Load-lifting crane protection system

FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in load-lifting crane control and protection system. Proposed protection system of load-lifting crane contains digital calculator 1, external memory 2, actuator unit 3 and crane parameter pickups 12 - 14. Digital calculator contains boom reach calculating unit 5, unit 6 to calculate load on load-lifting member, torque metering unit 7, three comparators 8, 9 and 10 and OR gate 11. Outputs of crane parameters pickups are connected to first input of digital calculator, and external memory is connected to second input. Corresponding input of actuator unit are connected to first and second outputs. Invention provides safe and effective operation of crane at small reaches owing to disconnection at overloads the motion which might lead to rise of load. Moreover, requirements to accuracy of calculation of load on hook at operation in zone of large reaches are reduced.

EFFECT: simplified production and reduced cost of operation and maintenance of protection system.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to hoisting and transport machinery and can be used in control systems and protection of cranes.

Cranes are protected against overloading and overturning either by limiting the weight of lifted load limiters capacity, either by limiting the load moment limiters load moment.

Known control system heavy-duty crane, making the measurement of boom angle, boom length, weight and azimuth by using the appropriate sensors, conversion of the signals into a digital code by an analog-digital Converter, a calculation using digital computers load moment, which is the product of gravity of the cargo on the magnitude of the departure, and in case of exceeding the permissible values of freight time breaking through the block control relay mechanisms of the crane, which may lead to an increase in load moment (see Russian Federation patent No. 2129524 C1, WS 23/88, 13/18, 27.04.1999). By limiting the load moment can protect the crane from tipping over due to loss of stability, but it is impossible to protect the cargo rope, metal structure and mechanisms of the crane from damage due to loss of strength, which can occur when lifting heavy loads at low departure is, although the value of freight time does not exceed the allowable value. Therefore, when the protection of cranes with load moment limiter is limiting cargo characteristics of the crane is presented in figure 1, the area where the lift capacity of Qmaxis determined by the stability criterion, i.e. where Qmaxis determined by the maximum permissible tilting moment Mmax(figure 1 is a plot of characteristics when the value of the departure R Rb-departure from which cargo characteristic is determined by the stability of the crane). To ensure that work on smaller missions require increasing the structural strength of the crane, and consequently, its metal consumption and cost.

Closest to the claimed method according to essential features is a way to protect the load-lifting crane with load limitations on lifting the body based on the measurement of boom angle, boom length, load, calculated on the basis of the magnitude of the departure and the load on the lifting body, the comparison of the current value of the load with a valid value (carrying capacity) on this flight, and if it exceeds the current value of the load on the lifting body size payload - off movements of the crane, leading to an increase in load. How real is sowen in the protection system, crane, a digital computer, an external storage unit, the Executive unit and sensors parameters of the crane is connected to the first input of the digital computer, to the second input of which is connected an external storage device and to the first output, the first input of the Executive unit. In a digital computer compares the effective value of the load on the lifting body (hook) with the value of the payload on this flight is stored in the external storage device. When the excess load on the hook for valid values in a digital computer produces a control signal sent to the Executive unit, which produces a disabling movement of the valve, leading to an increase in the degree of loading of the crane (extension and lowering of the boom, lifting hook) (see Russian Federation patent for useful model №38747 U1, B66C 23/90, 10.07.2004). By limiting the load on the lifting body can protect the crane from tipping over due to loss of stability and cargo rope, metal structure and mechanisms of the crane from damage due to loss of strength. However, due to the fact that the value of the capacity of the crane in the far sorties by one to two order of magnitude less than the load on short flights (see figure 1), for the protection of the crane by limiting the load narutonaruto the body you want to use in the composition of the limiters payload sensors parameters for determining the load on the hook with a large measurement range and high accuracy to provide the necessary precision limiter, regulated by the requirements of normative documents. This leads to higher costs and tighter requirements for installation, alignment and operation of the protection system. In addition, such systems when the limit load cutoff well-defined set of movements, regardless of the area of the cargo characteristics. Typically disable movement, increasing load moment, i.e. lifting winch, lowering and extension of the boom. Although, for example, when working in the area of the horizontal section features Qmax=f(R), the value of capacity Qmaxis determined by the strength of the hoist rope. Here, in contrast, is not lowering and lifting of the boom can lead to increased load in the rope and lowering the boom does not exceed the allowable load. Therefore, the security device, using known methods of protection, not always effectively provide cranes on small departures.

The task, which is directed to the claimed invention, is to develop a way to protect the load-lifting crane and system for its implementation, which would provide increased safety and efficiency of the load-lifting crane when working in the area of cargo characteristics, defined by the criterion of projectelement faucet designs. An additional challenge which is directed to the claimed invention, is to reduce the cost of system protection capacity of the crane, the simplification of its construction, installation, alignment and maintenance of the crane with the necessary precision.

