Low contamination thermal power station
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of generation of power from carbon-containing fuel provides combustion of fuel in presence of oxygen at higher pressure in combustion chamber. Effluent gas after combustion is divided into fraction with high content of carbon dioxide which is treated to prevent its getting out into ambient atmosphere and fraction with low content of carbon dioxide which is expanded through one or more turbines to carry out other processes and/or generate electric energy before discharging said fraction into ambient atmosphere. Temperature in combustion chamber is reduced at generation of steam which is expanded through steam turbines connected to electric generator to produce electric energy. Invention contains description of thermal power station for implementing the method.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of generation of electric energy from carbon containing fuel.
10 cl, 3 dwg
The present invention relates to a method of regulating the content of CO2in the combustion products coming from under increased pressure chamber nonadiabatic combustion, before the expansion of these products of combustion to atmospheric pressure, the device for carrying out the method and to a thermal power plant that uses the proposed method.
For the last 150 years, the concentration of CO2in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30%. Methane concentrations have doubled, and the concentration of nitrogen oxides increased by about 15%. This enhanced greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, some results of which can be formulated as follows:
the average temperature near the Earth's surface has increased over the last century about 0.5°when observed over the last ten years the trend to accelerate this increase;
rainfall for the same period increased by approximately 1%;
the sea level has risen by 15-20 cm due to the melting of glaciers, and also because of the expansion of water when heated.
It is expected that the increase in greenhouse gas emissions will lead to ongoing climate change. For the next 50 years, the temperature may increase by 0.6 to 2.5°C. Among the scientific community argued that the increasing use of fossil fuels with exponentially growing what Abrazame CO 2changing the balance of CO2in nature, and that was the direct cause of this development.
It is important to take immediate steps to stabilize the concentration of CO2in the atmosphere. This can be achieved if CO2produced in thermal power plants, collect and precipitate in a safe way. It is assumed that such a collection may account for three quarters of the cost of mitigating emissions of CO2in atmosphere.
Thus, to simplify this situation, it would be desirable to develop energy-efficient, cost-effective and easy way to remove a substantial part of CO2from the exhaust gas. Will be achieved tremendous advantage, if we manage to implement this method in the near future without long-term studies.
The exhaust gas from thermal power plants typically contains 4 to 10 volume percent CO2and the lowest values are typical for gas turbines, and the highest values are achieved only in the combustion chamber with cooling, for example, in the production of steam.
There are three possible stabilization of the CO2in the atmosphere. In addition to the capture of CO2you can use a non-polluting energy sources such as biomass, or you can develop a very efficient power plant. The capture of CO2 is the most economical option. But while the capture of CO2is a relatively small research and created to date methods are either low efficiency or the need for the very long and expensive development. All trapping methods WITH2include one or more of the following principles.
The absorption of CO2. The exhaust gas after combustion is introduced into contact with the aminecontaining solution at almost atmospheric pressure. Part of the CO2absorbed in aminecontaining solution, which is then recovered by heating. The main problem arising in connection with this technology, is that the work comes at a low partial pressure of CO2which in a typical case is 0.04 bar, in Gaza, which will be cleaned. The power consumption becomes very large (about 3 times the power consumption in the case of cleaning at a partial pressure of CO2at 1.5 bar). Sewage treatment plant becomes expensive, and the degree of purification and sizes of plants are limiting factors. Therefore, the main focus when designing should be given to increasing partial pressure of CO2. The alternative is for cooling and recirculation okadama what about the gas through the gas turbine. The effect of such actions is very limited, among other factors, also the properties of the turbine. Another alternative is that the exhaust gas must be cooled, compressed, again cooled, cleaned, for example, aminecontaining solution heat up and expand into additional gas turbine, which activates an additional compressor. Thus raise the partial pressure of CO2for example, up to 0.5 bar and make cleaning more efficient. A significant disadvantage of these actions is that the partial pressure of oxygen also becomes large, for example, amounting to 1.5 bar, and amines, as a rule, quickly decompose at a partial pressure of oxygen greater than about 0.2 bar. It also requires expensive additional equipment. There are other combinations of primary and secondary power plants.
Department of the air. By separating the air, which delivers material to install oxygen and nitrogen, can be used circulating CO2as the fuel gas in the power plant. In the absence of nitrogen dilution of the resulting CO2, CO2in the exhaust gas will have a relatively high partial pressure of approximately 1 bar. Then an excess of CO2resulting from combustion can be separated Sravnitelnoe, so the installation for the collection of CO2you can simplify. However, the overall cost of such a system are relatively high, because you have to have a bulky installation for the production of oxygen in addition to the power plant. Production and combustion of pure oxygen create serious security problems, in addition to a large amount of material. It is highly likely that this will also require the development of new turbines.
