Method of processing of the diamond-containing concentrates

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of processing of the diamond-containing concentrates.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to separation of the diamonds from the diamonds-containing rock and the marks of technological processes concentration and may be used in the production shops of the final treatment of the diamond- -containing concentrates in the mining-and-processing integrated works of the diamond-mining firms. For creation of the self-contained ecologically safe cycle of production of pure diamonds the processing of the diamond-containing concentrates is conducted in the autoclave at the temperatures of 200-400° С using the saturated solution of the sodium carbonate with addition of 3-5 % of the weight % of sodium hydroxide in the field of the ultrasonic radiation, then the autoclave is cooled and in the reaction mass, which contains the non-reacted water solution of the sodium carbonate, they route oppositely to the gravitational force the stream of the concentrated hydrochloric and nitrogen acids for formation of the conditions of the flotation-gravitational division and separation of the diamonds from the products of the production process. At that for creation of the closed cycle of the production process at flotation-gravitational separation of the diamonds from the products of the production process use the concentrated acids, which have remained after the final cleaning of the diamonds. The invention ensures the high quality of the cleaning of the diamonds at the minimal usage of the toxic mediums, which allows the considerable reduction of the cost of the production process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the high quality of the diamonds cleaning, the minimal usage of the toxic mediums in the production process, the considerable reduction of its cost.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the separation of diamonds from the host rocks and traces of technological processes of enrichment and may find application in workshops final finishing diamond concentrates on mineral processing plants mining enterprises.

The diamondiferous concentrate is a diamond crystal with surface oil contamination and concomitant various minerals from the surrounding rocks. The process of separating diamonds from host rocks and traces of technological processes of enrichment is the purification of diamonds from these impurities.

Existing methods of extraction and purification of diamonds, typically include stage acid and/or alkali treatment by heating and separation of diamonds from food processing.

The method for extracting small diamonds from kimberlite rocks, including looping breed with a mixture of hydrochloric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, Department amazonenvelope mixture from rocks by centrifugation, and after evaporation of the unreacted part of the acid, washing with water amazonenvelope mixture and drying the Department of diamond crystals from the empty kimberlite rocks sedimentation in bromoform (EN 2057593 C1, 10.04.96). The main disadvantage of this method is the use of aggressive media, especially hydrofluoric acid,which imposes stringent requirements on material reaction vessels - the use of Teflon and other expensive coatings.

Used methods of high-temperature alkaline processing of diamonds and diamond products and subsequent acid treatment of the alkaline cake. A method of processing diamond concentrates, including high-temperature treatment with an alkaline reagent is dry alkali at 480-520°With a preliminary roasting of the concentrates with the addition of dry salt potassium chloride at 450-600°, Department of diamonds from food processing water leaching, filtration and washing with water and the final acid alkaline cleaning cake sulfuric acid (RU 94027741 A1, 27.06.96).

Stage thermal annealing leads to graphitization of organic matter in the cracks of diamond crystals, which further complicates or makes it impossible for the dissolution of tar contamination. Secondary water phase differences minerals can lose water, even simple oxides become poorly soluble in the further processing in acids. Therefore, the subsequent process of acid cleaning is quite long and requires a large number of various acids, including sulfuric. In addition, when carrying out high-temperature alkaline treatment of the probable danger of chemical burns alkaline melts in contact with water. The use of aggressive media (Selo is her and acids at high temperatures imposes stringent requirements on the material used vehicles.

As indicated in the work Vereshchagin A.L. and Larionova I.I. (Cleaning Almazov-aomai.ab.ru/Books/Files/1999-03/HTML/18/pap_18.html), the choice of modes of cleaning is determined by the reactivity of diamonds and a composition contained impurities. The main objective of the process is the selection of the target product with minimal losses.

Object of the invention is to provide a method for separating diamonds from host rocks and traces of technological processes of enrichment with minimal use of toxic environments and quality assurance for cleanup.

The technical result is the creation of a complete, economical and environmentally cycle of obtaining pure diamond.

The technical result is achieved in that in the processing method of diamond-containing concentrates, including high-temperature treatment with an alkaline reagent, separating diamonds from food processing and final acid treatment, as the alkaline reagent, a mixture of a saturated solution of sodium carbonate with the addition of 3-5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, the process is carried out in an autoclave at a temperature of 200-400°in the field of ultrasonic radiation, then the autoclave is cooled and the reaction mass containing the solution of unreacted sodium carbonate, is directed opposite to the force of gravity flow of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to create conditions is the second flotation and gravity separation of diamonds from food processing.