A technical problem is achieved by the fact that in the known method of protection of the crane, which consists in measuring the parameters of the crane, the calculation based on these values of departure and the load on the lifting body, the comparison of the current value of the load with a valid value (carrying capacity) on this flight, and if it exceeds the current value of the load values of the load capacity of the crane - off movements of the crane, leading to an increase in load, according to the invention define a cargo area characteristics corresponding to the position of the equipment of the crane, and when the position of the equipment of the crane in the area of cargo characteristics, limited strength, produce the load limit on lifting the body, and when the position of the equipment of the crane in the area of cargo characteristics, limited sustainability, produce restriction overturning moment by turning off the movements of the crane, which can lead respectively to increase the load on the lifting body or overturning moment.

Somnos the ü the claimed invention in the part of the method is on the basis of the data on the length of the boom and the departure will be made to determine compliance of the provisions of crane equipment area cargo characteristics, limited strength, or the area bounded by the stability of the crane, and depending on the cargo area features by restricting either the load on the lifting body, or the tipping point. Moreover, when working in the area of the inset values R>Rb, the value of the load on the hook Q is a reference (only for display) and there is no need for the exact calculation, which reduces the accuracy requirements for measuring parameters and to simplify the calculation load on the hook. For example, to calculate the load on the hook modern crane at work on the far sorties to determine the Q value with a precision of 5%, it is necessary to measure the force in the lifting mechanism of the boom with an accuracy of (0.2 to 0.4)%. The value of the overturning moment M is practically determined by the force of the lifting mechanism of the boom, so the requirement to the measurement accuracy of this effort have the same order as the required accuracy of the time (a few percent). Where a value of Mmaxin the whole range of the working area varies in a small range. All this allows to use the more simple and cheap apparatus for system protection crane, to simplify installation and alignment.

Prima is sustained fashion to the system, implementing the claimed method of protection of the load-lifting crane, a technical problem is achieved by the fact that in the known system of protection of the load-lifting crane, a digital computer, an external storage unit, the Executive unit and sensors parameters of the crane is connected to the first input of the digital computer, to the second input of which is connected an external storage device and to the first output, the first input of actuator unit according to the invention the actuating unit is made with an additional (second) entrance and digital computer made with an additional (second) output and contains the block of calculation of departure, the unit of calculation load on the lifting body, the block defining moment three comparator and the member OR, with the inputs of blocks calculation of departure, the calculation load on the lifting body and determine when forming the first input of the digital computer, and the outputs of these blocks are connected to first inputs respectively of the first, second and third Comparators, the second inputs of which form the second input of the digital computer, the outputs of the first and second Comparators are connected respectively to the first and the second input of OR element whose output is the first output of the digital computer, and the output of the third comparator is the second digital output is of facilites, connected to the second input of the Executive block.

The technical result of the claimed group of inventions is to improve the safety and efficiency of the crane work on small departures by turning off at overload those movements, which can lead to increased load. In addition, when working in the area of large departures requirements decrease the accuracy of the calculation load on the hook, and therefore simplified and reduced the price of the production and operation of the protection system.

Figure 1 shows the load characteristic of the load-lifting crane; figure 2 is a functional diagram of a system that implements the proposed method for protection of hoisting crane.

Protection system crane contains a digital computer 1, the external storage device 2, the actuating unit 3 and unit 4 sensors parameters of the crane.

In the digital computer 1 comprises a block 5 calculation of departure, unit 6, the calculation load on the lifting body (hook), block 7 defining moment, the first 8, second 9 and third 10 Comparators and the element 11 OR. Digital computer has first and second inputs and corresponding outputs. The inputs of the blocks 5, 6 and 7 form the first input of the digital computer, and outputs connected to first inputs, respectively, of the first 8, second 9 and third 10 Comparators. Second input is specified the output Comparators form a second input of the digital computer. The outputs of the first 8 and second 9 Comparators respectively connected to first and second inputs of the element 11 OR whose output is the first output of the digital computer, and the output of the third comparator 10 is the second output of the digital computer.

Unit 4 sensors parameters of the crane consists of the sensor 12, the length of the boom (for cranes with telescopic boom), the sensor 13 of the boom angle sensor 14 force (or pressure) in the mechanism of lifting. Unit 4 may include both analog and digital sensors. When using analog sensors they are connected to the analog-to-digital Converter.

To the first input of the digital computer 1 is connected to the unit 4 sensors parameters of the crane, to a second input of the external storage device 2 and to the first and second outputs corresponding inputs of the control unit 3.