Conversion of the fuel. Hydrocarbon fuel is subjected to conversion (reforming) to produce hydrogen and CO2in under an elevated pressure of technological units, called for reforming. The product obtained from plants reformer contains CO2with a high partial pressure, so2it is possible to separate and precipitate or otherwise use. As fuel is hydrogen. The entire plant is complex and expensive because it contains the installation for the formation of hydrogen and power.
A common feature of alternative trapping methods WITH2coming out of the plant, is to achieve a high partial pressure of CO2in technological applications where cleaned. In addition, alternative methods are long, expensive and risky develo DAMI, moreover, the usual time frame of the studies accounted for 15 years, and the purchase of production experience takes another 5-10 years. Expected electrical efficiency of the station without cleaning up to 56-58%, and if a particular treatment, it is somewhat optimistic estimate is 45-50%.
A long time of research it is highly undesirable from the point of view of environmental protection. At the conference the economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE)held in the autumn of 2002, was stressed "the urgent need to combat the exponentially increasing global emissions of CO2" and used the expression "as soon as possible" and "the need to go much further than stipulate the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol".
Thus, there is a need for installations in which eliminates the above problems with the following characteristics:
the possibility of realization without the long-term development, preferably using rotary equipment that has already been tested;
adaptation to a sufficient partial pressure of CO2in consequence of which it is possible to effectively use a typical installation of absorption, which means the presence of partial pressures up to 1.5 bar;
the smallest possible volume of gas flow, which will be trapped in CO2;
partial the second pressure of oxygen, reduced to 0.2 bar, in the place where you want to be caught WITH2that allows you to minimize the deterioration of the properties of the absorbing agent;
the possibility of effective purification from nitrogen oxides, transfer usually occurs in the temperature range 300-400°With; the best is to clean the system under high pressure;
efficiency compared to competing systems;
the ability to create large installations with a capacity of over 400 MW;
the unnecessary use of secondary power systems, installations reformer, the processes of obtaining oxygen or processes fuel conversion;
compact and powerful station that provides the benefits of cost savings in the construction of the station on floating structures shipyards; it also allows use as offshore installations.
In accordance with the present invention, a method for generating electrical energy from carbon-containing fuels, including the provision of fuel combustion in the presence of oxygen under high pressure in the combustion chamber, the separation of the exhaust gas after the combustion of the fraction rich in CO2, which is treated so that it is not released into the environment, and the fraction depleted in CO2that extend through one or more turbines for the implementation of other process is in and/or the generation of electric energy before the release of this fraction in the environment, moreover, the temperature in the combustion chamber is reduced when generating steam, which expands through a steam turbine connected to an electric generator for generating electric energy. The combustion pressure in the combustion chamber, as described above, provides a significant advantage in that a high partial pressure of CO2and low partial pressure of oxygen in the combustion products is obtained without gas recirculation and without abnormally high temperature of the combustion products.
In a preferred embodiment, more than 50%, more preferably more than 60%, and most preferably more than 70%, for example more than 80%, heat of combustion produced in the combustion chamber, disposed in the form of steam. When most of the energy is given in the form of steam, its dependence of efficiency on critical units, such as under high pressure high temperature (above 600° (C) heat exchangers is reduced, and the use of such aggregates is minimized. This is achieved by significantly reducing the load on these units.
In a preferred embodiment, the exhaust gas from the combustion chamber is cooled by heat exchange with a fraction depleted in CO2for heating this fraction depleted in CO2before expanding it through a turbine. This leads to increasing the military efficiency, because thermal energy of the exhaust gas is maintained and used to drive turbines.
It is also preferable to add water and/or air in the fraction depleted in CO2for selection of heat from the hot exhaust gas coming from the combustion chamber.
Similarly, it is preferable to heat the fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. It was found that this will increase the overall efficiency of the process, i.e. how much of the chemical energy contained in the fuel is converted into electrical energy.
In particular, it is preferable to heat the fuel by heat exchange with a partial stream of the air compressor and in the place where there is a heat exchange, and therefore cooling, add the compressed air stream in a fraction depleted in CO2to increase its heat capacity.
Along with this, provided large amounts of "cheap", i.e. do not have a noticeable negative impact on plant efficiency, low pressure steam suitable for regeneration of the absorbing agent. At the same time, increases the possibility of the return of this low-grade energy from the cooling devices in the chain compression CO2as a useful contribution to the generation of electric power. There is a further feature of the accumulation of isopotentials energy for energy production, namely, that the use under a high pressure of the mixture of air and water in a suitable installation location can lead to the evaporation of water, and means to fill a large energy at temperatures lower than the boiling point of water at the prevailing pressure.
