Method for plasmochemical etching of semiconductor and insulating materials

FIELD: electronics; semiconductor devices and methods for etching structures on their wafers.

SUBSTANCE: plasmochemical etching of material is conducted by way of acting on its surface with ion flow of plasma produced from plasma forming gas filling evacuated camber, electron beam being used to act upon plasma forming gas for plasma generation. Constant longitudinal magnetic field with flux density of 20-40 Gs is built on axis, plasma-generating gas pressure is maintained within chamber between 0.01 and 0.1 Pa, and electron beam at current density of 0.1-1 A/cm2 ensuring ignition of beam-plasma discharge is used. Etching condition (energy and ion current density) can be controlled ether by modulating electron beam with respect to speed or by varying potential of discharge collector.

EFFECT: enhanced etching efficiency (speed) and quality of etching structures on semiconductor material surface: high degree of etching anisotropy preventing etching under mask, minimized material structure radiation defects brought in during etching.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the production technology of semiconductor devices, consumer electronics, in particular to a method of etching structures on the surface of the semiconductor and dielectric materials.

At the present time in the manufacture of a wide range of semiconductor devices, from lasers to chip microwave range on the basis of silicon and semiconductor compounds AIII/BV, are widely used in various chemical processes for etching and surface cleaning of semiconductors, dielectrics and metals and their deposition on the surface of semiconductor structures. Processing of materials using non-equilibrium (Te>>/Tion,gas) plasma often provides more control of the process and simultaneously reduced environmental impact compared with other methods of processing materials, and therefore represents a huge opportunity for the development of technology of thin films and surface modification. For these purposes mainly used RF and microwave discharges two configurations: the category of E-type (capacitive) between two flat electrodes and the category of N-type (induction)generated inside the loop coils of the RF generator. Technology-based etching in discharges of this type is referred to as RIE (reactive ion etching) and ICP (inductively coupled plasmas is) [1].

The main disadvantages of plasma-chemical reactors based on the RF discharge is difficult to control plasma parameters, the need to maintain a working knowledge of a high enough gas pressure to provide the desired speed of the etching, as a consequence of the weak anisotropy of the flow of ions onto the surface.

As an alternative or additional method of ionization of the gas in the plasma-chemical reactor proposed ionization electron flow kV energy range. The advantages of this source plasma: the effective ionization (smaller percentage of the invested energy is spent on heating and optical excitation gas); independent control of the flow of ions and radicals; the ability to control the spatial distribution of the flow of ions.

Closest to the claimed method is a method of plasma-chemical etching of semiconductor materials, in particular silicon, applied in [2]. In this work, the plasma is generated in the environment of the fluorine-containing gas (SF6its pressure 50 mtorr impact ionization of molecules by electron beam with electron energy of 2 Kev and a low current density (10 mA/cm2). The surface to be processed, is placed in the chamber parallel to the direction of movement of the beam in the vicinity of the volume is occupied pooch is om.

The disadvantage of this method is that when used for ionization electron beams of low density engaged ionization by electron impact, the resulting plasma has a low electron temperature. As a result, and exiting the ion flux has a small energy and density, insufficient for effective etching of semiconductor materials, and to increase the efficiency falls with electron-line plasma source to apply a source of RF voltage to provide accelerating ions of the potential at the semiconductor surface. Also it is necessary to use a sufficiently high pressure of the working gas (in [2] to 6.5 PA), in which due to the small length of free path of the ion in the gas ion flow has a weak focus, making it difficult to etch the desired structures on the surface of the semiconductor material. Increase focus and efficiency etching is possible only when increasing the RF voltage to the substrate, which leads to a substantial increase in radiation defects by increasing the energy of ions bombarding the surface of the semiconductor.

The technical problem addressed by the invention is the provision of efficiency (desired speed) etching and high quality etching structures on the surface of semiconductor materials: high the degree of anisotropy of the etching, precluding leakage under the mask, and minimize to be made during the etching of radiation defects in the material structure.

The solution of the stated problem and the technical result is ensured by the fact that plasma etching of semiconductor or dielectric material is carried out by acting on the surface of the stream of ions from a plasma formed from the gas filling insulated chamber for generating plasma affect the working gas electron beam kV energy range. The camera creates a constant longitudinal magnetic field on the axis of 20-40 HS, support the pressure of the working gas in the chamber from 0.01 to 0.1 PA and use an electron beam with a current density of 0.1 to 1 A/cm2providing the ignition beam-plasma discharge and the generation therein of ion flux density and energy, providing effective etching. To increase the etching speed can be change energy and flux density of ions from plasma or by modulation of the electron beam velocity, or a change in potential of the collector category.

CPD is generated when the energy of the electron beam 1-5 Kev. When the beam energy less than 1 Kev, BPD is characterized by strong instability (high sensitivity to changes in parameters PU is ka and gas); required for effective etching parameters of the ion flow can be obtained only at very high pressures of the working gas. At beam energies above 5 Kev from the discharge region is hard UV and x-ray radiation, leading to radiation defects in the semiconductor structure.

