Method and device for reducing amount of process data subject to transmission
FIELD: technology for transmitting process data from field device to process control center.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, process data contains information about working state of field device, and/or information about process variables measured by field device, and/or field device identification data. Process data appearing in time interval between two transmissions is evaluated, divided onto static and dynamic, data is recorded, transferred to process control center. Static data is transferred in abbreviated form, in form of a binary status value.
EFFECT: creation of method for transmitting reduced amount of process data.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to a method of reducing the subject to transfer from field devices number of process data according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims and to the device to implement the method according to the restrictive part of paragraph 12 of the claims.
In automation technology are currently used in field devices, which are used for measuring and/or influencing variables of the production process. Examples of such field devices for measuring variables of the process are the transmitters, mass flow meters, gauges, thermometers, etc. that measure the relevant variables of the process: the level, the weight flow rate, pressure, respectively, of the temperature. Examples of field devices for influencing variables of the process are the so-called actuators, which, for example, in the form of valves control the fluid flow on the segment of the pipeline or in the form of pumps control the level of the environment in the tank.
The field devices are connected via communication means, usually through the data bus with the Central management process, which manages the entire process in this case, provides direct access to individual field devices to service the I, parameterization or layout. Through direct access can be changed in field adjustment devices (e.g., parameters) or to call a special diagnostic function. Along with access through the centre of the process control is also possible temporary access, e.g. via the portable device service or a portable computer.
To ensure maintenance of various field devices from a Central control process in the control center, the process must be known functions of the field device. The functions of the field devices are usually described using the device description. For this purpose there are special standard languages to describe devices; examples are CAN-EDS (Control Area Network - Electronic Data Sheet (e)), Hart DDL (Hart Device Description Language (a language for describing devices)), FF-DDL (Foundation Fieldbus Device Description Language), Profibus-GSD (Profibus - master data device), Profibus EDD (Profibus - Electronic Device Description (electronic device description)). Maintenance of field devices from a Central management process is in most cases through a graphical interface, which facilitates the commissioning, maintenance, security, Troubleshooting, and documentation.
In the center of the control process are evaluated and monitored by the measurement of different eremennyh process and manage the various devices.
The transfer of data between the field device and the control process proceeds by wire or wirelessly in accordance with one of the known international standards for Fieldbus data transmission, such as, for example, Hart, Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus, CAN, etc., or located on the destruction of parts of the system via a public network connection.
When the control of the Central control process that is distributed over many locations and/or contains many field devices, transferable amount of data can lead to overloading of the system field bus data transfer and to the need for prolonged use of public networks.
Therefore, the object of the invention is a method and device for reducing to transfer the amount of data in the process.
The problem is solved in that in the method of reduction to be transfer from the field device the amount of data in the process, and process data contain information about the operational status of the field device, and/or information about the measured field device of process variables, and/or identification data of the field device according to the invention occur in the time interval between two data process data evaluated by static, which does not change what had been since the last assessment, and dynamic that has changed since the last assessment, process data remember, transmit to the control center process, while static data is passed abbreviated as binary values of the state.
The basic idea of the invention consists in the fact that occur in the gap between two data process data are stored and evaluated, with estimated process data are transmitted to the control center process. Process data contain information about the operational status of field devices, and/or information about process variables, which are measured by the field devices and/or identification data of the corresponding field device. The concept of the field device also includes actuators for influencing process variables.
The reduction subject to transfer process data provided by the data evaluation process. In the evaluation process data are divided into static and dynamic. All process data that has changed since the last assessment, are classified as dynamic data. All process data that have not changed since the last assessment, are classified as static data and transmitted as a binary value condition, and the control center Ave is the process by passing the value of the state learns what has not changed corresponding value process.
Typical dynamic data are, for example, measured values are controlled by means of field devices, process variables, such as level, the weight flow rate, pressure, respectively, temperature. Typical static data that does not change for a long time, are, for example, the current state of the device (everything is in order and error code), type of the controlled process variable and/or the physical dimension of the defined measures. When commissioning the installation once all process data are transmitted to the control center process without evaluation. Then process data before sending evaluated, and the static data is transmitted only in the form of binary values of the state.
Preferably, when the dynamic data form transferable word data word data is changed the value of the process or the value of the difference between the new and the old value of the process. This is preferable to reduce the amount subject to transfer process data, since only dynamic data needs to be transmitted in the form of detailed data words.
Further reduction of the static data is provided in the modification of izopet the deposits due to the fact, certain static data, such as, for example, the controlled variables of the process and/or the physical dimension to be determined by measurement, is stored in the file device description. This file has description device control center process has direct access, so there is no need to transfer the relevant data from the field devices to the control center process.
