Method of manufacturing ice

FIELD: manufacturing ice.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises freezing the first layer of ice by condensing moisture from the ambient air on the plate of the base with a temperature from -6°C to -11°C provided by circulating a coolant at a temperature from -9°C to -14°C, freezing the second layer and each next layers of ice by supplying cleaned water after the freezing of the previous layer due to circulating coolant in the plate of the base at a temperature from -9°C to -14°C, removing stress by means of slowed down heating of the surface layers of ice up to the temperature of the surface layers ranging from -0.5 to 0.2°C by means of circulation coolant with a temperature from -2°C to -4°C, and planing ice down to a depth of no more than 0.35 mm with adding water at a temperature of 40°-75° C.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of ice.

6 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to technology of a sports ground with ice cover in closed rooms for trainings and presentations on skates, in particular to the creation or formation of ice cover sites for speed-skating, and can be used when creating or forming the cover in closed places (rollers) for training or competitions skaters, speeches masters of figure skating, ice hockey or ball.

The level of technology

Recently, with the advent of indoor rinks for speed skating, the achievements of the athletes began largely depend not only on the level of fitness of athletes, but also from technical facilities: construction of skates, sports suit, the characteristics of the ice, thermophysical parameters of the air in indoor ice arenas, etc. Not the last role in setting new records, in particular, in speed skating plays ice, i.e. ice, which undergo training or competition. Therefore, improving the properties of ice, that is, its sliding properties, it is possible to reduce the resistance forces arising between the skate blade and the ice surface, which ultimately leads to an increase in the speed of the skater and improve the of its own or world records.

Currently developed many ways of formation or creation of artificial ice.

For example, in EPO application No. 1059385 (publ. 13.12.2000) proposes a method of recovery of the sliding surfaces, where the ice surface is first heated and sprayed liquid artificial ridged material, and then the surface is polished. It turned out, however, that no artificial materials may not provide the same slide as the frozen water surface.

In the author's certificate of the USSR No. 794343 (publ. 07.01.1981) described the way in which an array of ice poured in layers, and the second and each subsequent layer of frosting in half and take away not frozen water, enriched air. However, this measure was not enough to improve the sliding properties of ice.

In copyright certificates of the USSR №1242505 (publ. 07.07.1986), No. 1649218 (publ. 15.05.1991) and No. 1796650 (publ. 23.02.1993) presents the ways in which the priming water is added to polyvinyl alcohol, glycerin, and a number of components that provides increased strength, heat resistance and reduced permeability. However, the sliding properties of this ice is still not high enough.

In U.S. patent No. 4312142 (publ. 26.01.1982) described a device for preparing the surface of the ice rinks, a combination mechanism is ical scraper and water distribution devices, moving on rails along the skating rink. Similar to the design presented in the PCT application no WO 2004/092485 (publ. 28.10.2004), in which a water tank adapted to collect scimemi snow for melting. Both documents described planing machine ice machine with the same gravy water. The resulting ice but has a smooth surface, but does not provide maximum slip, the process of obtaining such ice on the complexity significantly exceeds traditional technology.

U.S. patent No. 5536411 (publ. 16.07.1996) discloses a method of preparing the water for the ice rink, which produce softening of the water and passing it through a carbon filter. Then the water demineralized by reverse osmosis, is heated and is used to restore the surface of the ice. As in previous similar, the resulting ice does not have the required physical and mechanical characteristics, and primarily by the characteristics of the slip.

In U.S. patent No. 6158228 (publ. 12.12.2000) presents a method numerazione ice by creating a temperature difference at the base and over it. As a result, the condensate from the air in the form of drops falling on the ground, and these droplets freeze at the moment of contact of the cooled base. But this ice is obtained slippery enough.

The closest analogue can be considered a way shaped who I array of ice, described in article Ganina "Slippery subject" in the magazine "Itogi" No. 52 (498), dated 26.12.2005 (p.52-55). In this way an array of ice covered in layers and it is "annealing" by increasing the temperature of the ice almost to the melting point, thereby moving the properties of ice are greatly increased. However, the quality of the resulting ice can be further improved.

