Gas turbine low-emission combustion chamber

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-emission combustion chamber of gas turbine operating, mainly, on compressed gas with low effluents of nitrogen oxides and carbon contains prechamber and cylindrical fire tube with air inlet holes arranged over circumference of fire tube. Prechamber consist at least of two modules with space for preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Ration of distance between axes of neighbor modules to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.4-0.5. Ratio of length of preliminary mixing space of each module to diameter of its exit nozzle is 0.6-0.8. Fire tube has fuel-air mixture burning space and space for mixing not gases with air. Fire tube contains solid inner wall and perforated outer envelope with ring channel in between to feed cooling air into mixing space. Ratio of length of burning space to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.9-1.1. Air feed holes are made in mixing space.

EFFECT: reduced emission of harmful substances owing to organization of "rich-lean" burning of fuel by preliminary mixing of fuel with air in prechamber and prevention of delivery of cooling air into burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the design of combustion chambers of gas turbines, operating mainly in the compressed gas with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon.

Known combustion chamber including a cylindrical flame tube with several rows of holes for supplying air to the combustion zone, located at different distances from the conical front of the device and executed with the corresponding total wall area, and a conical front the device is located with its axis by a gas burner having hazerswoude holes. This construction, in particular, have combustion chambers of gas turbine installations, Frame 3 and Frame 5 of the company "General electric" (A.V.Soudarev, Yu.l.Zakharov, E.D.Vinogradov, G.N.Polyakov, K.F.Ott, V.F.Usenko. Update of Enviromental Record of Gas Pumping Units of Frame-5 Run on Gas Pipelines of Tyumen Region, Russia, 12-th Turbomachinery Maintenance Congress (TMC'96) Bangkok, Thailand. Fig. FRAME-5 unit combustor ode design venison scheme).

A disadvantage of the known combustion chamber is high emissions of harmful substances, primarily nitrogen oxide and carbon, do not meet modern environmental requirements, due to not optimal from the point of view of emission characteristics of the combustion chamber size and location of holes for supplying air to the combustion zone.

Closest to the claimed design is a combustor that includes a cylindrical flame is the Ruba with holes for air supply to the combustion zone, which are evenly spaced around the circumference of the flame tube with a total wall area defined by a mathematical formula. These openings are divided into large and small and are located at a distance equal to 0.2 to 0.4 of the diameter of the header pipe from the front of the device (patent RF № 2162194, F23R 3/06, 2001).

In the known construction the preliminary preparation of the mixture of fuel with air is not performed, and the air is fed into the combustion zone that does not provide the necessary emission of harmful substances during operation of the combustion chamber and prevents environmental requirements for emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon.

The technical problem solved by the invention is to reduce the emission of harmful substances through the organization of "rich-poor" combustion fuel through the implementation of pre-mixing fuel with air in the front of the device and exceptions feed cooling air to the combustion zone.

The invention consists in the fact that in low-emission combustion chamber containing the front of the device and a cylindrical flame tube with holes for air supply, located around the circumference of the flame tube according to the invention, the front unit consists of at least two modules with the cavities of the pre-mixing fuel with air, the ratio RA is standing between the axes of adjacent modules to the internal diameter of the header pipe (a/D) is 0.4 to 0.5, and the ratio of the length of the cavity pre-mixing of each module to the diameter of the output nozzle (L/D1) 0,6-0,8.

The flame tube includes a cavity combustion air-fuel mixture and the cavity of the mixing of hot gases with the air, while the flame tube includes a continuous inner wall and an outer perforated shell, an annular channel between which is configured to supply cooling air into the mixing cavity, and L1/D=0,9-1,1, where L1- the length of the cavity combustion and vents for airflow, made in the cavity of the mixture.

In addition, the holes for airflow, made with different diameters d1d2d3while d1/D=0,17-0,20, d2/D=0,12-0,15, d3/D=0,07-0,10.

Performing front-line multi-module device (at least two) and with the cavities of the pre-mixing fuel with air to enhance the quality of mixing, the homogeneous air-fuel mixture and the fullness of her chamber.

The ratio of the distance between the axes of adjacent modules to the internal diameter of the header pipe (a/D) should be 0.4 to 0.5. When a/D>0.5, and the combustion zone will move to the wall of the flame tube, which will cause the increase in the temperature, the need to supply additional quantity of the cooling air and will reduce the of earsa the flame tube and burnout. When a/D<0.4 to deteriorating pre-mixing fuel with air, which leads to increased emissions of harmful substances.

The ratio of the length of the cavity prior to mixing of each module to the diameter of the output nozzle (L/D1) is 0.6 to 0.8. When L/D1<0,6 will decrease the time of mixing, the degree and uniformity of mixing will be insufficient, which will lead to increased emissions of harmful substances.

If the ratio L/D1greater than 0.8, then the mixing will be better, but it would be possible "breakthrough" of the flame into the internal cavity of the module.