Further reduction of the transferred process data preferably is achieved by reducing the number of data transmissions. For this purpose, the transmission of the reduced data of the process is dependent on the occurrence of specified conditions.
Transferable amount of data can be further reduced if the transmission of dynamic data is transmitted to only the difference between the current and the old value of the process variable. To eliminate error propagation can be preferably provided that regularly, e.g. once a day or after a given number of transmission is transmitted from the actual value of the process variable.
Not less preferably, when the dynamic data set encoded area in the centre of the process control transmit only the code relevant field that contains the value of the process.
Another possibility) what assumptions are subject to transfer data is so in the evaluation set, are whether the received values corresponding process variable within a given field values. Area boundary in the preferred embodiment may also be defined by the user. For transmission region encode and transmit only the code relevant field, which is obtained measurement, control center process. Due to this measure it is possible it is preferable to convert the dynamic data through the intelligent identify areas in static data and, thereby, further reducing the transferable amount of data.
In a particularly preferred embodiment, the on set conditions for the data evaluation process and/or for transmitting the reduced data of the process can influence the user.
In one preferred embodiment, the set of conditions for initiating data contain as conditions, for example, time and/or a predetermined time of day. In addition, the conditions may include the occurrence of certain events, such as reaching and/or exceeding predetermined threshold values, respectively, of the criteria for the alarm. Due to this reduced the number of transmissions and thus the amount of data.
By reducing the subject to the transfer number is the number of data is reduced, in particular, the cost of using telephone networks (fixed line, respectively, radio networks).
In one preferred modification of the method all possible set of conditions that can influence the user, making the individual relating to the field device description file of the device. Additionally, the file device description describes the functions of the respective device and contains, for example, data on process variables, which are defined using the field device and/or which can be influenced and which would otherwise be transmitted to the field device as static data in the control center process. Using the identification data of the field device is given its individual file, device descriptions, with information read from a file device description via the field device.
The transfer of data between the field device and the control process is carried out through the local bus and/or via long-range communications.
In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention between the field device and the control process is used as a communication platform on the Internet.
In another embodiment, the data transmission between the field device and the control process is one-sided at the same time, when it is necessary to transmit data from the control center process in the field device, it performs two-way communication.
This measure is especially important for field installation, for example, in remote large warehouses in which the field device to save power is normally off and only if the specified conditions, for example, after a certain period of time or at a specified time, is included. After you enable the field device measures the process data, which are then evaluated, preserved and transmitted to the control center process. Then the field device remains within a predetermined period of time is enabled and after this period of time is deactivated again. The Central process control checks during this period of time after receiving the process data, do I need to pass in the field device, the new data is, for example, the modified conditions for initiating data transfer. If new data is not transferred from the Central process control field device, the field device after a predetermined period of time is deactivated again.
The task is solved in that the device for the transmission of process data from the field device to the control center process, with process data contain information about the operational status of the field device, and/and the information about the measured field device of process variables, and/or identification data of the field device according to the invention contains the evaluation unit/control and memory unit, the evaluation unit/Department through a separate line data or local data bus connected with the field device and using the corresponding blocks communication with the Central control process, and the evaluation unit/control in the time interval between two data transmissions evaluates the measured field device process data, the estimation process data is divided into static, which has not changed since the last assessment, and the dynamic that has changed since the last evaluation, the evaluation unit/Department stores process data in the memory unit and transmits them to the control center process, while static data is passed in abbreviated form, in the form of binary values of the state.
The block assessment/management in the time interval between two data transmissions evaluates the measured process data and stores in the memory block, the memory block may be part of the unit assessment/management, and the evaluation unit/control estimated from process data forms the data to be transmitted process and using the appropriate communication device transmits to the control center process.
For the issuance of specified conditions by the user in one preferred is an embodiment provided for the respective blocks of the service and display, which are, for example, in the control center process.
In another preferred embodiment, the evaluation unit/control and memory unit are implemented as part of the field device.
Below is a detailed description of the invention with reference to the drawings, which depicts an example execution:
figure 1 - block diagram of a distributed automation system;
figure 2 is a graphical diagram of a method according to the invention.
As shown in figure 1, depicts the automation system is divided into seven places a, b, C, D, E, F, G installation. In some places the installation happen partial processes, which are part of covering all parts of the installation process, such as process control and optimization, storage, or process monitoring and production optimization. Partial processes can be service processes and/or display and/or process control and/or communication processes, and/or preservation and/or measurement and/or determination of process variables and/or processes for influencing process variables.