It is the combination of these characteristics makes the feasibility of installation with competitive efficiency in the range of 43.5-46% or more, depending on the degree of optimization and purification CO2. Achievable must be the purification efficiency of 90% or more.
In addition, the described thermal power plant for carbon-based fuel, preferably hydrocarbon, containing a combustion chamber in which fuel is burned under high pressure in the presence of oxygen, the exhaust gas pipe for guiding exhaust gas from the combustion chamber in the contact device where the exhaust gas is introduced after cooling in contact with an absorbing agent, which absorbed most of the CO2,however, other gases present in the exhaust gas, mostly not absorbed, pipe (14) gas, designed for non-absorbed gas from the contact device, means for heating the gas stream depleted in CO2that means for the extension of this heated gas stream depleted in CO2per the d release into the environment and a means to transport the absorbing agent absorbed CO 2from the contact device to the place of deposition or means for the regeneration of the absorbing agent for recycling it in the contact device, the combustion chamber contains means to generate steam and pipes for feeding steam into the steam turbine for expansion.
Thermal power plant preferably includes a camera condensation, designed for water condensation in the exhaust gas and located in front of the contact device. With this camera, remove the water formed in the combustion exhaust gas. The presence of water in the cleaning process is undesirable because it can cause harm devouring agent or arrange it.
In a preferred embodiment, thermal power plant also includes means for supplying water which is condensed in the chamber condensation in the fraction depleted in CO2to increase the heat capacity of this fraction.
In a preferred embodiment, the combustion chamber also includes an outer shell and inner shell, between which there is a cooling agent and is the tube that covers the inner surface of the combustion chamber, and means for circulating water through the pipe.
Below is a more detailed description of the present invention as applied to a preferred variant of its implementation and with reference to alagaesia drawings, on which:
figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram illustrating a basic implementation of gas-fired power plant in accordance with the present invention;
figure 2 shows an alternative implementation with a high efficiency;
figure 3 shows an implementation option under high pressure combustion chamber in which the outer shell is protected from the effects of temperature products of combustion with circulating gaseous CO2and circulating boiler water.
First will be described the basic configuration illustrated in figure 1. Shows the block diagram does not depend on the size of the station, but in relation to the described in this application values refers to the station with a capacity of 400 MW.
Oxygen-containing gas, such as air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen, hereinafter in the present description and patent formula "air", which falls into the sewage pipe 1 air is compressed in the compressor 2, 2'. This compressor can be single, but it is preferable that the compressor 2 consisted of two or more consecutive compressors, preferably, with intermediate cooling of the air between the compressor 2 and 2', as shown via a heat exchanger 45, which cools the air in the pipe 3' between the two compressor is mi. In the preferred embodiment, two of the compressor 2, 2'shown in figure 1, are under work pressure is favorable for the present invention and comprising about 16 bar. The incoming air is compressed in the compressor 2' to achieve a pressure of about 4 bar. This air is directed from the compressor 2' into the compressor 2 through the pipe 3'. The air in the pipe 3' is cooled in the heat exchanger 45 between the compressors before is sent to the compressor 2. In the compressor 2, the air is additionally compressed to achieve a pressure of about 16.7 bar. The need for combustion air in this setup is about 400 kg of air per second.
From the compressor 2, the compressed air is directed through the pipe 3 into the combustion chamber 6. The pressure of this air is regulated to achieve the operating pressure in the combustion chamber so that air is blown into the chamber. In this case, the pressure must be greater than the working pressure in the combustion chamber, for example, 0.5 to 1 bar, for example 0.7 bar.
Fuel containing carbon or carbon compounds, such as hydrocarbons in the form of gas or oil, is fed into the combustion chamber 6 through the pipe 9 of the fuel supply. The pressure of the fuel that enters the combustion chamber 6, is increased by a pump (not shown) or similar means to the pressure, which allows to pump the fuel into the combustion chamber. Still the way the pressure in this case must be greater than the working pressure of the combustion chamber, for example, 0.5 to 1 bar, for example at 0.7 bar. In the case of natural gas, the consumption of it in this setting is about 19 kg of gas per second.
It is preferable to use burners that give low content of NOxin the exhaust gas, because the release of such gases has features that create a danger to the environment. When using burners that give low content of NOxthe release of NOxboiler with burners, giving a low content of NOxwill be reduced to less than 50 parts NOxper million parts of the exhaust gas. In accordance with known and proven technology, the additional amount of NOxcan be removed with NH3(3NO+2NH3=2,5N2+3H2O) in a mining machine (not shown). This purge at atmospheric pressure provides efficiency up to 90%, but it is assumed that at 16 bar it will be much more. Therefore, it can be cleaned up to a level of less than 5 parts NOxin a million. Due to the adaptation of the heat exchangers can be given gas temperature, which is optimal for this process. There are other ways in which the NH3does not apply, and the appropriateness of these methods is determined by the fact that NH3gives the AutoRAE "slide" NH 3.
