Water-soluble polymers with improved solubility characteristics, preparation and application thereof
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthetic and natural water-soluble polymers coated with liquid glass imparting improved solubility if water and aqueous solutions. Invention is directed to modifying water-soluble polymers with minimum amounts of modifying agent so as that they could be reliable dissolved under complicated conditions. Objective is achieved by applying liquid soda glass onto water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: enhanced water solubility of polymers.
20 cl, 2 ex
The present invention relates to synthetic and natural water-soluble polymers with a coating of soluble glass, to their preparation and application. By coating the polymers become significantly improved solubility in water and in aqueous solutions.
Water-soluble polymers are often poor indicators of solubility, in particular when they have a high molecular weight. In practice, therefore, it is always required to make additional efforts to obtain ready-to-use solutions. Because of these problems often have to use a special device for dissolving, for example, described in the Federal Republic of Germany patent No. 4402547.
Polyacrylamides are a great group of water-soluble polymers. The polymerization products of acrylamide in the form of their anionic, cationic or amphoteric copolymers are used in many areas related to the separation of solids and liquids. Along with municipal treatment plants and paper industry is an important consumer of assistive devices for flocculation is the mining industry.
The solid dispersion product of polymerization of acrylamide in water greatly hampered by their tendency to form lumps or agglomerates upon contact with suoday. Lumps of solid polymerization product formed immediately after making a powder of the polymer in water inclusion in capsules nerastvorim solids covered on the outer side of the water-wet polymer, and the penetration of new portions of water in the agglomerate is slowing down.
For example, in many applications in the mining industry the dissolution of large quantities of aid to flocculation occurs in complicated conditions, i.e. at low values of water temperature, which sometimes lies below 15°in unproductive attitudes to dissolve with stirring with insufficient power. Often polyacrylamides load in the tank to dissolve without stirring, and only then begin mixing. This often leads to the fact that the formed aggregates, which are not dissolved. Because of these turned into a gel agglomerates on the one hand reduces the efficiency, while on the other hand there are problems with processing due to impurities in installations for dissolving and dosing.
The level technique described some efforts to improve the dissolving ability of polyacrylamide in water.
According to the materials of the application for international patent No. 92/20727 known soluble in water or, respectively, nabuhay what s in the water particles are polymer coated. As a material for coating using such crystalline substances, such as sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate, and in the preferred case, the polymer particles are sprayed into the mixer with a saturated solution of salt. The content of the crystalline material to cover is very large and can be up to 55 wt.%, in the examples given values from 10 to 30 wt.%. Particles coated dispersed in aqueous solutions better, but the ability to dissolve in the complicated conditions remains, as before, is unsatisfactory. In addition, large amounts of funds for education coatings are undesirable ballast weight.
From German application No. 2607757 and No. 2612101 known not form lumps when dissolved in water, the polymerization products of acrylamide, which are formed during processing acrylamide powders oxy acids or amino acids in an amount up to 30 wt.%. The treatment is carried out in the presence of a miscible with water and organic solvents.
Accordingly, the present invention was to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art and in the modification of water-soluble polymers minimum quantities modifying means so that they can reliably be dissolved in the above-described complicated conditions. In addition, the task of the invention was the development of the method of inoculation of the water-soluble polymers, which can be implemented without harming the environment organic solvents and which leads to the almost complete coverage of the surface of the polymer particles.
In accordance with the invention this problem is solved due to the fact that a water-soluble polymer particles are coated with soluble glass. Covered in this way the particles of the polymers show excellent ability to dispersion and dissolution, which, in particular, applies to the dissolution in the complicated conditions. The clumping of the polymer particles in an aqueous solution substantially prevented.
In addition, it was unexpectedly discovered that the use of soluble glass is improved ability to dissolve with significantly lower amounts of coverage, compared with the products known from the prior art, in particular, high concentrations of silicic acid in a soluble glass is particularly effective coverage.