As additionally shown in figure 1, in place And is the center of the 1 process control, containing at least one computing device 2, the first interface 6.1 for data transmission through the Internet 6, the second interface 6.2 data through the telephone network (fixed network or radio network) and a few blocks 7 maintenance and display by which the user, among other things, can enter their job reduction subject to the data transfer process. Separate blocks connected to each other in the example shown run through the local bus 3.1 data. In other places B, C, D, E, F, G has at least one field device 5, at least one unit 4 assessment/management and at least one interface 6.1, 6.2 for communication with the center 1 process control, and the interface may be in the form of interface 6.1 for data transmission via the Internet 6 and/or in the form of interface 6.2 data over the phone network. Shows the installation location of show, for example, various features of the passage measured by the field device 5 or exposed to its influence variables of the process 1 process control. For example, in the location shown In three groups of field devices 5, with five corresponding field devices 5 are connected with one unit 4 assessment/management, while the first group is connected with the corresponding unit 4 assessment/management through the local bus 3.1 data, and the second group of field devices 5 are connected with the corresponding unit 4 assessment/management through individual if the AI 3.2 data and in the third group of three field devices 5 are connected with the corresponding unit 4 assessment/management through the local bus 3.1 data and two field devices through a separate line 3.2. To communicate with the center 1 of the management process in place In two blocks of 4 evaluation/control supplied with the first interface 6.1 for data transmission via the Internet 6 and one unit 4 assessment/management comes with a second interface 6.2 data over the phone network.
However, it is also possible, as shown in place of F that in one place the unit there is only one field device with one unit 4 assessment/management and the appropriate interface 6.1.
In addition, as shown in place of E, not every unit 4 assessment/management must be provided by interface 6.1, 6.2 data center 1 process control. There is also the possibility of grouping several field devices 5 and supply the entire group as a single unit 4 assessment/management, there is another block 4 assessment/management, which is supplied by the interface 6.1 to communicate with the center 1 process control.
Although in the example shown complete all blocks of 4 evaluation/control is designed in the form of a separate device, however, in principle, it is possible that the block assessment/management is part of the field device. This also applies to the interface shown what am 6.1, 6.2 for data exchange with the control center process.
As shown in figure 2, the first stage 100 ways to measure process data. Then in the second stage 200 of the way the process data to evaluate and retain, after the assessment has reduced the data to be transmitted in the process. In the third stage, method 300 checks whether certain specified conditions, for example, after a predetermined period of time or the existence of a criterion of anxiety or reaching a certain threshold or a certain period of time. If the conditions are met, at the fourth stage of the method 400 transmits assessed and reduced process data in the control center process. If conditions are not met, depending on process is carried out, or to jump back to the step 100 of the method (depicted by the dashed line), or repeat stage 300 of the way so long until the conditions are met. After the fourth stage 400 again begin execution of the first stage 100.
In another, not shown embodiment of the invention, in particular, when the specified conditions for data transmission process does not depend on the subject to measure process variables, as for example, from a specified time or period of time, you must first execute stage 300 of the method and check whether the specified conditions or not, and further, when the service is performed via, at the stage of 100 ways to measure process data, evaluated at the stage 200 and then at the stage 400 is passed to the control process. In this embodiment, after the stage 400 is returned again to the step 300 and begin execution of the way first.
1. The method of reduction to transfer from the field device the amount of data in the process, and process data contain information about the operational status of the field device, and/or information about the measured field device of process variables, and/or identification data of the field device, characterized in that occur in the time interval between two data process data evaluated by static, which has not changed since the last assessment, and the dynamic that has changed since the last assessment, process data remember, transmit to the control center process, while static data is passed abbreviated as the binary values of the state.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the dynamic data set encoded area in the centre of the process control transmit only the code relevant field that contains the value of the process.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the dynamic data form the transferable data word, etc is that the word data is the modified value of the process or the value of the difference between the new and the old value of the process.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified conditions for the evaluation of process data and/or perform the transmission of the reduced data of the process can influence the user.
5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the specified conditions for transferring the reduced data contain a specified period of time, and/or a specified time, and/or the occurrence of specified events.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the field device using the identification data assigned to a separate file, device descriptions, with information read from a file device description via the field device.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a platform of communication between the field device and the control process use the Internet.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the transfer of data between the field device and the control process is one-way, however, when it is necessary to transmit data from the control center process in the field device, it performs two-way communication.