An additional difference is that for flotation and gravity separation of a mixture of concentrated acids remaining after the final cleaning of the diamond.

When processing diamondiferous concentrate a saturated solution of sodium carbonate with the addition of sodium hydroxide in small quantities at temperatures of 200-400°in the field of ultrasonic radiation destroyed most of the minerals in the composition of the diamond-containing concentrates, such as rutile, garnet, mica, in addition, hydrolyzed and razryhlyaya tar contamination. Minerals with grain size more than 3-5 mm is not completely dissolved, but the surface becomes loosened and acquires properties to a further flotation.

The decomposition of the minerals of the host rocks with sodium carbonate relates to solid-phase reactions. To accelerate the reaction in such processes plays the role of adding flux, substances, reducing the initial reaction temperature. The role of flux in our process is the addition of sodium hydroxide in amounts of 3-5 wt.%. Also a big role in reactions of this kind played by the presence of the gas phase. In this case, the area of the reaction surface becomes equal to or close to the surface of one of the reagents, and the reaction rate increases in the thousands. The gas phase (carbon dioxide g is C) is formed, for example, in the reaction with the host minerals.

ZrSiO4+2Na2CO3=Na2SiO3+Na2ZrO3+2CO2

The combination of ultrasonic treatment of the reaction vessel (autoclave using as destructive impurities reagent sodium carbonate and additives sodium hydroxide leads to effective response for subsequent separation of diamonds.

Direction in the reaction mass, containing an aqueous solution of unreacted sodium carbonate, opposite to the force of gravity flow of concentrated acids creates conditions flotation and gravity separation of products in subsequent processing stages. After water leaching formed by partially or completely reacted particles of waste rock, which, after acidification cake free diamonds, which are deposited on the bottom of the vessel. Platerowane under the action of the generated carbon dioxide particles of the rock surface and are removed together with excess solution. After completion of the neutralization of sodium carbonate on the bottom of the vessel remain crystals, which are then processed with a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and astoi acid for 20-30 min to remove sulphides, and then chronicum for complete cleaning of diamond from graphite. The collected acid at this stage are returned to the processing cycle to the next is th neutralization with sodium carbonate, that provides the possibility of multiple closed loop cleaning and exclusion of discharge of unreacted acids and alkalis. Use non - toxic reagent sodium carbonate reduces the requirements to the chemical resistance of the materials of the autoclave, and in conjunction with the creation of a closed loop significantly reduces the cost of the process.

Example 1. The diamondiferous concentrate particle size from 1 to 10 mm, weight 300 g, containing impurities of the host rock in the amount of 3-5%, is placed in the reaction vessel is a stainless steel liner with a capacity of 1 L. the Concentrate is filled with 300 ml of saturated solution of sodium carbonate and 30 g of dry sodium hydroxide, stirred and placed in an autoclave. After sealing the autoclave is heated to 350°With oven and held for 1 hour in the field ultrasonic radiation with a frequency of 22±1,65 kHz and a power generator 200 watts (uses Ultrasonic technological device "Wave", USTA 0,2/22 Biysk technological Institute). After cooling in cold water, the autoclave is opened and the reaction vessel liner is removed. The reaction vessel, the liner is filled with water to a volume of 800 ml, the contents mixed and transferred in a heat resistant glass beaker placed in an inclined position in a special holder, under which the installed grid-gutter to trap sludge and perhaps small clusters of rocks with diamond crystals. At the bottom of the glass is installed solid silicone hose, which is a solution of a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids (Aqua Regia), diluted in two-three times and of any degree of purity. Further there is a chemical reaction of neutralization of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide gas bubbles which in the acidic environment emerge partially reacted rock pieces. Fatherwas breed is removed from the glass on the grid and subsequently sent to the secondary treatment. After completion of the reaction liquid from a glass merges the contents of the breed is washed with water and filled again with 300 ml saturated sodium carbonate solution and the process is repeated without heating in the autoclave. To neutralize the carbonate at this stage is to use the solution chronica. After washing with water, the concentrate is then treated with a mixture of concentrated acids (Tsarskaya vodka) for 20-30 min to remove sulphides, and then chronicum to complete cleaning of diamond from graphite. Collected at these stages acids (Aqua Regia and chronic) are collected and returned to the stage neutralization with soda solution. The yield of pure diamonds from concentrate has made 0.83 carats.