The share of coverage in the polymer coating may vary within wide limits and is generally from 0.1 to 25 wt.%, in the preferred case from 0.5 to 10 wt.%, in a particularly preferred case from 1 to 5 wt.%.
Used in accordance with the invention, soluble glasses are alkali metal silicates, which náchod is carried out in the vitreous, that is in the amorphous state and are characterized by a molar composition nSiO2×Me2O, and Me means the residue of the corresponding alkali metal, and n has a value >1. Molecular ratio SiO2to Me2O is calculated in the form of a module. In accordance with the invention using soluble glass module M>1, in the preferred case of a module M≥2 and in the particularly preferred case with M≥3. With regard to residues of alkali metals, usually use a soluble glass containing sodium or potassium, in the preferred case of sodium.
In the coating of soluble glass on water-soluble polymers, in particular Homo - and copolymers of polyacrylamide, is formed, in particular, with soluble glass with module ≥3, glassy fused very homogeneous coating layer, which gives the polymer a remarkable ability to dissolve in complicated conditions.
In yet another variant of the invention the soluble glass is combined with at least one other inorganic and/or organic water-soluble compound. As other water-soluble compounds are used, for example, alkali metal salts of a number of: carbonates, sulfates, halides, mono-, di - and triphosphates, borates, phosphonates, carboxylates, nitrates, sulfone is s, acetates, hydroxycarboxylic acids, amino acids or mixtures thereof. Preference is given to using sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, trisodium phosphate and metaborate sodium. The content of other inorganic or organic water-soluble compound is from 1 to 99 wt.%, in particular, from 2 to 70 wt.%, and in a particularly preferred case from 5 to 50 wt.%.
In yet another variant of the invention the surface of the polymer particles consist of not less than two layers, the first layer consists of these other water-soluble inorganic and/or organic compounds. The second outer layer consists of soluble glass or one of the above mentioned mixtures of soluble glass and one of the other inorganic and/or organic compounds.
To optimize the flow properties of polymer powders with a coating can be added the so-called AIDS to improve the flowability or, respectively, means to prevent clumping, which prevent the sticking of the relevant invention the polymer particles in the dry state during storage or during transportation. AIDS such as suitable organic and inorganic substances, as, for example, bentonites, zeolites, aerosol and activated carbons. The content of these AIDS status is made by from 0.1 to 10 wt.%, in the preferred case from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, based on the polymer powder.
Water-soluble polymers in essence the present invention have both synthetic and natural origin.
Among the natural polymers should be called, for example, water-soluble polysaccharides, cellulose, starch, galactomannan, chitosan and xanthan gum, and, in particular, their water-soluble derivatives. The formation of derivatives may occur due to the physical methods and/or chemical methods, for example, reagents for the formation of ethers and esters; it leads to neutral, anionic, nonionic and cationic products. In the case of chemical derivatives we are talking primarily about carboxylate derivatives, carboxialkilnuyu, hydroxyalkyl and their mixtures. As examples can be mentioned such compounds as carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, carboximetilkrahmal, oxidized starch, soluble starch, cationic ethers of starch.
Synthetic water-soluble polymers in essence the present invention are formed from water-soluble ethylene unsaturated monomers in the radical polymerization. Depending on the composition of the monomers may be formed of nonionic, cationic, anionic or is paternie polymers.
Polyarylamide represent a preferred group among used in accordance with the invention, a synthetic water-soluble polymers. The concept of polyacrylamide in fact this patent relates to water-soluble Homo - or copolymer which contains, as a monomer component acrylamide.
In the case of anionic copolymers of polyacrylamides we are talking about, for example, (meth)acrylic acid, vinylsulfonic acid, acrylamidophenylboronic acid, (meth)arylsulfonate acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, taconova acid. All of these acids may polymerization in the form of free acids, in the form of salts or mixtures thereof. Neutralization of the monomers can be carried out by the action of hydroxides of alkali metals, hydroxides of alkaline earth metals, amines, aminoalcohols and/or ammonia. Along with them you can use any other Foundation that forms acid water-soluble salt, it is also possible neutralization of a mixture of different bases. Anionic comonomers which are preferred, presents acrylic acid, vinylsulfonic acid and acrylamidophenylboronic acid and/or their salts.
