8 - pole stator (PS).
The arrow shows the direction of rotation of the rotor of the generator.
The manufacturing process of the generator is almost the same technology and applied materials from manufacturer serial synchronous machines with permanent magnets and can be implemented on a conventional electric machinery enterprises.
The generator can be used widely used in electrical engineering, the permanent magnets of NdFeB with a residual induction BAbout=1,2 T, coercitive force HC=12 kOe, and the magnetization J=Be 955,000 A/m
Compensated two-phase generator (CDG) improved efficiency can be used for:
- power single-phase and two-phase consumers AC;
- food consumer DC (after the rectifier);
- power adjustable frequency synchronous and asynchronous motors (after rectification and subsequent inverting the required frequency and voltage).
The most promising is the use of CDG in electric vehicles.
Compensated two-phase generator with enhanced efficiency with excitation from permanent magnets, comprising two stators arranged identically along the longitudinal axis of the generator, and the two rotors located on the axis of the generator, characterized in that the stators in the designs with salient poles, around which is wound stator winding, the size of the poles of the stators along the inner circumference of the stator and the dimensions of the poles of the rotor along the outer surface of the rotor is 90 electrical degrees, and the rotors are displaced relative to each other around an axis of rotation by 90 electrical degrees, the rotor poles are permanent magnets and stators and "back" rotors made of electrical steel sheet with an insulating coating.
FIELD: automotive industry; steering systems of automobiles.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for reducing effort on steering wheel. Stator of electric motor is provided with magnetic circuit with n salient poles and rotor, with n-2 poles in form of permanent magnets. Three-phase winding of stator contains coils arranged in six equally alternating phase zones, one coil for pole, several coils belonging to one phase in each phase zone. Winding coils in phase zones belonging to one phase are connected In parallel aiding. Inlet and outlet shafts arranged in booster housing are interconnected by torsion bar being sensitive element of torque sensor and coupled with steering wheel and steering mechanism by other ends. Rotor of electric motor is installed on outlet shaft. Stator winding controllable supply, rotor position pickup and control unit are provided. Inputs of the latter are connected with outputs of torque sensor and rotor position pickup, and output is connected to control input of said supply source. Group if inventions makes it possible to improve manufacturability of electric motor and steering booster as a whole.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics, safety and comfortability of steering.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering and electric-mechanical engineering, in particular - constructions of rotors for high-speed electric machines.
SUBSTANCE: rotor of high-speed electric machine contains yoke 1 with permanent magnets 2 positioned thereupon, on which polar end pieces 3 are mounted. Yoke 1 is made in form of evenly alternating magnetic and non-magnetic circular plates 4,5. on external and internal surface of polar end pieces 3 concentrically to rotor axis internal and external circular grooves are made. Internal circular grooves are mounted on external rings 6, connected by links to non-magnetic plates 5. by selecting relation between number of external and internal circular grooves it is possible to provide for optimal thickness of measuring portion of yoke 1 and its radial size. Due to decreased loads of polar end pieces 3 and bandage 7, achieved by making circular and linear slit grooves 10 on external surface of polar end pieces, mechanical durability and operational reliability of device are increased.
EFFECT: improved reliability of presented rotor by increasing its mechanical durability and manufacturability.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering and electro-mechanical engineering, namely - engineering of end asynchronous machines with one stator and two rotors.
SUBSTANCE: in end electric machine, which contains stator including a disk held on the body, winding modules, facing corresponding disk-shaped rotors with short-circuited windings with working surfaces, which rotors are positioned on two sides of stator and installed in roller bearings, in stator disk slits for winding modules are made, edges of which (bends) of two adjacent slits are oriented towards one side of disk, and of two next slits - to opposite side, wherein winding modules are positioned in such a way, that between two packets of plates of one winding module one packet of plates of two adjacent winding modules is positioned on opposite side of disk, also, on stator disk in gaps between slits for winding modules slit-like recesses are made in radial direction, which ensure reduced power losses.
EFFECT: increased manufacturability of an end electric machine, with simultaneously increased energy characteristics and reduced material costs of electric machine.
FIELD: electric engineering and electro-mechanical engineering, namely, engineering of end synchronous machines, working in generator or motor mode.