Example 2. The diamondiferous concentrate particle size from 0.5 to 2 mm and a weight of 100 g, soderjasimi rocks about 20%, is placed in the reaction vessel liner and all other procedures are conducted according to the scheme described in Example 1. The output of diamonds reached 84.2 carat, the impurities are reduced to a single.

1. The method of processing diamond concentrates, including high-temperature treatment with an alkaline reagent, separating diamonds from food processing and final acid treatment, characterized in that as the alkaline reagent, a mixture of a saturated solution of sodium carbonate with the addition of 3-5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, the process is carried out in an autoclave at a temperature of 200-400°in the field of ultrasonic radiation, and then cooling the autoclave and the reaction mass containing the solution of unreacted sodium carbonate, is directed opposite to the force of gravity flow of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to create the conditions for flotation and gravity separation and the separation of diamonds from food processing.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for flotation and gravity separation using concentrated acids remaining after the final cleaning of the diamond.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; mining industry; other industries; methods of production of the heat-resistant composite diamond sintered articles.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the heat-resistant composite diamond sintered articles used in the capacity of the cutting tools, the tool used for the high-precision machining and to the jewelry branch. The diamond composite sintered article contains in the capacity of the article the diamond crystal and the very small amount of the non-diamond carbon and has the hardness according to Vickers of 85 GPa or more. The article is produced by the method providing for inclusion of the synthetic diamond powder having the average size of the grains of 200 nanometers or less, in the tantalum or molybdenum capsule, both heating and application of the pressure at usage of the apparatus for the synthesis under the super-high pressure in the thermodynamically stable conditions including the temperature of 2100°С or more and the pressure of 7.7 GPa or more. The technical result of the invention is production of the articles having the electric conductivity, the high thermal stability and having the brilliance and the glaze.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the articles having the electric conductivity, the high thermal stability and having the brilliance and the glaze.

6 cl, 4 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the superfine-grained diamond sintered articles of the high purity and high hardness.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the production of the superfine-grained diamond sintered articles of the high purity and high hardness, which is intended for usage in the capacity of the wear-resistant material capable to let the light go through it, and may be used in production of jewels. The article has the size of the grain equal to 100 nanometers or less. For its manufacture the superfine-grained natural diamond powder having the granulometric spread of values from null up to 0.1 microns is subjected to desiliconization, to sublimation drying in the solution, inclusion into the tantalum or molybdenum capsule without the sintering additive, heating and application of the excessive pressure to the capsule using the device for the synthesis at the super-high pressure at the temperature of 1700°С or more and under pressure of 8.5 GPa or more, which meet the conditions of the thermodynamic stability of the diamond. The technical result of the invention is realization of the synthesis of the diamond sintered article at the more low pressure, than in the standard method and without usage of any sintering additive. The article has hardness according to Vickers - 80 GPa and more and is excellent concerning resistance to the tear and wear and the thermal resistance.

EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of the synthesis of the diamond sintered article at the more low pressure, than in the standard method, and without usage of any sintering additive, ensures its hardness of 80 GPa and more according to Vickers and the excellent properties concerning resistance to the tear and wear and the thermal resistance.

4 cl, 5 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry of carbon and can be utilized when obtaining stable nano-diamond sols. According to an embodiment of invention, synthetic diamond-containing substance contains 82-91% carbon, 0.8-1.5% hydrogen, 1.1-2.2% oxygen, and 1.1-1.3% metallic impurities with content of non-diamond carbon 2-25% based on total weight of carbon. diamond-containing substance is characterized by ζ(zeta) potential from -40 to -85 mV. According to second embodiment, substance contains 97.5-98.5% carbon, 0.09-0.2% hydrogen, 0.3-0.5% oxygen, and 0.5-0.8% metallic impurities with content of non- diamond carbon 0.2-5% and zeta potential from 0 to -75 mV. Synthetic diamond-containing substance according to invention manifest high colloidal particle stability and are susceptible to be fractioned with narrow particle size distribution: 3 to 1700 nm and 3 to 8000 nm, respectively. Present substances are recovered by treating dry nano-diamond powder obtained from mixture of explosives (trinitrotoluene-hexogen or graphite-hexogen) in boiled organic solvents, succession of solvents going from hydrophobic solvents to hydrophilic ones so that each precedent solvent dissolves well in subsequent one.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency and commodity of transportation of raw material and diamond-containing substances obtained thereof.