In the case of nonionic comonomers for polyacrylamides it comes to fully or partially dissolve the x in the water monomers, this, for example, (meth)Acrylonitrile, N,N-dimethylacrylamide, vinylpyridine, vinyl acetate, methacrylamide such containing hydroxyl groups, esters of polymerizable acids, as hydroxyethylamine and hydroxypropylamino esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, and containing such amino esters and amides of polymerizable acids, such as, for example, dialkylamines ethers, such as dimethyl - and diethylamine esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, for example, dimethylaminoethylacrylate, or, for example, the corresponding amides, such as, for example, dimethylaminopropylamine. Monomers with limited solubility in water is used only to the extent that does not impair the solubility of the resulting copolymer.
As comonomers for the cationic polyacrylamide is suitable, for example, such carinsurance esters of (meth)acrylic acid, such as, for example, obtained on the basis of dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, diethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, diethylaminopropyl(meth)acrylate, dimethylaminopropyl(meth)acrylate, dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, diethylaminoethylmethacrylate such carinsurance amides of (meth)acrylic acid, such as, for example, obtained on the basis of dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylamide, diethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylamide, diethylaminopropyl(meth)acrylamide, dimethylamino who drank(meth)acrylamide, dimethylaminomethyl(meth)acrylamide, diethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylamide, such carinsurance N-alkylene - and-diamides with alkyl residues with the number of carbon atoms of from one to six, as, for example, on the basis of N-methyl(meth)acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacrylamide, N-ethyl(meth)acrylamide, N-propyl(meth)acrylamide, tert-butyl(meth)acrylamide, such carinsurance N-vinylimidazole and substituted N-vinylimidazole, as, for example, based on N-vinyl-2-methylimidazole, N-vinyl-4-methylimidazole, N-vinyl-5-methylimidazole, N-vinyl-2 ethylimidazole and such carinsurance N-vinylimidazole, as, for example, on the basis of vinylimidazole, N-vinyl-2-methylimidazole and N-vinyl-2-ethyl-imidazoline.
Monomers with basic properties used after neutralization with mineral acids or organic acids or of them receive Quaternary base, and the quaternization is carried out in the preferred case, dimethylsulfate, diethylsulfate, methyl chloride, ethylchloride or benzylchloride. In the preferred implementation uses the monomers, and stereoselectivity by methyl chloride or benzylchloride.
In the preferred case, the comonomers for cationic polyacrylamides are carinsurance esters and amides of (meth)acrylic acid, containing in each case the Quaternary nitrogen atom, cha is in the surrounding area, preference is given to using stereoselectivity of dimethylaminopropylamine and stereoselectivity of dimethylaminoethylacrylate.
The polymerization of synthetic water-soluble polymers used in accordance with the invention method of coating, conduct normal for this technology methods, as an example, should be called gel polymerization, suspension polymerization and emulsion polymerization. Preference is given to products obtained by the method of gel polymerization, which is described, for example, in the Federal Republic of Germany patent No. 3544770. Formed in accordance with this method, the gel polymer is crushed, dried and ground into powders of polymers with desired particle size.
In addition, in the preferred case, synthetic water-soluble polymerization products used in accordance with the invention method of coating, also obtained by the method of suspension and emulsion polymerization.
Obtaining relevant to the invention of polymer granules is the result of combining the water-soluble powders of the polymer forming the coating with an aqueous solution of soluble glass or a mixture of soluble glass with one of the other inorganic or organic water-soluble compounds. The particle size of the polymer powder is not of games is no special role in the coating process. In accordance with the practical use depending on the specific method of use of water-soluble polymers take powders with different size distribution of the particles. Polyacrylamide, for example, in the preferred case is a granular product in which 90 percent of the mass have a size of less than 2.0 mm, particularly preferred if less than 1.6 mm In many cases the application of the fine fraction, in particular below 200 microns, are separated from the polymer powder.
