Blank preparing method for producing hollow thin-wall articles
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of blanks designed for producing hollow thin-wall articles such as aluminum tubes, bottles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding initial predetermined-size material to pressing machine having working units. In said working units initial material is subjected to successive parametric pressing by transitions. Pressing is realized at speed directly proportional to specific pressure of pressing process according to relation: Vt = KPt where Vt -parametric pressing speed at time moment t; Pt - specific pressure of pressing process at time moment t; K = (Pend - Pst)tk - proportionality coefficient; Pend - specific pressure at pressing process termination; Pst - specific pressure at pressing process starting; tk - time period of pressing process.
EFFECT: improved quality of blanks, enhanced efficiency of production of ready articles.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for the manufacture of blanks used in the production of aluminum tubes, bottles and the like, for example, household chemicals, food, perfumery and pharmaceutical industries.
A known method of manufacture of aluminium billets for the production of tubes from strips and tapes in rolls that are widely used in industry (book Gneckow, Aigamedev. "Production of aluminum tubes", M:Agropromizdat, p.44-46), including the filing of the original material and cutting blanks on the presses.
The disadvantage is the high cost of the raw material, a large flow rate (up to 40% of waste), low resistance stamps and low productivity of the process by the press.
The texture of the cut blanks while maintaining the texture of the original rolling metal, i.e. longitudinal linear arrangement of grains. This texture is characterized by a small number of grains per unit area (about 60 grains / mm2) and has a low strength characteristics. This reduces the quality of the workpieces. As a result, when further pressing of the glass tubes is its longitudinal cracking.
There is also known a method of cold extrusion of metal elements with blind or through-hole that is closest to the number of essential features (Rossi who, application for invention No. 2004121678, UK 1/68, UK 21/00)adopted for the prototype and including supply is cut from a rod of metal of a given length and the pressing performed by the serial transmission line segments through work units presses.
Mode pressing only provide a certain value of the specified pressure, which does not affect the strength and physico-chemical characteristics of the produced workpieces. The texture of the cut blanks while maintaining the original texture of the metal, i.e. the longitudinal grains with a small number of them, about 60 grains / mm2and a large intergranular space. This reduces the strength characteristics of the metal, such as tensile strength (no more than 30 kg/mm2) and elongation at break (no more than 8-15, %), and thus reduces the quality of the workpieces. As a result, upon further pressing of the glass tubes is its longitudinal cracking and intergranular violations.
In addition, the performance of the process on presses low due to the loss of time for transporting the original metal blanks between operations.
The objective of the invention is to improve the quality of the workpieces and improving the performance of the process.
The proposed method for the manufacture of blanks for obtaining hollow products involves feeding a source material is material of a given size in the installation for pressing, contains the work units, and consistent parametervalue pressing the source material on transitions in these process units. Unlike the prototype pressing the source material is carried out at a speed directly proportional to the specific pressure in accordance with the dependence of Vt=KPtwhere
Vt- parametervalue pressing speed at time t;
Ptspecific pressure at time t;
K=(Rto-Rn)/ttois the coefficient of proportionality;
Pto- specific pressure at the end of compression;
Pn- specific pressure at the beginning of compression;
tto- the end-time pressing.
For pressing use the installation in the form of a rotary line. The proposed dependence of the rate of extrusion from the specific pressure provides a seal with the original texture of the metal, i.e. the reduction of intergranular space, which increases the number of grains per unit area (over 80 grains / mm2). While retaining the necessary hardness HB=19-28 kg/cm2. This increases the strength of the metal to 46 kg/mm2and elongation at break of up to 25%, which increases the quality of the workpieces and excludes upon further pressing of the glass cracking of metal (voloviny), Mikri talinya violations.
Using to implement the method of the rotary line, increase the efficiency of the process by eliminating stops between operations and exclude the transport path when transferring workpieces from one operation to another. Technological operations occur during continuous transportation of the blanks.
Thus, all the claimed features are essential and solve the assigned task.
The proposed method is implemented as follows.
Cut the aluminum rod (obtained, for example by pressing with the following drawing) length serves on the rotor pressing, where by successive Parametrierung transitions get the puck. If necessary to produce blanks with hole washer then goes through the transport rotor on the rotor for cutting holes.