SUBSTANCE: end electric machine includes a stator, held on one of two bearing shields of machine and made with distributed winding in form of winding modules and with a yoke wound of steel ribbon, and also rotor in form of disk with magnets, assembled on a frame and installed in roller bearings. According to invention, rotor disk contains a ring, on which radially oriented poles are held along perimeter, which have shape of a trapezium in radial direction, which trapezium faces the ring with lesser base, and of biconcave hexagon in transverse section, and between poles permanent magnets are positioned, having shape, mated with poles in such a way, that adjacent magnets face each other with poles of the same name. Suggested realization of composite disk of rotor simplifies assembly of rotor and automatically ensures high precision of angular positioning of poles and magnets. Increased energy characteristics of machine result from high concentration of magnetic field, which makes it possible to avoid usage of expensive rare-earth magnets. Increased volume of ferromagnetic materials with same dimensions of rotor disk ensures increased energy characteristics of end electric machine.
EFFECT: simplified technology of rotor production, ensured absence of waste, improved energy characteristics of end electric machine.
FIELD: electric engineering, specific features of realization of motors with constant magnets on rotor.
SUBSTANCE: on rotor of motor grooves (5) are provided for holding constant magnets (4), made in those parts of core (2A) of rotor, which correspond to sides of approximately regular polygon, having its center on the axis of core (2A) of rotor. Constant magnets (4) are inserted into corresponding grooves (5) for holding constant magnets (4). In the core (2A) of rotor four or more slits (6) are present, elongated in radial direction and distant from each other along each groove for holding constant magnets (4) on core (2A) outside grooves (5) for holding constant magnets (4), where, in accordance to the invention, on radially external end aforementioned slits (6) are positioned at approximately same distance from each other, while on radially internal end the distance between slits (6) is reduced with increase of distance from the center of each constant magnet, while distance between slits near the center is the largest.
EFFECT: usage of claimed highly efficient motor with constant magnets ensures reduction of reactive flow of anchor, improvement of magnetic flow distribution in external core, and, therefore, reduced noise and vibration.
6 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; electrical machines that can be used as direct- or alternating-current motors and/or generators for industry and domestic appliances.
SUBSTANCE: proposed electrical machine of first design alternate has frame; power supply; magnetic inductor with shaft-mounted commutator and two shaft-mounted armatures provided with commutators and brushes and disposed coaxially in tandem; armatures are mounted in opposition at butt-ends of magnetic inductor; the latter is cylindrical in shape made in the form of alternating reverse-polarity permanent magnets and electromagnets with their poles facing the armatures. Electrical machine of second design alternate has frame; power supply; coaxially disposed magnetic inductor with commutator and armature with commutator and brushes around the latter, all mounted on their respective shafts; magnetic inductor is made in the form of alternating reverse-polarity permanent magnets and electromagnets abutting against each other , their poles facing the armature. Electrical machine of third design alternate has frame; power supply; magnetic inductor with commutator and armature with commutator and brushes coaxially disposed on their respective shafts; armature is mounted around magnetic inductor; the latter is assembled of two parts abutting against one another; one of these parts is built of one or more reverse-polarity permanent magnets and other one, of one or more reverse-polarity electromagnets, permanent-magnet and electromagnet poles facing the armature. Electrical machine of fourth design alternate has frame; power supply; magnetic inductor with commutator and two armatures with commutators and brushes, all mounted on their respective shafts; armatures are disposed in opposition on butt-ends of magnetic inductor; the latter is assembled of two parts abutting against one another; one of them is made of reverse-polarity permanent magnets and other part, of reverse-polarity electromagnets; permanent-magnet and electromagnet poles are facing respective armatures.
EFFECT: enhanced productivity effective use of active materials due to full utilization of permanent-magnet and electromagnet properties.
25 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; electrical machines such as low-speed high-torque wheel motors for driving vehicles, elevators, for use as motor-car starting generators and low-speed generators for wind-electric and dam-free hydroelectric power plants, and the like.