The process of combining the powder of the polymer and forming the coating solution is performed while stirring for continuous or intermittent, and the mixing is, for example, due to mechanical mixing devices or fluidized bed. Suitable mechanical mixing units for drawing forming coating solution are, for example, the mixer Patterson-Kelley, turbulent mixer, DRAIS mixer, Lodige, the mixer of Roberge, screw mixer, plate mixer, and the mixer fluidized bed, and the vertical continuous mixers, in which the powder product of polymerization is mixed by means of rotating high frequency knives (Schugi mixer). In the preferred case, the deletion made solution for coating the water starts already during the masiania component. It turned out that it fit the mixer with heating and, in particular, carrying out the process in a fluidized bed.
The concentration of the solution for coating when mixed with powder of the polymer is usually set in the range from 1 to 40 wt.%, in the preferred case from 2 to 30 wt.% and in a particularly preferred case from 3 to 10 wt.%. With solutions for coating with low concentrations of soluble glass can be obtained particularly effective coating for the process of dissolution.
In the preferred case, the addition of a solution for coating is performed using a spray device, which in combination with the mechanical mixing process or by entering fluidized bed make possible a uniform distribution of the solution on the polymer particles.
After the solution for coating mixed with the polymer particles, are drying, if it has not occurred already during the mixing process. When drying it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the particles of the water-soluble polymer is not overheated and has not been damaged. Usually polyacrylamides dried at temperatures ranging from 50°to 150°With, in the preferred case from the 80°to 120°C. the Optimal duration of exposure at elevated temperature, which depends on the water content and the type of dryer, can the easily be determined in several experiments. thermal treatment may be performed in conventional dryers or ovens, as examples, rotary tube furnaces, dryers, fluidized bed, plate dryers, scraper dryer or infrared dryers.
In the preferred method of obtaining relevant to the invention polymer coating using the coating is carried out in a fluidized bed. This process may be continuous or periodic.
When the polymer powder is kept in a fluidized bed, i.e. it is suspended in a rising stream of hot air or inert gas. In this state, the solid particles are separated from each other and therefore, when the injection of the solution for coating in a fluidized bed are available for dispersed droplets from all directions. In addition, in this state, an intensive heat exchange and mass transfer between the particles of solids and gas flow. If suspended particle collides with a drop of spray, the liquid product is dispersed droplets distributed over the surface of the polymer particles in the effect of wetting. Due to intensive heat exchange and gas exchange with the surrounding gas flow of the liquid film in the drying hardens. Through repeated application of dispergirovany the data drops increasing the coating layer on the particle of the polymer is compacted until until it forms a solid homogeneous coating.
The temperature in the apparatus with a fluidized bed of air are chosen so that on the one hand was an intensive education coverage and at the same time it is dried, and that on the other hand has not come to the deterioration of the complex properties of the water-soluble polymer as a result of overheating. The temperature of the air lies usually in the range from 40°to 150°With, in the preferred case from the 60°to 110°and in the particularly preferred case from the 70°to 90°C. If the water-soluble polymer is very sensitive to temperature, these thermal conditions can be changed.
The implementation of the relevant invention of the method using a fluidized bed is compared with other methods of mixing the advantage consisting in the fact that when using soluble glass is considerably more uniform coating of the polymer particles at the lower its consumption.
In connection with the use in accordance with the invention process in a fluidized bed can be referenced on the relevant prior art, for example, in Ullmanns Encyclpedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th edition, Volume B4, pages 239-274, and article H.Uhlemann "Kontinuierliche Wirbelschicht-Sprühgranulation" in Chem. - Ing. Tech., 62 (1990), №10, s-834.
In yet another variant of implementation of the invention pic is BA coating on water-soluble polymers are put in the suspended state, for example, in the form of a suspension in an organic solvent formed by suspension polymerization of water soluble monomers. In this case, the solution for coating is metered serves to mix the suspension, resulting in the distribution of individual particles of the polymer. In some cases, for a better distribution of the solution for coating is required in this process adding to the suspension an emulsifier. Dehydration is covered in this way the polymer particles in the preferred case in suspended condition by azeotropic distillation. Then the particles of the polymer is separated by filtration and freed from trapped solvent.