The flame tube includes a continuous inner wall and an outer perforated shell, an annular channel between which is configured to supply cooling air to the mixing zone, which allows the cooling of the heated inner wall and divert air from the combustion zone, thereby ensuring that the process of "rich" combustion air-fuel mixture.

The placement of holes for air supply in the mixing zone, and not in the combustion zone, ensures rapid mixing of the combustion products zone "rich" combustion air reduces the temperature of combustion of the fuel and reduces the residence time of combustion products in the zone of high temperatures, reducing the emission of harmful substances.

The ratio of the length of the cavity th the value L 1the inner diameter of the header pipe D is 0.9-1.1. When L1/D<0.9 in the process of burning an air-fuel mixture will be observed the emission of unburned hydrocarbon fuel component. When L1/D>1.1 in the process of burning an air-fuel mixture in the exhaust gases, the amount of nitrogen to be added.

In addition, openings for air supply, made in the mixing zone, optimize field temperature at the outlet of the flame tube in a satisfactory condition of the flame tube. The claimed ratio of hole diameter to the inner diameter of the flame tube to provide maximum "punch" the ability of an air jet, and, accordingly, the low emissions of harmful substances in the exhaust gas.

Figure 1 shows a combustion chamber of a gas turbine; figure 2 is given a section a-a in figure 1.

Low-emission combustion chamber contains a heating pipe 1 with the front of the device, including the modules 2, 3 and the nozzle 4, with the nozzles 5, 6 with holes 7 fuel 8 (liquid or gaseous). Modules 2, 3 are equipped with tangential swirler 9, through which is fed compressed by the compressor air flow 10. The ratio of the distance a between the axes of adjacent modules 2, 3 to the inner diameter d of the flame tube 1 is 0.4 to 0.5.

Modules 2, 3 are made from the cavity and 11 pre-mixing of air with 10 fuel 8 with the formation of an air-fuel mixture. The cavity 11 has a length L from the holes 7 of the fuel supply 8 to the end 12 of the output nozzle of the modules 2, 3 with a diameter of D1. The ratio L/D1is 0.6 to 0.8. The flame tube 1 includes a cylindrical inner wall 13 and a perforated outer shell 14 with holes 15 for supplying cooling air 16. Between the walls 13, 14 is annular channel 17, which passes through the cooling air 16, without falling into the cavity of the combustion 18 length L1. The cavity combustion 18 is located between the end 12 of the output nozzle of the modules 2, 3 and holes of the air supply 19, 20, 21, performed in the mixing cavity 22.

Holes 19 have a diameter of d1holes 20 to the diameter d3holes 21 a diameter of d2. The openings 21 may be located along the perimeter between two adjacent holes 20, and the holes 19 and 20 one.

Low-emission combustion chamber operates as follows.

Fuel 8 through the nozzle 4 served to the holes 7 of the nozzles 5, 6 and further into the cavity 11. Simultaneously compressed by the compressor air stream 10 flowing around the nozzle 4, is fed to the input of tangential swirler 9, in which it is twisted. The swirling air stream 10 splits counter jet fuel 8 coming out of the holes 7. While in the cavity 11 of the modules 2, 3 are pre-mixing of air with 10 fuel 8 with the formation of toplivovozdushnoy the th mixture. The mixture flows into the combustion 18 of the flame tube 1 is completely mixed and homogeneous composition, where the process of burning.

The flow of cooling air 16 passing through the holes 15 of the perforated wall 14 of the flame tube 1, hits the inner wall 13, cooling it. Further, the air flow 16 is discharged through the annular channel 17 in the mixing zone 22, where rapid mixing of the combustion air-fuel mixture with the air entering the flame tube 1 through the holes 19, 20, 21, providing a high homogeneity of the mixture. The result is a reduction of emission of harmful substances, as well as the optimal field temperature at the outlet of the flame tube.

1. Low-emission combustor of a gas turbine containing the front of the device and a cylindrical flame tube with holes for air supply, located around the circumference of the flame tube, wherein the front unit consists of at least two modules with the cavities of the pre-mixing fuel with air, and the ratio of the distance between the axes of adjacent modules to the internal diameter of the header pipe (a/D) is 0.4-0.5, and the ratio of the length of the cavity prior to mixing of each module to the diameter of the output nozzle (L/D1) is equal to 0.6-0.8, the flame tube includes a cavity combustion that is livemodel mixture and the cavity of the mixing of hot gases with the air, while the flame tube includes a continuous inner wall and an outer perforated shell, an annular channel between which is configured to supply cooling air into the mixing cavity, and L1/D=0,9-1,1, where L1- the length of the cavity combustion and vents for airflow, made in the cavity of the mixture.

2. Low-emission combustion chamber according to claim 1, characterized in that the holes for airflow, made with different diameters d1d2d3while d1/D=0,17-0,20, d2/D=0,12-0,15, d3/D=0,07-0,10.



 

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