The mode is set by pressing the formula
Vt- parametervalue pressing speed at time t, kg/mm2·s-1;
Ptspecific pressure at time t, kg/mm2;
K - proportionality coefficient (a constant value).
Source parameters of the technological process of pressing pre-set experimentally depending on the chemical composition, the production method, the strength characteristics and the physical and the Ko-chemical state of the surface of the rod, for example:
tto=0,417 min, where
Pn- specific pressure at the beginning of pressing,
Pto- specific pressure at the end of pressing,
tto- the end-time pressing.
The factor of proportionality is chosen empirically.
In the slope of the line graph of the change in the intensity of compaction pressure (see drawing).
The specific pressure Ptdetermine on the schedule. Knowing and Ptdefine Vtformula /1/
For example, at time of 0.3 minutes from the beginning of the pressing process unit pressure (according to schedule) will be equal to 35.6 kg/mm2.
Then parametervalue pressing speed
As the source material is also used aluminum pellets, or other forms.
1. The method of making blanks for receiving a hollow thin-walled products, including the filing of the original material sizes specified in the installation for pressing, contains the work units, and consistent parametervalue pressing the source material on transitions in these process units, characterized in that the pressing of the original material is carried out with speed, straight proporciona Inoi specific pressure in accordance with addictions
where Vt- parametervalue pressing speed at time t;
Ptspecific pressure at time t;
K=(Pto-Rn)/ttois the coefficient of proportionality;
Pk- specific pressure at the end of compression;
Pn- specific pressure at the beginning of compression;
tto- pressing time.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use the device for pressing in the form of a rotary line.
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, possibly working parts of Silumins.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of performing cycle aging-quenching- aging. Soaking time period at temperature for heating at quenching and at aging is in range 15 - 30 min. Cycle quantity of heat treatment is one or more. Invention provides lowered linear expansion factors of Silumins in temperature range 150 - 300°C.
EFFECT: lowered linear expansion factor of Silumins.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacture of hollow articles from aluminum alloys which are hardened by heat treatment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in manufacture of hollow semi-finished product which is subjected to pressure shaping at change of perimeter of cross section of freshly hardened hollow semi-finished product at permissible degree of deformation.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of articles at lesser roughness of surface.
FIELD: metallurgy; heat treatment of castings made from AK8M alloy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in annealing the castings made on base of AK8M aluminum and hardened by heat treatment. Castings are heated at temperature of 420-450C and are held at heat for two hours, after which they are cooled down in air.
EFFECT: enhanced ductility and reliability; improved quality of castings; possibility of dressing the castings without cracking.
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy; methods of the thermal hardening of the aging aluminum alloys.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to thermal treatment of the aging aluminum alloys suitable for hardening. The method includes three phases of the thermal treatment of such an aged alloy. At the first phase of the thermal treatment (a) they conduct the alloy curing at the heightened aging temperature, which facilitates the process of extraction of at least one dissolved element. The aging is conducted during the time span ensuring production of the non-aged alloy having no less than 40 % and no more than 85 % of the values of the maximal hardness and strength achieved at the complete treatment up to the state Т6. At the second phase conduct chilling of the non-aged alloy from the ageing temperature of the phase (a) to the much lower temperature from -10°С to 65°С. The chilling is conducted at the rather high speed with the purpose essentially to suspend primary extraction. At the third phase the cooled alloy is effected by the much lower ageing temperature, than the ageing temperature of the phase of (a) - for the further extraction of the dissolved element defined as «the secondary extraction». The technical result of the invention is the development of the method allowing to gain the improved combinations of mechanical properties.
EFFECT: the invention ensures development of the method allowing to gain the improved combinations of the aluminum alloy mechanical properties.
23 cl, 4 tbl, 15 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of clad sheets and belts of aluminum alloy by rolling.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of cladding ingots of aluminum alloys with use of Silumin boards having anisotropy of their deformation properties similar to anisotropy of deformation properties of ingots. Then hot and cold multi-pass rolling process is realized. Cold rolling is terminated at temperature 165°C ± 5°C and then product is cooled in air. Silumin boards whose thickness consist 2 - 6% of pack thickness are used.
EFFECT: uniform cladding along length and width of coil, high quality of welding of cladding boards with ingot.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: foundry and rolling processes.