The invention

The present invention is the elimination of the disadvantages of the aforementioned analogues, and the creation of artificial ice with a maximum sliding properties.

This task with the achievement of the technical result is solved in a method of forming an array of ice according to the present invention. This method involves layer-by-layer freezing ice, must be the first layer of the array of ice by condensation of moisture from the ambient air of the arena on the base plate, indicated on the operating mode of formation of the array of ice with a temperature selected from a range from -6°C to -11°With, by bringing the temperature of the coolant circulating through the base plate to a temperature selected from a range from -9°-14°; fill and must be the second and each subsequent layers of the array of ice supply purified water after numerazione previous layer array of ice in circulation x is adenosines in the base plate at the said temperature, selected from a range from -9°-14°; produce at least one stress relief in the array of ice by slow heating of the array of ice to the temperature of the surface layers selected from the interval from-0.5°to -0,2°With, by means of combining the heat supply to the superficial layers of the array of ice from the ambient air arena with heat from the lower layers of the ice pack to the base plate due to the circulation of the coolant with a temperature selected from a range from -2°C to -4°; produce periodic machine planing ice to a depth not exceeding 0,35 mm, machine gravy water having a temperature selected from a range from +40°C to +75°C.

An additional feature of the method according to the present invention is that the frosting of the first layer of the array of ice is carried out by cooling the base plate to the aforementioned temperature selected from a range from -6°C to -11°With the rate of temperature reduction of the base plate below +10°selected from a range of 0,3-0,7°C/h, with a simultaneous increase in the relative humidity of the surrounding air of the arena to the value selected from the range of 45-60%, by setting the appropriate mode of operation of the air ambient air, equipped with cellular systems doublegene air or p is regenerators, or their combination.

Another additional feature of the method according to the present invention is that an array of ice in the process of removing the voltage is maintained at the aforementioned temperature of the surface layers selected from the interval from-0.5°to -0,2°With not less than 2 hours, and then cooled by reducing the temperature of the coolant to a temperature selected from a range from -9°-14°With decline rate selected from a range of 0,3-0,7°S/h

In the method according to the present invention, the stress relief in the array produce ice after numerazione next 10-20 layers of ice, and the total number of layers in the array of ice ranges from 25 to 40.

Another feature of the method according to the present invention is that the fill in the second and subsequent layers of the hose purified water with a temperature selected from a range from +10°C to +45°to the thickness of each layer is not more than 1.5 mm.

Another feature of the method according to the present invention is that the water treatment is carried out by passing it successively through a carbon filter, ion exchange filter and membrane filter reverse osmosis systems.

Brief description of drawings

In the accompanying drawings, illustrating certain aspects of the present invention, the same reference items refer to the same elements.

1 which is a view in section of the array zamorajivanie ice. Figure 2 is a conditional chart, which shows the dependence of the temperature of the ice from its depths during stress relieving.

Detailed description of the invention

An array of ice, zamorazhyvanyy in the implementation of the method according to the present invention, has many layers. Figure 1 shows a sectional part of the array of ice. Ice covered on the base plate 1, in which the tubes 2 circulates the coolant. The temperature is maintained at the required level using refrigeration units (not shown). On the base plate 1 covered the first layer 3 ice, then filled and covered each of the following layers 4 of the ice. The top layer 5 in figure 1 is another fill layer. This is not necessarily the last layer of the array of ice.

The method of forming an array of ice is a complex process and consists in the following. Prior to the formation or pattern of the ice plate 1 (technological stovetop) cleaned and begin to lower its temperature by reducing the temperature of the coolant circulating through it. This lowering of the temperature of the base plate 1 is necessary for its launch on the operating mode of formation of the array of ice, which lies mainly in the temperature range from -6°C to -11°With, although it is permissible intervals in the temperature range from -1° With -12°C.