Unit 5 calculation of departure, unit 6, the calculation load on the lifting body (the hook), and block 7 determining when to implement the algorithms for the calculation of these parameters, in particular, in: Kaminsky PS improved safety manual jib cranes on the basis of registration and analysis of their operating parameters. - The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of technical Sciences, specialty 05.05.04 Road, building and handling mA is ins" // Novocherkassk, South-Russian state technical University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute), 2001, Implementation of data blocks using modern electronic components is not difficult for experts in the field of technology.

Executive unit 3 is a device switching power circuits of the crane and made in the form of electromagnetic relays with preamps. To the first output of the digital computer are connected to the inputs of the devices of the switching circuit control the movements of the crane, which can increase the load on the hook (including lifting hook, lifting and extension of the boom). The second output of the digital computer are connected to the inputs of the devices of the switching circuit control the movements of the crane, which can increase the overturning moment (including lifting hook, lowering and extension boom, turn in the zone of lower capacity).

The operation of the proposed system are illustrated on the example of the load-lifting crane mode lifting from the ground to the working area.

Based on the values of the sensor signals of the parameters of the crane digital calculator 1 calculates the current values of flight R in block 5 calculation of departure, the hook load Q in block 6 of the calculation of hook load and overturning moment M in unit 8 for determining the moment. Designed in th is e 5 value of departure R is compared in the first comparator 8 with the boundary values of the departure areas of the cargo characteristics of the crane, stored in the external storage device 2.

If the value of the departure of R is less than the value Rb, i.e. the crane operates in the area of the cargo characteristics, determined by the strength of its design, the output of the first comparator 8 produces a logical zero, which is supplied to the first input element 11 and, therefore, the output state of the element 11 OR is determined by the signal on the other input connected to the output of the second comparator 9.

The state of the output of the second comparator 9 is determined by the result of the comparison of the current value of the load Q on the lifting body (hook), calculated by the block 6, with the value of capacity Qmaxon this flight, in accordance with the cargo characteristics stored in the external storage device 2. If the load Q does not exceed the admissible values of Qmaxon the outputs of the second comparator 9 and item 11 OR set the logical unit and the first input of the control unit 3 receives the signal resolution of the movements of the crane.

At the same time in the third comparator 10 compares the current value of the overturning moment M, as defined by the block 7 with a maximum value Mmaxstored in the external storage device 2. On the cargo area characteristics, where the carrying capacity is determined by the strength (R<Rb), the value of mo is enta obviously below the permissible values. Therefore, at the output of the third comparator 10 is set to a logical unit, which is supplied to the second input of the control unit 3 allowing movement of the crane.

If the load on the hook Q exceeds the value of Qmaxat the output of the second comparator 9, the second input and the output of the element 11 OR is set to a logical zero, which is the first input of actuator block 3 blocks movement of the crane, which can lead to unacceptable congestion components of its structure. Moreover, the set of disabled operations may vary depending on the areas of cargo characteristics, which operates the crane (R<Ro or Ro<R<Rb), when using multi-level of the first comparator 8.

When crane equipment working in the area of cargo characteristics, limited resistance (R>Rb), with the output of the first comparator 8 at the first input of the control unit 3 is supplied logical unit, and limitations of the labour movement by the condition Q>Qmaxnot occur, and the status of the control unit 3 is determined only by the magnitude of the current overturning moment M, is defined by the block 7 defining moment. If M<Mmaxwith an output of the third comparator 10 to the second input of the control unit 3 is supplied logical unit and movement of the crane is permitted. If limit reached stability (M>is max), a logical zero at the output of the third comparator 10 blocks movement of the valve leading to the loss of stability (lifting hook, the increase in flight, turning into the zone of lower capacity and so on).

There are also other devices for implementing the method, for example, by performing a digital computer 1 on the basis of the microprocessor. In this case, the calculation unit 5 of departure, unit 6, the calculation load on the hook, block 7 defining moment, the first 8, second 9, the third 10 Comparators and the element 11 OR implemented in the microprocessor software by using appropriate algorithms.

The proposed method for the protection of the crane can be implemented on cargo cranes boom type. The system for implementing the method of the protection of the crane can be manufactured with the use of modern components and technology. To implement digital transmitter, you can use the MSP430F149 microprocessor firm Texas Instruments (USA) or other microprocessors of this type. As a comparator can be used a two-level comparator MS production company "Motorolla" (USA). As sensors for registration of parameters of the crane may be used commercially available products Arzamas instrument plant, the example analog sensors displacement LGFI, LGFI, LGFI and their execution, or new development of digital sensors, in particular, the force sensor digital DOC LGFI, and similar equipment other instrument factories.