3 cl, 9 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: carbon materials.

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EFFECT: increased degree of removing residual graphite under relatively low temperature preventing oxidation of diamond.

1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: production of nanodiamond suspensions in various media for conducting of plating processes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing thermal processing of nanodiamond powder in air at temperature of 440-600 C until powder weight losses reach 5-85%. Thermally processed powder forms stable suspensions in water, ethyl alcohol and other solvents upon common mixing. Sediment stability of nanodiamond suspensions thermally processed in accordance with invention and produced using supersonic treatment is at least 1.5 times as high as similar parameter of nanodiamond suspensions produced by prior art processes.

EFFECT: simplified method allowing stability of nanodiamond suspension in various media to be improved.

3 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; cutting tool industry; mechanical engineering; methods of the production of the artificial highly rigid materials.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and the increased sizes of the produced monocrystals, the decreased labor input of the production process.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: electrochemical extraction of metals from complex compounds; purification of diamond synthesis products.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes electrochemical treatment of synthesis product in acid electrolyte for obtaining graphite-diamond product containing 0.5-2.0% of metallic admixtures and deposition of metallic nickel and manganese on cathode. During purification of diamond synthesis products at extraction of nickel and manganese in form of metallic product, electrochemical treatment is carried out in membrane-type electrolyzer at circulation of catholyte through second electrolyzer. Process is conducted in area of temperatures of 25-30°C at cathode current density in the first electrolyzer of 2-15 A/dm2 and 15-30 A/dm2 in the second electrolyzer; catholyte pH in the presence of 100-150 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 in it is maintained at outlet from the first electrolyzer of 5-7.5 and 2.5-5 at return.

EFFECT: possibility of performing nickel and manganese extraction and purification of diamond synthesis products in one cycle.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: treatment of diamonds.

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EFFECT: possibility of keeping diamond intact during treatment.

46 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: treatment of diamonds.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following stages: (i) forming of reaction mass at presence of diamond in pressure-transmitting medium fully surrounding the diamond and (ii) action of reaction mass by high temperature and pressure during required period of time; diamond is of IIb type and its color is changed from gray to blue or dark blue or is enriched by action on reaction mass of temperature from 1800°C to 2600°C at pressure of from 6.7 GPa to 9 GPa (first version). Diamond of type II may be also proposed which contains boron and its color is changed to blue or dark blue by action on reaction mass by the same temperature and pressure (second version).

EFFECT: improved color of diamond by changing it from gray (brown-gray) to blue or dark blue.

31 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: treatment of natural diamond for change of its color.

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of enriching diamond color keeping its crystals intact.

30 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

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2 cl, 4 tbl, 36 ex

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3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry.

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4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: medicine, in particular wound-healing accelerating agents.

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EFFECT: preparation having storage stability; high wound-healing effect and prolonged action.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine, dermatology, pharmacy.

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EFFECT: valuable medicinal properties of composition, improved preparing method.

7 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

Cavitation reactor // 2290990

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises symmetrical chamber and emitter and reflector of acoustic wave. The surfaces of the emitter and reflector exposed to the fluid are shaped into a circle and arranged at the crests of the vibration displacement of the fluid caused be the acoustical wave. The diameter of the surfaces of the emitter and reflector ranges from 0.92 to 1.56 of the length of the acoustical wave. The distance between the surfaces of the emitter and reflector along the normal to them is 1.0-1.5 of the length of the acoustic wave.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 dwg