To avoid undesirable thermal stresses in the plate 1 base, lowering the temperature of the plate (at least below +10° (C) occurs at a rate in the range of 0,3-0,7°C/h, due to the gradual lowering of the temperature of the coolant in the pipe 2) to the value selected from a range from -9°-14°C. Simultaneously with the removal of the base plate 1 on the operating mode of the humidity of the ambient air or air-indoor environmental arena, where the base plate 1, is incremented and reaches values that lie predominantly in the range of 45-60%, although valid, are from 20 to 85%. Humidification of the ambient air is achieved by setting the appropriate mode of operation of the air ambient air with cellular systems doublegene air or steam generators, or their combination. The simultaneous lowering of the temperature of the base plate 1 and the increase in humidity leads to the formation of the first layer of ice on the base plate by condensation of moisture from the ambient air. In contrast to the above-mentioned U.S. patent No. 6158228 not permitted compulsory education drops by type of rain. Zamorazhyvanyy thus the first layer 3 ice has good strength and adhesive properties, which later method is twoout the best heat transfer between the base plate 1 and zamorozennimi array of ice, excluding unwanted delamination at the interface concrete-ice. The above actions occur with a clear controlling the set temperature of the air, and the frosting of the first layer 3 on the base plate 1 by condensation of moisture is approximately 6-12 hours.

The second and subsequent layers 4 array of ice is produced by pouring water, which goes through several stages of deep cleaning that includes passing water first through a carbon filter, then through the ion exchange filter and finally through a membrane filter reverse osmosis systems. Carbon filter for water purification from chlorine and organic compounds, ion-exchange filter to replace the ions of calcium and magnesium with sodium ions, and the membrane filter is a reverse osmosis system is designed for maximum water purification. This deep cleaning is with a different order of stages in comparison with the cleanup described in the aforementioned U.S. patent No. 5536411. Purified water is supplied to the fill has a temperature in the range: for hose fill - from +10°C to +45°for machine basting from +40°C to +75°C.

When pouring the second and each subsequent layers 4 array of ice circulation of coolant in the base plate 1 is not terminated, and the temperature of the coolant remains in the above meant and, which, recall, is mostly in the range from -9°-14°C. the thickness of the fill and zamorajivanie layer 4 of the ice is usually not more than 1.5 mm, the Total number of layers in the array of ice can reach 40 (usually in the range of 25-40 though it may go beyond these limits).

Fill each layer 4 purified water can be produced from the hoses. Use hoses with cylindrical nozzles for pouring each layer 4 purified water due to reduced trapping air bottled water in comparison with the technology of spraying (spray). However due to the decrease of the capture of the sprayed water particles of air, preliminary degassing of purified water, as is done, for example, in the method according paved the application of Japan No. 11-148754 (publ. 02.06.1999), is not significant technological operation. Captured water to the air because of the reduced surface section phase (air-water) does not form a large number of bubbles in the ice pack, worsening the sliding properties of the ice. No need for additional decontaminate water to fill an advantage of the method according to the present invention.

In addition, in the process of forming the array of ice produce periodic machine planing ice on pre-determined depth, which is not primarily a PR is more than 0.35 mm, with the help of the machine, which also provides gravy with temperature, mainly lying in the range from +40°C to +75°C. Such planing ice should be implemented after completion of filling of the draft of the ice layer, after performing technological operations of stress in the array of ice if necessary to level the surface of filled ice pack and at the stage finish casting. Figure 1 in the upper layer 5 by the dotted line represented the thickness of this layer after planing machine, and the dash-dotted line is the thickness of this layer 5 after water gravy. Machine for planing and gravy water may be such as described in the aforementioned U.S. patent No. 4312142 and PCT application no WO 2004/092485.

As numerazione a given number of layers 4 ice (at least once, usually after numerazione every 10-20 layers of ice) there is a need in the so-called operation annealing to relieve stresses in the ice pack. Such withdrawal stresses produced by slow heating of the surface layers of the ice pack to temperatures, mainly lying in the interval from-0.5°to -0,2°With the rate of increase of temperature lying in the range 0,3-0,7°With/including Warming up, this is done by combining the supply of heat to the surface layers of the array of ice from the surrounding air in the room ice arena with the Odom heat from the lower layers of the ice pack to the base plate 1 due to the circulation of the coolant with a temperature value, lying mostly in the interval from -2°-4°C. When the surface layers of the array of ice in the process of removing the voltage is maintained at the above temperature the time is preferably not less than 2 hours by regulating the temperature of circulating in the base plate of the coolant at the interval that lies mainly in the interval from -2°-4°C, and then cooled by reducing the temperature of the coolant to the above-mentioned values of the temperature (i.e. mostly in the range from -9°-14° (C) at a speed lying in the range 0,3-0,7°S/h