Specialist in the art should be obvious that the present invention there are a variety of modifications and changes. Accordingly, it is assumed that the present invention covers these modifications and changes, and equivalents without departure from the essence and scope of the invention disclosed in the accompanying claims.

Protection system load-lifting crane, a digital computer, an external storage unit, the Executive unit and sensors parameters of the crane is connected to the first input of the digital computer, to the second input of which is connected an external storage device and to the first output, the first input of the control unit, characterized in that the actuating unit is made with the second input, and digital computer made with the second output and contains the block of calculation of departure, the unit of calculation load on the lifting body, the block defining moment, three of the comparator and the member OR, with the inputs of blocks calculation of departure, the calculation load on the lifting body and determine the moment the form of the first input digital transmitter, and the outputs of these blocks are connected to first inputs respectively of the first, second and third Comparators, the second inputs of which form the second input of the digital computer, the outputs of the first and second Comparators respectively connected to first and second inputs of the OR element whose output is the first output of the digital computer, and the output of the third comparator is the second output of the digital computer that is connected to the second input of the Executive block.



 

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10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system contains parameters recorder of load-lifting machine, computer and portable readout device with non-volatile memory. Parameters recorder includes load-lifting machine parameters transducers, digital calculator and memory connected to digital calculator, load-lifting machine operating parameters transducers being connected to digital calculator. Portable readout device is made in form of video camera or smartphone or cellular telephone with built-in video camera which is furnished with non-volatile memory and is made for connection to digital calculator of load-lifting machine parameters recorder and to computer. Computer is made for reading data of parameters recorder from portable readout device and subsequent processing of data, and for entering into non-volatile memory image of position of mechanisms of load-lifting machine, and/or its working zone, and/or for transmission of data of load-lifting machine parameters recorder into computer along cellular communication circuit.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of recording of load-lifting machine parameters, facilitated serving of machine, increased reliability and dependability of recording of load-lifting machine parameters.

20 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting cranes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to overload and damage protection of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, to prevent emergencies preliminarily determined are tolerable values of parameters characterizing load, and/or spatial position of crane boom and/or load gripping member which are memorized and, in process of operation of crane, one of said parameters is measured and compared with tolerable value, and signals are formed to control crane actuators aimed at preventing excess of tolerable value by measured parameter. Determination of parameters characterizing spatial position of boom, load-gripping member, supports, construction members of other crane or any obstacle in height is based on measuring values of barometric pressure in corresponding points and subsequent calculation of heights. Construction is simplifier, and effective protection of spatial position pickups of crane from mechanical damages if provided. Safety of load-lifting crane in operation is improved owing to accurate and effective measuring of distance between crane and obstacles and prevention of emergencies caused by tilting of fixed platform or portal of crane from horizontal position and in case of approaching thunderstorm.

EFFECT: improved safety of load-lifting crane.

25 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: materials loading machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting crane protection and control devices and to method of crane control after interlocking of crane motion by protection system. proposed method consists n determining tolerable values of parameters characterizing load and/or spatial position of crane boom-or load-gripping member, and/or distance to transmission line, recording the parameters and measuring in process of operation of load-lifting crane by direct or indirect method of at least of one of said parameters and comparing measured value with tolerable one and subsequent forming of control signals by at least one of operating devices of load-lifting crane designed to preclude excess of tolerable value by said parameter. Additionally, by analyzing values and/or changes of parameters of operation of load-lifting crane, prehistory of operation of load-lifting crane is revealed and recorded which leads to forming of said control signals aimed at precluding excess of tolerable value by said parameter, and order of formation of control signals after prevention of said excess is set depending on indicated prehistory.

EFFECT: improved safety of operation of load-lifting crane and provision of convenience in operation.

16 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: overload protection, controlling and regulation systems for hoisting cranes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preliminarily determining and memorizing allowable loading values and diagnostic parameter values characterizing technical state of crane hydraulic system; during operation of crane, measuring and comparing loading and diagnostic parameter current values with allowable values; generating warning signal or blocking crane operation; additionally determining rotational velocity of pump shaft or power unit shaft of crane and velocity of crane lever or load-handling device and/or rotary platform of crane; determining current value of diagnostic parameter, with values of these velocities being taken into consideration. System for effectuating said method has digital calculator based on microcontroller, actuating device and operating parameters sensors for hoisting crane and its hydraulic system. Method and system provide for full, reliable and operative diagnosis of hydraulic system enabled owing to controlling of said system during operation of hoisting crane in dynamic modes under loading.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for accomplishment of hoisting operations by preventing crane from operation at low efficiency of hydraulic drive.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.

EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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