In yet another variant implementation of the invention using emulsion water-soluble synthetic polymers, which after spray drying or drying in a fluidized bed is transferred in powder form and relevant to the invention by way of cover relevant to the invention by means of coating.
In yet another variant implementation of the invention uses particles of polymers, which are already provided with a coating of the above other water-soluble inorganic and/or organic compounds. If then conduct appropriate to the invention the coating and the soluble glass, then the polymer particles get very even coverage.
Water-soluble polymers with the relevant invention, the coating on the basis of their outstanding performance solubility in the complicated conditions can be applied in many fields, including, in the preferred case, in the processing of water and wastewater, in particular, as an aid to flocculation in the mining industry, paper industry and in wastewater treatment plants. In addition, corresponding to the invention, the polymers are very suitable for use in the water-soluble thickeners and adhesives.
Indicator definition solubility
The ability to dissolve in the complicated factors described below.
In a glass vessel with a volume of 1 l put one quart of cold tap water (10 to 15°). Without stirring to intended for dilution water was added 1.0 g of the corresponding polyacrylamide powder. After three minutes, begin stirring with the finger stirrer (300 rpm) and monitor the condition of the product.
The assessment carried out in accordance with the following criteria.
Bad: is the gel formation of large agglomerates, which are not separated from the bottom.
Pore the public: the product is generally separated from the bottom, but forms a gel-like agglomerates.
Good: the product is separated from the bottom and forms only a separate gel-like agglomerates (no more than five agglomerates).
Very good: the product is completely divided into separate particles and do not form a gel-like agglomerates.
The coating on anionic polyacrylamide of acrylamide and acrylic acid (Praestol® 2510)*
In the laboratory dryer fluidized bed Aeromatic Strea 1 heat Praestol 2510 (total load in each case 1500 g, including the floor) when the temperature of the air is 100°and the product temperature 60°C. After reaching the specified product temperature begin the injection of an appropriate solution in a fluidized bed. For spraying use a sprayer for two products, spray solutions have a concentration of 5 wt.%. When carrying out the spraying temperature of the product support is 60°by an appropriate feed speed. The duration of the coating during application of the 10% of funds for education coverage is 56 minutes, with 3% - 24 minutes. After the end of the spray nozzle is removed, the temperature of the air is reduced to 85°C. When such installation data to be dried (30 minutes) temperature of the product was equal to 75°C.
|Floor||The rate of dissolution*|
|10 wt.% sodium sulfate||poor|
|10 wt.% sodium carbonate||poor|
|10 wt.% a mixture of 7 parts of sodium carbonate and 3 parts of sodium soluble glass (module 2)||good|
|3 wt.% sodium soluble glass (module 2)||very good|
|*Praestol® 2510 is an auxiliary means for flocculation production Degussa AG, Fa. Stockhausen GmbH&Co.KG|
The coating on cationic polyacrylamide from acrylamide and stereoselectivity of dimethylaminopropylamine (Praestaret® PK 422)*
The experience carried out by analogy with example 1, and the temperature of the product during the process of spraying maintained within the range of from 52 to 54°C. the duration of the coating during application of the 10% of funds for education coverage is 56 minutes, with 3% funds for coating 23 minutes and 30 minutes. Spray solutions have a concentration of 5 wt.%.
|Floor||The rate of dissolution*|
|10 wt.% sulfanate||poor|
|10 wt.% a mixture of 7 parts of sodium carbonate and 3 parts of sodium soluble glass (module 2)||good|
|3 wt.% sodium soluble glass (module 2)||very good|
|3 wt.% sodium soluble glass (module 2), the time of spraying was increased to 30 minutes||very good|
|*Praestaret® PK 422 represents an aid to flocculation production Degussa AG, Fa. Stockhausen GmbH&Co.KG|
1. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating, wherein the coating contains liquid glass.
2. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the liquid glass is set to module SiO2to Me2About M>1, in the preferred case of M>2 and in the particularly preferred case of M>3.
3. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the silicate is a sodium silicate.
4. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of the coating polymer in the coating is from 0.1 to 25 wt.%, preferably from 0.5 to 10 wt.% and particularly preferably from 1 to 5 wt.%.
5 Polymer, soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, wherein the coating additionally contains inorganic and/or organic water-soluble salt.
6. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 5, wherein the additional inorganic and/or organic water-soluble salt forms a separate layer underneath the outer containing liquid glass layer.
7. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 5, wherein the additional inorganic and/or organic water-soluble salt selected from the group consisting of alkali metal salts containing carbonates, sulfates, halides, mono-, di - and triphosphates, borates, phosphonates, carboxylates, nitrates, sulfonates, acetates, hydroxycarboxylic and salts of amino acids, and its content in the coating is from 1 to 99 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 70 wt.% and particularly preferably from 5 to 50 wt.%.
8. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the polymer soluble in water treated by preventing sticking.
9. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the polymer is soluble in water, is a product of the Homo - or copolymerization of acrylamide.
10. The polymer soluble in water, in view of the particles with a coating according to claim 9, characterized in that the copolymerization product has anionic properties.
11. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with the coating of claim 10, wherein the polymer soluble in water, is obtained using acrylic acid, vinylsulfonic acid, acrylamidophenylboronic acid and/or their salts.
12. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles with a coating according to claim 9, characterized in that the copolymerization product has cationic properties.
13. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles coated according to item 12, wherein the polymer soluble in the ode, is obtained using cationizing esters or amides of (meth)acrylic acid, containing in each case the Quaternary nitrogen atom, in the preferred case, this stereoselectivity dimethylamino-Propylamine and stereoselectivity of dimethylaminoethylacrylate.
14. The polymer soluble in water, in the form of particles coated according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the polymer is soluble in water, is a modified polysaccharide.
15. A method of obtaining a polymer, soluble in water, in the form of particles according to claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the polymer is soluble in water, coated with stirring with an aqueous solution for coating, and the coating can be applied several times, e is not necessary.
16. The method according to item 15, wherein the aqueous solution for coating has a concentration of from 1 to 40 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 30 wt.% and particularly preferably from 3 to 10 wt.%.
17. The method according to item 15, wherein the mixing is carried out at elevated temperature and simultaneously distilled water.
18. The method according to item 15, wherein the mixing is carried out in a fluidized bed.
19. The method according to one of PP-18, characterized in that the temperature of the incoming air in the fluidized layer is from 40 to 150°C, preferably from 60 to 110°and particularly preferably from 70 to 90°C.
20. The use of polymers according to claims 1 to 14 for water treatment, in particular, as flocculants in water in the paper industry, mining industry and for wastewater treatment plants, as thickeners and adhesives.
FIELD: application of coat on surfaces of articles made from polymer scintillation materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mechanical treatment of surface of article, degreasing of this surface, treatment of this surface and drying in air. Surface of article is subjected to treatment with mixture of solvent of aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbon and precipitating agent of lower monatomic alcohol and aliphatic hydrocarbon at ratio of 1: (1-2.5) continued for 25-35 s, after which article is washed in precipitating agent for 60-120 s for effective light reflection and maximum light collection; as a result, light efficiency is increased by 1.1-1.2 times.
EFFECT: enhanced technology of method; reduction of time required for forming the coats.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises stage E according to which surface of products is treated, under environmental conditions, with organic solution composed of organic peroxide and organic solvent (solution S). Solution S further contains UV stabilizer or additional stage E' following stage E, in which surface of product is treated with organic solution other than solution S, which contains UV stabilizer and organic solvent (solution S').
EFFECT: facilitated restoration of polymer coatings.
FIELD: cleaning agents.