The range of values of the magnetic field caused by the requirement that the plasma electrons were magnetized (the Larmor radius is small compared to the transverse dimensions of the chamber, and the electron current in the main is on the manifold), and the ions of the plasma is not magnetized (the Larmor radius is large compared with the transverse dimensions of the camera).

The threshold beam current density for ignition of the discharge is determined by the condition

J=const·U3/2·f(p)/HL,

where U is the electron energy, H is the magnetic field, L is the length of the camera, a f(p) is a function of pressure, with a minimum of 0.01 and 0.03 PA (in the specified range of beam parameters) (see, for example [3]).

In accordance with this pattern it is the range of the beam densities of 0.1-1 A/cm2provides ignition and maintenance of LTP, while respecting the above conditions.

Installation scheme that implements the proposed method, shown in the drawing, where 1 - e-injector, 2 - focusing coil, 3 - vacuum chamber, 4 - magnetic coils, 5 - substrate structure, the machining is lemoi etching, 6 - the holder substrate, 7 - gauge ion current, 8 - manifold discharge, 9 - UHF modulator beam, 10 - plasma CPD 11 - e-beam, 12 - source voltage on the collector of the discharge.

The plasma 10 is generated in the vacuum chamber 3 is the cylinder diameter 2R0=0.5 m and the same length. The longitudinal magnetic field of 0.5 MT in the chamber is created by coils 4. Source axial electron beam 11 is a diode gun Pier flat hexaboride cathode, placed in a separate chamber which is connected to the main camera tube pressure drop. The electron beam parameters at the entrance to the plasma chamber: accelerating voltage Ub=2 kV, the current Ib- 300-500 mA, the typical diameter of 1÷1.5 cm power supply gun provides its work in pulsed mode with pulse duration τb=10-200 MS.

The opposite wall of the plasma chamber placed collector discharge 8 - molybdenum disk with a diameter of 8 cm

The substrate holder 6 is mounted at a distance of 10-12 cm from the camera axis so that the plane of the material being etched, is parallel to the camera axis. After chemical cleaning chamber on the substrate holder is set to the processed structure 5 (plate of semiconductor material coated with the resist mask) and is pumping the vacuum chamber to a pressure of 2 MPa. On the Les inlet working gas (argon, fluorine-containing gas, or a mixture thereof in a controlled ratio) is an additional cleaning chamber by ion bombardment and etching of the sample for a fixed time.

At different stages of processing, such as etching heterostructures may require different density and energy flux of ions. Changing these parameters is carried out by modulation of the electron beam velocity, or a change in potential of the collector of the discharge. In the first case there is a reduction of the ion energy without a significant change in flux density. The second ion energy increases by an amount close to the potential of the collector, with a simultaneous increase in flux density.

Conducted testing of technologies soft etching ion flows Ar+ with the average energy 60-70 eV pseudomorphs semiconductor heterostructure AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs (P-HEMT) with two-dimensional electron gas (DEG)grown on GaAs substrates and used for the manufacture of field of microwave transistors.

Studies conducted on test samples p-NENT structures of the hall contacts showed that under these conditions, there is accumulation of radiation defects, which impair the parameters of two-dimensional electron gas.

Tested also the option of the technological process of manufacture of the sealing grooves R-IT is the instrument through the slit in the dielectric. Using electron-beam lithography were made narrow (0.1-0.5 μm) cracks in the resist (RMA), through which were produced by selective etching in the plasma dielectric coating Si3N4thickness of 80 nm to the layer of semiconductor GaAs, where the etching is stopped. After removing the resist dimensions of etched grooves was measured using an atomic force microscope. The depth of etching in the above exposure time was 35 nm. Revealed no evidence of non-uniformity of the etching of the plate with a diameter of 60 mm Also shows the effect of etching without significant degradation parameters of heterostructures (mobility of electrons DEG), indicating a low density of radiation disorders and use of PPE in technology heterostructure UHF NEMT devices.

In the proposed method, due to the high density of the electron beam and development of high-frequency instability of the desired plasma density is formed by the pressure of the working gas, by 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the method prototype that provides high directivity of the ion flow and accordingly the quality of etching structures under the mask.

Generated by the flow of ions has required for effective etching parameters (average energy and density of ions) be the use of additional sources of RF voltage.

Sources of information

1. Grayvonovskiy, Whitecrow. Ion-plasma processing of materials. M.: Radio and communication, 1986, str-216.

2. K.D.Shatz and D.N.Ruzic. An electron-beam plasma source and geometry for plasma processing. Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 1993, v.2 p.100-105.

3. Artificial particle beams in space plasma. Sat. edited Bgranli. TRANS. from English. M.: Mir, 1985, str-319.

1. The method of plasma-chemical etching of semiconductor and dielectric material by exposing its surface to the flow of ions from a plasma formed from the gas filling insulated chamber, creating a plasma by ionization of the working gas electron beam kV energy range, characterized in that the camera creates a constant longitudinal magnetic field on the axis of 20-40 HS, support the pressure of the working gas from 0.01 to 0.1 PA and use an electron beam with a current density of 0.1 to 1 A/cm2providing the ignition beam-plasma discharge.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the change of energy and the density of the flow of ions from the plasma are produced either by modulation of the electron beam velocity, or a change in potential of the collector category.



 

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