It is important to note that this "annealing" of the array of ice carry out fundamentally off without refrigeration. This is because when a disabled refrigeration machines and maintaining the circulation of the coolant in the tubes 2 of the base plate 1, the coolant is heated in the pump recirculation cooling system and starts to heat through the plate 1 bottom 3 layers of the array of ice. So disabling refrigeration machines curve of temperature change on the array of ice has the appearance shown by the dotted line in figure 2. The upper layers 5 of this array of ice is warmed by heat exchange with the ambient air, whereas the middle layer 4 remain at lower temperatures. This distribution of the temperature is in layers 3-5 array of ice leads to stress, which may cause peeling of the lower layer 3 ice from the base plate 1, and the occurrence of cracks in the ice pack, which impairs its strength characteristics.

On the contrary, in the method according to the present invention, the operation of the stress relieving is performed without shutting down the refrigeration units. This allows to maintain the temperature of the coolant when the above-mentioned value, preferably lying in the range from -2°-4°C. In this case, the curve of temperature distribution on the array of ice has the appearance shown in figure 2 as a solid line. Save the bottom, the first layer 3 in the array of ice at subzero temperatures does not lead to the delamination of the layer and does not cause stresses in the ice pack, without compromising its strength characteristics.

Thus formed in accordance with the way the ice turns out the most durable and at the same time has excellent slip characteristics.

Although this description includes the specific values of the individual parameters, they are only illustrative and do not limit the present invention, which is defined only by the attached claims.

1. The method of forming an array of ice, including layer-by-layer freezing ice, this must be the first layer of the array of ice by condensing the logs from the ambient air of the arena on the base plate, indicated on the operating mode of formation of the array of ice with a temperature selected from a range from -6 to -11°by bringing the temperature of the coolant circulating through the base plate to a temperature selected from a range from -9 to -14°; fill and must be the second and each subsequent layers of the array of ice flow of purified water after numerazione previous layer array of ice for the circulation of coolant in the base plate at the said temperature selected from a range from -9 to -14°; produce at least one stress relief in the array of ice by slow heating of the surface layers of the array of ice to the temperature of the surface layers selected from a range from 0.5 to -0,2°With, by means of combining the heat supply to the superficial layers of the array of ice from the ambient air arena with heat from the lower layers of the ice pack to the base plate due to the circulation of the coolant with a temperature selected from a range from -2 to -4°C;

produce periodic machine planing ice to a depth not exceeding 0,35 mm, machine gravy water having a temperature selected from a range from +40 to +75°C.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the first layer of frosting array of ice is carried out by cooling the base plate to the aforementioned temperature selected from a range from -6 to -11° With the rate of temperature reduction of the base plate below +10°selected from the range of 0,3-0,7°C/h, with a simultaneous increase in the relative humidity of the surrounding air of the arena to the value selected from the range of 45-60% by setting the appropriate mode of operation of the air ambient air with cellular systems doublegene air, or steam, or a combination of both.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the array of ice in the process of removing the voltage is maintained at the aforementioned temperature of the surface layers selected from a range from 0.5 to -0,2°With not less than 2 h, and then cooled by reducing the temperature of the coolant to a temperature selected from a range from -9 to -14°With decline rate selected from a range of 0,3-0,7°S/h

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the removing in the array produce ice after numerazione next 10-20 layers of ice.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the total number of layers in the array of ice ranges from 25 to 40.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which the fill in the second and subsequent layers of the hose purified water with a temperature selected from a range from +10 to +45°to the thickness of each layer is not more than 1.5 mm.

7. The method according to claim 1 or 6, in which the purification of water by passing it successively through a carbon filter, ion exchange filter and membrane filter system which we reverse osmosis.



 

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