SUBSTANCE: manufacture of self-cleaning surfaces with bulges and deepenings, wherein bulges are spaced at 0.1 to 200 μm intervals and their heights range between 0.1 and 100 μm, is accomplished by applying and then drying solution, distillation, or emulsion containing hydrophobic material providing surface capable of self-cleaning upon evaporation of solvent, after which applied material is removed with detergents. Hydrophobic material is selected from wax and waxy substances such primary or secondary alcohols and alkanediols.
EFFECT: facilitated cleaning procedure.
7 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; polygraphy; methods of the stencil printing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the paint suitable for the stencil printing inside the pressurized castings. The invention describes the paint suitable for the printing films made out of the transparent thermoplastic, consisting predominantly of: a) one or several pigments; b) the binding in the solution in c) the organic solvent or in the mixture of the organic solvents, d) the routine auxiliary materials, if it is desirable, at that as the binding use the copolymer of the poly-(metha)-acrylate containing (м1) from 50 up to 90 % to the mass of alkylmethacrtlate having from 1 up to 6 atoms of carbon in the ethereal radical; (м2) from 5 up to 25 % to the mass, at least, one vinylaromatic compound; (м3) from 1 up to 25 % to the mass of maleic anhydride, and if it is desirable, (м4) from 0 up to 5 % to the mass of the alkylacrylate having from 1 up to 6 atoms of carbon in the ethereal radical or the copolymer of the poly-(metha)-acrylamide containing polymethylmethacrylate with the degree of imidization from 65 up to 80 %, to 1 up to 15 mass % of methacrylic acid and from 1 up to 15 mass % of methacrylic anhydrade. At that the indicated copolymer has the softening temperature by VIKA (ISO 306 B) at least of 115°С. As the dissolvents use aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, phenoles or their mixtures. The invention also describes the film made out of the thermoplastic printed by the above described paint; the pressurized casting consisting of the film made out of the thermoplastic printed on the opposite side with the above described paint and supplied on this side with the layer of the thermoplastic coating. At that the indicated layer is applied by the operation of pressure die casting on the inside and at that the film and-or the plastic material for operation of the pressure die casting on the inside represents the copolymer of polymethylmethacrylate; and the method of production of the pressurized castings includes the following stages: a) stencil printing of the thermoplastic films by the above described method, b) the film molding, c) the pressurized castings on the inside on the stencil printed film side in the casting mould with the thermoplastic, and d) removal of the pressurized casting from the casting mould. The technical result of the invention: the paint is resistant to the action of the high pressures and temperatures during the operation of the pressurized casting on the inside, the image stencil printed by the paint has the stable color after long-term action of the atmospheric conditions.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the paint is resistant to the action of the high pressures and temperatures during the operation of the pressurized casting on the inside, the image stencil printed by the paint has the stable color after the long-term action of the atmospheric conditions.
6 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: compositions for fluoro-polymer coats.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains separate particles of fluoro-polymer having polymer hydrophilic macro-moleculars connected to them by high energy treatment. Proposed invention refers also to method of treatment of fluoro-polymer, method of treatment of fluoro-polymer particle surfaces, method of imparting property of wetted surface to particles of inert polymer powder and method of modification of molecular mass of fluoro-polymer particles. This method makes it possible to change chemical functional groups of particle surface, thus changing the characteristics of particle surface. These characteristics enhance suitability of particles and make them highly dispersible even in water.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
28 cl, 5 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: ecology; methods of environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to methods of environmental protection, in particular, to the method of effectivization of localization of the porous surfaces polluted by radioactive substances. The invention presents the method of effectivization of localization of the porous surfaces polluted by the radioactive substances ensuring deposition of the film-forming substances on the porous surfaces polluted by radioactive substances. Before deposition of the film-forming substances on the subjected to localization porous surfaces contaminated by the radioactive substances they are wetted with water or a surfactant solution to increase the thickness of the applied localizing film. Advantages of the invention consist in the increased efficiency of localization of the radioactive contaminations. The invention ensures increased efficiency of localization of the radioactive contaminations.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of localization of the radioactive contaminations.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: medicine; soft drink industry; other industries; production of the devices intended for realization of the process of the ozonolysis.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the designs of the devices - contactors of the column type intended for realization of the process of the ozonolysis. In the volume of the contact bowl of the cross-flow contactor-ozonizer there are three contact steps, each of which includes the injection component and two blocks of the regular cross-flow nozzles. The upstream block is intended for additional utilization of the non-reacted pr of the ozone in the outgoing air-ozone stream, and the downstream block is used for the complete separation of the ozone from the leaving liquid stream. Each contact step with the injection component, except the upper step, is supplied with the union for feeding of the air-ozone stream. It allows to intensify the process of interaction of the heterogeneous streams and to increase the degrees of usage of the ozone.