Cavitation reactor // 2286205

FIELD: chemical industry; food processing industry; pharmaceutical industry; perfumery industry; power industry; medical equipment industry; devices for action on the liquids by the energy of the acoustic field of cavitation.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the apparatuses for action on the liquid by the energy of the acoustic field of cavitation formed by the elastic harmonic oscillations of the liquid of the ultrasonic frequency with the purpose of creation in them of the thermodynamically non-equilibrium states. The invention can be used in the chemical, alimentary, pharmaceutical and perfumery industry, and also in medicine and energetics. The reactor contains the sources of the harmonic oscillations made in the form of the resonators of the similar frequency, inside which the liquid oscillations form the elastic standing waves. The phases of the resonators are shifted for the advance as their distance from the center of the reactor is varying. Realization of the invention allows to increase the maximum value of the density of the potential energy of the cavitation without changing neither the volume of the reactor, nor the hydrostatic pressure inside it and without changes of the volumetric density of the sound power of the harmonic frequencies.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increase the maximum value of the density of the potential energy of the cavitation without changing neither the volume of the reactor, nor the hydrostatic pressure inside it and without changes of the volumetric density of the sound power of the harmonic frequencies.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of changing main physical properties of liquid hydrocarbons. According to proposed method pulsations are excited in moving liquid flow at provision of amplitudes of pressure, velocity and acceleration fluctuations contributing to breaking of drops and bubbles in continuous flow of liquid. First molecules of hydrocarbons are polarized by passing through electromagnetic field of 0.2-0.3 T. Then macromolecules and colloids are subjected to resonance vibration of 20-30 Hz to increase amplitude of fluctuation. Pressure is raised by pump to 6.0-8.0 MPa at inlet of converging and diverging device where fuel is accelerated up to 120-140 m/s with subsequent braking to obtain pressure of 0.02-0.01 MPa. Then flow is divided into light and heavy fractions in Rank tube. Light fractions are directed for storage or combustion after polarization of molecules in electromagnetic field. Heavy hot fractions in amount of 10-15% of total flow are returned by pipeline into reservoir with initial fuel for repeated processing. Device for improving physical properties of oil products contains electromagnetic device for polarizing molecules connected by pipe with reservoir which accommodates vibrator with vibration frequency electric generator, pump to increase liquid flow pressure before inlet of converging and diverging device providing flow out of liquid fuel at speed of 120-140 m/s, Rank tube for dividing processed fuel flow into light and heavy fractions. Light fractions are passed through electromagnetic device and are directed either for storage or to nozzles for combustion. Heavy hydrocarbons are directed along pipe to initial fuel reservoir for repeated processing.

EFFECT: improved physical properties of liquid oil field.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technologies for ultrasound processing of epoxide oligomers, possible use for intensification of processes of saturation of fillers with linking agent, spreading of gluing and paintwork materials based on epoxide oligomers.

SUBSTANCE: epoxide oligomer or mixture of oligomer with solidifying agent is affected by ultrasound energy at frequency 18-22 kHz and intensiveness 15-60 Wt/cm2 during 5-15 minutes, at temperature 25°C.

EFFECT: decreased viscosity of oligomer at constant temperature, decreased moistening angle of hard surfaces.

1 tbl

FIELD: devices for action on fluid flow, its phase inclusions, dissolved gases and/or materials of flow-through chamber where cavitation processes are performed.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in delivery of material to be treated with crystallizing fluid medium into hermetic chamber provided with rigid envelope and flow of gas solutions is activated below point of pressure of saturated gas solutions forming bubbles in it; they are dissolved in compression phase. Fluid medium flow is fed to hermetic chamber under action of adjustable pressure through inlet branch pipe; hermetic chamber is provided with at least one cavitation unit mounted inside it; vapor bubbles are combined in cavity and fluid medium flow is subjected to catalytic treatment and is discharged to outlet branch pipe.

EFFECT: improved operational parameters; enhanced efficiency of performing the process.

7 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; mining; food industry; pharmaceutical and perfumery industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of the hypersonic cavitational desintegration of liquid mediums and may be used in food, chemical, ore mining, pharmaceutical and perfumery industries. The method provides, that a liquid flow is passing through a resonant cell of the cavitational reactor, where in the liquid is formed a stagnant acoustic wave with the given average value of a volumetric density of the power causing generation of a cavitation in it in the form of one or several stationary cavitational zones. Density of the potential energy evolving for a period of the acoustic wave, in any point of perimeter of any cross-section of the liquid flow inside the reactor is set not exceeding its peak value on the walls of the resonant cell. The reactor contains a resonant cell, a body, a diaphragm with an aperture placed in a plane parallel to the oscillation shifts of the resonant cell walls. Coordinates of points of the perimeter of the minimum area of the cross-section of the reactor in the plane parallel to oscillating shifts of the walls of the resonant cell, are determined by an equation. The technical result is an increase of dispersion, homogeneity, intensifications of reactions, synthesis of new compounds and increase of their activity.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased dispersion, homogeneity, intensifications of reactions, synthesis of new compounds and an increase of their activity.

2 cl, 7 dwg

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