SUBSTANCE: proposed synchronous electrical machine has stator carrying multiphase coil winding, each coil being disposed on separate tooth and all coils being cumulatively interconnected within coil groups; rotor inductor with alternate-polarity poles; coil number in each group λ = 3, 5, 7 ... which is negative integer odd number greater than or equal to 3. Novelty is that coils are assembled into groups so that stator tooth number Z, coil number λ in stator coil group, coil group number d per phase, and rotor pole pair number p are interrelated by definite equations.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, improved vibroacoustic characteristics, reduced manufacturing cost due to use of practically feasible stator winding.
8 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electric engineering, namely - electric machines with magnetic systems on constant magnets, possible use in compact power plants, electric propelling system motors of sea vessels, submarines with unique vibration-noise characteristics, compact constant current energy systems.
SUBSTANCE: in the modular gating electro-mechanical transformer, comprising n concentric hollow cylindrical stators (hereinafter - stators) with n m-phased windings positioned on their external electrically isolated cylindrical side surfaces, n concentric hollow cylindrical rotors (hereinafter - rotors), mounted with one of their bases on the internal end surface of carrier disk, connected to the shaft, mounted in bearings, one of which is positioned inside the body of electromechanical transformer, rotor position sensor, mechanically connected to the shaft, and also magnets, positioned on the side of internal cylindrical side surfaces of rotors, forming n tangential magnetic systems, positioned with radial gaps above m-phased windings of stators, in accordance to invention, each one of n tangential magnetic systems consists of pn parametric magnetic induction stabilizers in the gap between rotor and stator, installed on internal surface of rotor through nonmagnetic locating block and positioned serially along the circle of rotor facing each other with poles of the same name, which form poles of the tangential magnetic system, and has a common cylindrical magnetic conductor on stator, where each one of parametric stabilizers is made in form of tangentially magnetized rectangular prism of magnet with two symmetrically shaped polar caps tightly adjacent to its oppositely magnetized surfaces, aforementioned caps being made of laminated magnetically soft material, same as material of the common cylindrical magnetic conductor.
EFFECT: creation, for sea vessels and submarines, of a nominal row of electro-mechanical transformers with specific power for a unit of volume and weight being several times higher compared to existing ones, with small axial length, dimensions and weight, with weak reaction of magnetic system to load current and with rigid proportionality of torque to load current, and also with low pulsations of torque in terms of rotor rotation angle, making it possible to ensure unique vibration-noise characteristics of submarines.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, rotors of magneto-electric machines, primarily synchronous generators with excitation by constant magnets.
SUBSTANCE: the rotor for a magneto-electric machine contains circular clip of magnetic duct with stopping flange, which clip is rigidly coupled with supporting shaft. On internal side wall of the circular clip a circular magnetic insert is installed, formed by constant excitation magnets with magnetic poles alternating in circular direction. The internal side wall of circular clip of magnetic duct is made with a circular recess. The circular magnetic insert is made of a group of identical monolithic circular magnets with magnetic poles alternating in circular directions, which magnets are positioned in aforementioned circular recess on internal side wall of circular clip of magnetic duct and which are interconnected by their ends and a side wall of aforementioned circular recess. Magnetic poles of the same name, alternating in circular direction, in adjacent monolithic circular magnets, are positioned in congruent manner relatively to each other in same radial planes.
EFFECT: increased reliability in operation and expanded operation parameters due to increase of common magnetic flow during rotation and improved mass-dimensional characteristics.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, in particular - electric machines and electric drive.
SUBSTANCE: in electric machine, containing a rotor made of magneto-conductive material with constant magnet, polarity of which is alternated in tangential direction, and a stator, magnetic duct of which is made of magneto-conductive rings and longitudinal closing packets, and its windings are made of circular sections, distributed in axial direction and positioned between two adjacent magneto-conductive rings, in accordance to invention, control winding is positioned, consisting of sections, which are interconnected in such a way, that magnetization force signs of these sections alternate in tangential direction.
EFFECT: ensured control of output voltage amplitude, reduced vibrations and acoustic noise of the machine, and also reduced hazard of ignition of the machine in case of short circuit in windings.