9. Device for the transmission of process data from the field device to the control center process, with process data contain information about the operational status of the field device, and/or information about the measured field device of process variables and/or data identifying the paths of the field device, characterized in that it contains the evaluation unit/control and memory unit, the evaluation unit/Department through a separate line data or local data bus connected with the field device and using the corresponding blocks communication with the Central control process, and the evaluation unit/control in the time interval between two data transmissions evaluates the measured field device process data, the estimation process data is divided into static, which has not changed since the last assessment, and the dynamic that has changed since the last evaluation, the evaluation unit/control stores the process data in the memory block, and transmits them to the control center process, while static data is passed in abbreviated form, in the form of binary values of the state.
10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the evaluation unit/control and memory unit are part of the field device.
11. Device according to any one of claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the Central process control block contains maintenance and display.
FIELD: radio engineering and television, possible use during generation, transmission and receipt of video-frames.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention introduced additionally to encoder are video frames memory block, first function memory block, video frame transmission block, block for storing video frame being reproduced, while input of encoder serially, through block for forming video frames, video frames memory block, block for forming difference video frame, first frame memory block, video frame transmission block and block for memorizing video frame being reproduced is connected to second input of block for forming difference video frame, third input of which is connected to output of first function memory block, output of which is connected to second input of video frame transmission block, output of which is the output of device encoder. Introduced additionally to decoder are video frames receipt block, comparator and second function memory block, while input of decoder is serially, through video frame receipt block, second frame memory block and comparator, is connected to second video frame restoration block, third input of which is connected to output of second function memory device, and output is the output of decoder of device. Device realizes generation, transmission and receipt of code of function of distribution of screen point brightness in a series of frames, making it possible to increase the code compression coefficient.
EFFECT: increased coefficient of code compression of video frame information.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 7 app
FIELD: technology for encoding and decoding, used for storing and transferring descriptive elements of document of XML-like structure.
SUBSTANCE: method includes using at least one table, received from XML structure, while table contains identification information for unambiguous identification of each descriptive element on hierarchic tree and structural information, browsing of hierarchic image of sample stored in memory from parent descriptive element to children descriptive elements for reaching encoded descriptive element, and extraction of identification information of each browsed descriptive element, encoding of aforementioned descriptive element in form of fragment, containing aforementioned information content and series of extracted identification information.
EFFECT: provision of efficient sample encoding plan and possible expansion of binary format for further plans, determined within limits of MPEG-7.
7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technology for encoding multimedia objects.
SUBSTANCE: method for encoding a multimedia object includes following stages: multimedia object is encoded for producing a bit stream and information about quality is added to bit stream, while information about quality denotes quality of multimedia object relatively to given position or relatively to given part of bit stream, while information about quality is provided in quality tags, aforementioned quality tag provides a values of quality tag, and value of quality tag characterizes distortion in encoded multimedia object being reproduced, when bit stream is truncated in point, related to quality tag.
EFFECT: development of improved and efficient method/system for encoding multimedia objects.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for encoding and decoding content, in particular, extracting data from buffer and loading them into buffer.
SUBSTANCE: method includes picking data from buffer in response to execution of data access command, while buffer contains multiple data storage devices, forming additional unified address space with bit level addressing. If picked data are contained in source data storage device and in next data storage device, fragment of picked data from source data storage device is concatenated with remaining fragment of picked data from next data storage device to form picked data as continuous block, picked data are stored in assignment device for storing data. Method for loading data into buffer includes storing data into buffer, while if data size exceeds capacity of device for storing data, data are split onto fragments and stored in source storage device and next device. After saving of aforementioned data, data from storage device are moved to memorizing device.
EFFECT: higher speed of loading and data extraction.
5 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: electric communication, namely systems for data transmitting by means of digital communication lines.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily, at reception and transmission forming R matrices of allowed vectors, each matrix has dimension m2 x m1 of unit and zero elements; then from unidimensional analog speech signal forming initial matrix of N x N elements; converting received matrix to digital one; forming rectangular matrices with dimensions N x m and m x N being digital representation of initial matrix from elements of lines of permitted vectors; transmitting elements of those rectangular matrices through digital communication circuit; correcting errors at transmission side on base of testing matching of element groups of received rectangular matrices to line elements of preliminarily formed matrices of permitted vectors; then performing inverse operations for decompacting speech messages. Method is especially suitable for telephone calls by means of digital communication systems at rate 6 - 16 k bit/s.
EFFECT: possibility for correcting errors occurred in transmitted digital trains by action of unstable parameters of communication systems and realizing telephone calls by means of low-speed digital communication lines.
5 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: multifunctional information and control complexes, possible use for generating informational message, containing data about condition of two-positional objects - executive mechanisms, intruder and fire alarms, and also timed series of changes of these.