SUBSTANCE: structural material contains following components, wt %: magnesium 9.0-11.0, zirconium 0.15-0.2, cobalt 0.01-0.001, beryllium 0.001-0.02, boron 0.005-0.007, aluminum - the balance. Crystallization of melt is carried out in rotary crystallizer at gravitation coefficient 220-250 and melt lifetime 12-15 sec/kg. Ingot is first heated for 2-4 h at 340-380° C and then subjected to hot rolling at that temperature until thickness 4-8 mm is attained at deformation rate up to 30% in each cycle and final rolling temperature 310-330° C. Thereafter, cold rolling is effected with deformation rate up to 50% in each cycle and intermediate annealings for 0.5-2.0 h at 310-390° C until required thickness 0.5-2.0 mm is attained followed by final annealing of rolled metal for 5-40 min at 400-450° C.
EFFECT: increased strength, plasticity, and processability of aluminum-based alloy with 9-11% magnesium.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy, namely processes for making articles of deformed aluminum alloys including large-size articles with large cross sections and complex shapes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of homogenizing ingot; cooling it, heating till temperature of preliminary plastic deformation; performing preliminary plastic deformation; heating blank till temperature of final plastic deformation; realizing final plastic deformation at desired temperature and subjecting blank to heat treatment. Before heating article for final plastic deformation, blank is heated till temperature 450 - 480°C and then it is soaked at such temperature for time period sufficient for dissolving excess eutectic and secondary phases. Further cooling is realized at rate no less than 100°C/h till temperature that is by 20 -70°C less than temperature Ti (Ti - temperature of minimum stability of solid solution). In concrete variants of invention ingot homogenization is realized at temperature 300 - 470°C/h for soaking period 3 - 42 h at heating rate no more than 50°C till soaking temperature.
EFFECT: improved quality of products of deformed aluminum alloys due to enhanced set of strength properties, improved tensile strength, corrosion resistance, lowered trend to inter-crystallite corrosion.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; production of large-sized semi-finished items from aluminum alloys by molding methods.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes casting of ingots, homogenization, cooling, heating at isothermal holding at heat, deformation at temperature of isothermal holding, hardening and aging. Subjected to treatment are aluminum alloys containing zirconium and titanium at ratio found from the following expression: 0.12≤Ti/(Ti+Zr)≤0.4. Homogenization is carried out at solidus temperatures and is continued for 2-36 h. Items are cooled to room temperature at rate of 10-30°C/h. Then, items are heated to temperature of 340-410°C and are subjected to isothermal holding at heat for 24 h.
EFFECT: enhanced strength and plasticity characteristics of molded large-sized items; enhanced resistance to corrosion cracking; increased good-to-bad yield due to reduction of internal defects.
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in metallurgy, mechanical engineering, and aircraft industry, in particular for manufacturing honeycomb structures. Alloy is composed of, wt %: magnesium 8-10, manganese 0.1-0.15, zirconium 0.15-0.2, cobalt 0.05-0.2, boron 0.005-0.007, beryllium 0.001-0.02, iron 0.15-0.2, silicon 0.15-0.2, titanium 0.1-0.2, aluminum - the balance. Ingot for manufacturing structural foil is obtained by semicontinuous casting in rotary crystallizer at volumetric cooling 4-20°C/sec. Structural foil manufacturing process comprises homogenization, hot rolling, annealing, cold rolling followed by annealing in air atmosphere, second cold rolling followed by annealing, and final cold rolling.
EFFECT: increased strength of alloy at ambient and elevated temperatures and improved processability un rolling stage.
3 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy; production of wrought semi-finished products of complex shape from high strength aluminum alloys, such as frames, fittings, beams and other long-cut items mainly including longitudinal fins.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes casting the ingot, hot compaction of intermediate blank, hardening, straightening by tension and bending of blank, molding and aging of item. After casting, ingot is subjected to annealing at heating to temperature of 400-420°C holding at heat for 3 h followed by turning the ingot. According to some versions of invention, aging is performed in two-stage mode: heating to temperature 100-120°C holding at heat for 10-20 h and heating to temperature of 160-180°C holding at heat for 5-10 h.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties of items; minimization of defects.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly manufacture of hollow thin-wall parts.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of producing initial blank; calibrating it; then pressing it out and drawing. Near-bottom cylindrical portion of wall and bottom portion are shaped in die. Diameter of said die is less than diameter of part by value of elastic deformation of wall of near-bottom portion of part.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready part.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of articles having cavity restricted by surfaces determined with use of second-order curves, for example outlet electrode (anode) of plasmotron.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of calibrating initial blank and marking out opening; upsetting blank for forming disc; deforming semi-finished product by extruding cavity in die during two stages; at first stage drawing metal into gap between die and punch and forming lower portion of article by forward extrusion process; at second stage calibrating cavity with use of counter-pressure and forming upper portion of article.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of articles.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.
EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.
9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly production of forged pieces.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for making forged pieces having length to diameter relation more than 3 includes power hydraulic cylinder on plunger of which upper striker is mounted. Lower striker is mounted in rotary mechanism. The last is in the form of kinematics pair having gear wheel and racks rigidly secured to plungers of hydraulic cylinders. Apparatus also includes second power hydraulic cylinder whose plunger is mounted in gear wheel with possibility of axial motion and rigidly joined with lower striker. Both power hydraulic cylinders separately through pipelines and throttles are communicated with respective hydraulic cylinders of rotary mechanism.
EFFECT: improved design of apparatus, increased degree of plastic deformation of blank at its single mounting operation in apparatus.
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly realization of blank working operations designed for developing high technology of thermo-mechanical working.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing where lower stop and both movable relative to housing punch and upper stop are arranged. Said stops have notched surfaces for engaging with blank and their ends are in contact respectively with punch and supporting plate. Stops may move relative to punch and supporting plate in mutually opposite directions normal relative to axis of housing. Apparatus is also provided with two wedges. Housing may move relative to supporting plate and it includes two annular grooves arranged in upper and lower parts of housing and designed for placing said wedges. Upper and lower stops form with wedges wedge pairs.
EFFECT: simplified design of apparatus, increased efforts applied to blank.
FIELD: pressure treatment of materials, particularly to obtain parts with predetermined service performance level by cold plastic deforming thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging cylindrical billet in matrix interior on shpero-dynamic fluctuation module so that the billet is supported by pusher, wherein the module comprises cavity with main resonator located in the cavity; performing double-sided billet deformation from the opposite directions thereof, wherein from upper billet end the billet is deformed by applying rolling force thereto by means of die, from lower billet end the billet is deformed by applying summary pulsed force of shpero-dynamic fluctuation module and main resonator. Additional resonator is freely installed in module interior to apply additional percussion force to lower billet end during billet deformation.
EFFECT: provision of wavy plastic deformation and creation of "artificial intelligence" zones in billet.
FIELD: metal working by ultrasonic forging; manufacture of blades at enhanced technical and service characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: edge of plate is placed between taper surfaces of strikers located opposite each other for forming wedge-shaped blade and is subjected to deformation by ultrasonic forging. Plate is moved relative to longitudinal axes of strikers in transversal direction. Strikers connected with ultrasonic oscillation source are rotated about their longitudinal axes with the aid of drive. Taper working surface of each striker has recess whose generatrix corresponds to shape of surface of wedge-shaped blade.
EFFECT: improved quality of tool cutting edge; increased productivity; enhanced wear resistance of fittings.
19 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy; production of semi-finished products from high-temperature high-alloy wrought nickel-based alloys for manufacture of disks for gas-turbine engines working at temperatures higher than 600°C.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preliminary deformation of blank by upsetting by two or more times, final deformation and heat treatment; first upsetting is performed in closed container; during next upsetting, technological metal ring at temperature of (0.02-0.5)Tdef. is placed on blank heated to deformation temperature Tdef. and free upsetting is performed in stamp tool heated to deformation temperature. Geometric parameters of ring are selected from given relationships. Preliminary deformation of blank is performed at intermediate annealing. Height-to-diameter ratio of starting blanks is no less than 3:1. Proposed method ensures forming of homogeneous fine-grain structure over entire volume of blank due to work in end zones.
EFFECT: simplified procedure; reduced labor consumption.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing cylindrical blank in cavity of lower die on sphere-dynamic fluctuation module and resting part by means of pusher; deforming part by rolling-around punch; imparting to said punch and to pusher motion along curves in the form of logarithmic helixes rising in the same direction. It provides realization of wave structure of plastic deformation and obtaining in blank of material zones of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for producing parts with desired level of operational characteristics.