FIELD: electromechanical engineering; permanent-magnet excited synchronous generators primarily used as welding generators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed permanent-magnet excited synchronous generator primarily designed for producing desired DC current in electric-arc welding has frame carrying stator assembly with journal bearings that mounts stator magnetic circuit provided with m-phase stator armature winding electrically connected to m-phase power rectifier, as well as circular rotor mounted on supporting shaft for rotation in mentioned journal bearings about annular magnetic circuit of stator and provided with annular holder whose inner cylindrical side surface carries permanent field magnets forming annular magnetic insert in-between with p pole pairs alternating in circumferential direction; this insert encloses mentioned m-phase armature winding of stator annular magnetic circuit. Synchronous generator is provided with at least m saturable reactors, each incorporating power winding and control winding, as well as assembly regulating DC saturation current in saturable-reactor control windings. Annular magnetic insert is made in the form of group of similar monolithic annular magnets with poles assembled of p pairs alternating in circumferential direction and disposed on inner cylindrical side surface of annular rotor magnetic circuit holder; they are joined together at their butt-ends and form common stack wherein like-polarity magnetic poles circumferentially alternating in adjacent monolithic annular magnets are disposed congruently relative to one another in similar radial planes. Phase leads of stator annular magnetic-circuit m-phase winding are connected through power windings of respective saturable reactors to respective inputs of mentioned m-phase power rectifier.
EFFECT: extended range of generator operating variables and their regulation range, reduced mass and size.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering and electric-mechanical engineering, in particular, engineering of synchronous generators with excitation by permanent magnets.
SUBSTANCE: synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets contains bearing stator assembly with bearings 1,2,3,4, on which a group of circular-shaped magnetic ducts 5 is mounted with polar shelves along periphery, provided with electric coils 6 positioned on them with multi-phase anchor windings 7 and 8 of stator, a group of circular rotors 10 mounted on bearing shaft 9 with possible rotation in bearings 1,2,3,4 around carrying assembly of stator with magnetic inserts 11 mounted on internal side walls with magnetic poles of parallel-couples alternating in circular direction, enveloping polar shelves with electric coils 6 of anchoring windings 7,8 of circular magnetic duct of stator. Bearing assembly of stator is made of a group of similar modules. Modules of bearing assembly of stator are mounted with their possible rotation relatively to one another around axis coaxial to bearing shaft 9, and are provided with drive for their angular rotation relatively to one another connected to them, while phases of anchoring windings of same name of aforementioned modules are connected to each other, forming common phases of anchoring winding of stator.
EFFECT: expanded operation parameters of synchronous generator by providing possible adjustment of both its active power and output voltage of alternating current, and also providing for its possible use as source of welding current during electro-arc welding in different modes.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; mechanical design of commutatorless magnetoelectric machines.
SUBSTANCE: rotor magnetic system has more than two magnetically permeable steel laminations with pole horns formed by prismatic tangentially magnetized N-S permanent magnets placed inside laminated stack; inner and outer diameters of laminations are uninterrupted and rectangular prismatic magnets are installed inside them so that distance over outer arc between external planes of two adjacent magnets of unlike-polarity poles is shorter than that over internal arc between same planes; magnets do not contact one another and have at least one projection on inner diameter for coupling with rotor shaft.
EFFECT: enhanced manufacturability.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering and electro-mechanical industry, in particular, synchronous generator plants with excitation from permanent magnets.
SUBSTANCE: synchronous generator plant has immovable carrying stator assembly with supporting bearings, on which ring-shaped magnetic duct is assembled with polar projections along periphery provided with electric coils positioned thereon with anchor winding of stator, and also ring-shaped rotor mounted on supporting shaft with possible rotation in aforementioned supporting bearings around immovable stator carrying assembly, with permanent excitation magnets mounted on inner side wall. Generator plant also has alternating current rectifier block, connected to anchor winding of ring-shaped stator magnetic duct. Carrying assembly of stator is made of two similar sections, each one of which has ring-shaped bushing with external abutment flange, and ring-shaped rotor is also made of two similar sections, each one of which has ring-shaped sidewall with inner abutment flange. Monolithic magnetic rings of powder-like magnetic-anisotropic material are rigidly mated with inner side cylindrical wall of ring-shaped sidewall of appropriate section belonging to ring-shaped rotor.
EFFECT: higher operational reliability, possibility of adjustment of alternating and direct current voltage as well as of value of alternating and direct current at the output of synchronous generator plant.
5 cl, 3 dwg