SUBSTANCE: device is characterized by increased trustworthiness of information due to combined procedures of input and encoding of signals from indicator. Input and encoding of information are performed in two stages - at first stage, current signal values from indicators are recorded in RAM registers, and at second stage signal input and signal encoding procedures are combined with serviceability diagnostics of common and individual units of device and circuits for connecting encoder and sensors. Special feature of proposed device - recording of short-term signals and timed series of their changes, allows its usage as recorder of emergency processes. Device allows usage of telecontrol communication channels.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: device for encoding and transferring signals is a part of information-control complex and is meant for forming informational message, containing data about status of two-positional objects - executive mechanisms, intruder and fire alarms.
SUBSTANCE: device has high trustworthiness of information due to combination of procedures of input and encoding of signals from indicator. Input and encoding of information from indicators is performed in two stages - at first stage, current values of signals from indicators are recorded in register, and at second stage input and encoding of signals is combined with diagnostics of serviceability of common and individual assemblies of device and circuits of connection of encoder to indicators. Diagnostics procedures are performed so, that elements of device, previously utilized during determining of current states of indicators, should form signals of opposite level. On coincidence of levels of signals, received at two encoding stages, in information receiver it is possible to identify place and type of failure.
EFFECT: increased trustworthiness of information.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engineering of information-controlling complexes for automated systems for controlling electrified portions of railroads.
SUBSTANCE: control commands are represented in form of coordinates - positional (distributive) codes of number of control subjects group, numbers of control subjects in group and type of control command "enable" or "disable". Blocks for signaling and controlling device are realized so, that state of each motor drive is shown by correlating bi-pulse code - pair of signals "10" for enabled and "01" for disabled state of motor drive. Simultaneously with encoding of state of motor drive, diagnostics of serviceability of equipment and communication chains of device with territorially distributed motor drives is performed, as a result of which correlation bi-pulse code is transformed to conditionally correlative code. Conditionally correlative bi-pulse code contains, except the two mentioned above, two additional code combinations - "11" for fixing lock between common buses "enable" and "disable" for all motors, or individual buses of different motor drives, and "00" - for fixing tears of diagnosed chains of communication between motor drive and device.
EFFECT: improved trustworthiness, expanded informational and functional capabilities of device.
SUBSTANCE: method includes combining procedures of encoding of state of sensors of discontinuous signals with control of integrity of all circuits for connection of sensors to encode and additional marks of error in circuits are inserted into groups of bi-pulse codes of data message. Data message is formed in form of cyclic code of modified groups of bi-pulse codes for all sensors and control series of code, which is formed in form of division remainder of polynomial - group of bi-pulse codes, by source polynomial.
EFFECT: higher trustworthiness.
FIELD: controlling data-processing complexes.
SUBSTANCE: switching contacts of control keys block are made in form of a matrix, number of rows in which is equal to total number of groups of peripheral controlled stations when transmitting "enable" commands, to same number of groups of peripheral controlled stations when transmitting "disable" command and to number of groups of control subjects on one peripheral controlled station, and number of columns - to number of peripheral controlled stations in a group or number of control subjects in a group. Generated control command is identified by position codes - coordinates: group numbers of said peripheral controlled stations, peripheral controlled stations in a group, groups of control subjects at one peripheral controlled station and control subjects in a group, while signal of type of control command, "enable" or "disable", is included in said coordinates as an integral part. Control block performs profound dynamic trustworthiness control for each position code on basis of presence of only one signal "1" in each coordinate, while control is performed with consideration of the fact, that number of digits in position codes - coordinates of control subject is different.
EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and reliability.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes use of key object only having one switching contact, non-moveable contacts of which are combined, in circuits for forming coordinates. Output signals form at moment of change of position of any key and are connected to coordinate circuits by separator diodes. For same coordinates of address of controlled object outputs of diodes connected to different keys are combined and connected to memory registers and to assembly for determining presence and duration of formed impulse signal. In case of errors detection command is ignored, as well as fact of error detection. Used assemblies for forming and control as well as use in transfer of command of straight and inverse codes provides for high trustworthiness of control commands.
EFFECT: higher trustworthiness.
FIELD: computer engineering, in particular, electronic computing machines.
SUBSTANCE: the device contains a processor, local address-data multiplexing bus, memorizing device, modernized system controller consisting of a system controller and a block for processing oncoming requests.
EFFECT: prevented hang-up of processors in case of coincidence of oncoming requests from processors, connected to external PCI bus.
2 cl, 1 dwg