EFFECT: the invention allows to intensify the process of interaction of the heterogeneous streams and to increase the degrees of usage of the ozone.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of purification of the tap water from the gases and chlorine.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the tap water purification from the gases and chlorine. The method of the vacuum deaeration of the water consists in vacuumization of the space over level of the being deaerated water. The vacuumization process is alternating with the idle time, during which conduct changeover of the upper and the lower layers of the water at the expense of their convective flow. At that before the water running in the vessel it is heated up to the temperature of the deaerated water and the influx is executed onto the surface of the latter. At that the space over the level of the deaerated water is disinfected by the wet saturated steam. The convective flow is exercised at the expense of density gradients and the temperature of the water. The technical result of the invention is simplification of the equipment design, the improved quality of purification of the tap water, and also the decreased power input in the process of operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the equipment design, the improved quality of the tap water purification, the reduced power input in the process of the equipment operation.
8 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of regeneration of the fluorine-containing emulsifiers.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the chemical industry and may be used for recuperation of the fluorine-containing emulsifier used in production of the fluoropolymer by the emulsive polymerization of the fluoropolymer. The method of extraction of the fluorine-containing emulsifier provides for action on the water solution containing this emulsifier in the concentration of, at least 1 share/million by the mass and maximum of 1 % by the mass, by concentration in the vacuum under the pressure of maximum 100 kPa and at the temperature maximum of 100°С with production of the concentrated water solution containing the fluorine-containing emulsifier in the higher concentration, at least of 5%by mass, and extraction of the fluorine-containing emulsifier from the indicated concentrated water solution. The technical result of the invention is the increased effectiveness of extraction of the fluorine-containing emulsifier from the water solutions with the very low initial concentration of the fluorine-containing emulsifier.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness of extraction of the fluorine-containing emulsifier from the water solutions with the very low initial concentration of the fluorine-containing emulsifier.
12 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the biological purification of the water, soils and similar mediums from the organic polluting materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of the biological purification of the water, soils and similar mediums from the organic polluting materials with usage of the micro-organisms and may be used in the environmental protection. For the biological purification of the medium they use the indigenous consortium of the micro-organisms of the broad spectrum of activity. The selected micro-organisms are introduced into the polluted medium in amount of 0.001-30 kg/m3, add the additives of the mineral or biogenic origin in the amount of 1х10-3 - 50 kg/m3 at the components ratio of N:P:K:Mg:S =(5-10):(l-5):(l-5):(0.01-l):(0.001-3) and the microelements. The organic compounds are exposed to salvaging at the temperature of 0-45°С, providing the effective for the micro-organisms activity concentration of the pollutants and the physical-chemical characteristics of the purified medium, such as the acidity, salinity, moisture content and oxygen-content. The technical result of the invention is the complete salvaging of the compounds of the aliphatic, carbocyclic, heterocyclic series and their derivatives, both individual and mixtures, up to the final products - the carbonic gas and the water, the salvaging speed control and the final contents of the biomass of the introduced micro-organisms.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the complete salvaging of the compounds of the aliphatic, carbocyclic, heterocyclic series, their derivatives and mixtures, production of the final products - the carbonic gas and the purified water, control over the salvaging speed and the final contents of the introduced micro-organisms biomass.
14 cl, 11 ex