The combustion in the combustion chamber 6 takes place under pressure in the range from atmospheric pressure to the gauge pressure, which may range from 1.5 to 30 bar, for example from 5 to 25 bar, or for example from 10 to 20 bar. It was found that a pressure of about 16 bar is especially preferred, based on the needs of the subsequent purification and separation of CO2and operating experience of gas turbines and air compressors. It is the combustion pressure of about 16 bar is used in the example presented here.
Gross heat of combustion in this case is about 900 MW.
The flow of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is adjusted so that the exhaust gas from the combustion chamber has a residual oxygen content of from 1 to 10%, preferably from 1.5 to 6%, and more preferably 2-4%. This is much less than in a gas turbine where the exhaust gas typically contains about 15% oxygen.
During the combustion of water which is supplied through the pipe 4 in water, heated, which leads to the production of steam, which is supplied via an outlet pipe 5 for steam in the steam turbine 53 and extends through it. The expanded steam from the turbine 53 is supplied through the pipe 4' into the combustion chamber 6 for heating again. Heated vapor leaves the combustion chamber through the pipe 5', in which he served in the steam turbine 54, in which he expands the I.
From the steam turbine 54 steam flows through a pipe 56 to the turbine 57 low pressure, in which it is additionally expanding. Steam turbine 53, 54 and turbine 57 low pressure preferably located on a common shaft 55 driving the generator 58 to generate electricity.
Most of the expanded steam and the condensed water is directed from the turbine 57 low pressure through the pipe 59 into the heat exchanger 60, which cools the water by means of external cooling water. After cooling and complete condensation of the water pressure in the pipe 59 is increased to reach the pressure desired for further circulation by a pump 61. This relatively cold water can be used to maintain the low-temperature energy in different places in the plant where heat exchange with a warmer streams to be cooled. This gives the opportunity to use and/or maintain a low temperature thermal energy to some extent, which is essential to achieve acceptable efficiency of energy use.
In this case, it is shown through heat exchanger 62, which performs heat exchange of the cold flow in a pipe 59 with a warmer stream in the pipe 63. The flow in the pipe 63 is the flow that is diverted from the low-pressure turbine in that place, depar not fully expanded. The pressure of the flow in the pipe 63 is also enhanced to reach the pressure desired in the further circulation by a pump 64. Flows in pipes 59 and 63 are combined in the pipe 65, which provides heat exchange with the exhaust gas after combustion in the pipe 41 of the exhaust gas in the heat exchanger 67, to maintain residual heat to the water in the tank 66 to the water.
A partial flow of the chilled water in the pipe 59 can be driven into the pipe 68 and heat through heat exchange may first partially cooled flue gas coming down the pipe 41, the heat exchanger 69, and then with hot gas coming through the pipe 3', before the water flows through the pipe 68 is directed into the tank 66 to the water.
Water from the tank 66 for water is directed into the pipe 70 to the pump 71, where its pressure is increased to the desired. From the pump 71 water is directed into the pipe 70 to the heat exchanger 17 in which water is heated by heat exchange with the warm flue gas in the pipe 41. It may be desirable selection of the smaller streams of the steam turbine 53 and 54 in the pipes 72 and 73, respectively, and the heat transfer of these flows with the stream that branch from the flow in the pipe 70, as shown through pipe 76, and use them to heat water. The heated water from the heat exchangers 17 and 74, respectively, is directed into the pipe 4 and used it for refrigerated the I combustion chamber.
The gas in the combustion chamber 6 is cooled by means of this generation of steam so that the operating temperature in the combustion chamber is maintained in the range of 700-900°usually in the range of 800-850°C. The hot steam while cooling the combustion chamber preferably selected more than 50%, more preferably more than 60%, and most preferably more than 70%, heat of combustion in the combustion chamber.
A very large amount of heat available from the combustion chamber, ensures that most of the oxygen in the air can be used without bringing the temperature up to an unacceptably high level. This provides a high concentration of CO2in the exhaust gas, the consumption of relatively small amounts of air compared to the amount of energy that is produced, and thereby provides a significant advantage in that it is necessary to clean the off-gas flow with a relatively small volume. When the majority of electrical energy is produced in efficient gas turbines, the heat load on the critical gas-gas heat exchanger 8 is significantly reduced, which allows to obtain a reduced size and simplified design.
Low temperature and reduced heat load also means that there will be fewer problems with thermal expansion and corrosion than the more high temperature and heat load. Thereby, it is possible to reduce the cost of construction and maintenance costs of the station along with greater energy production and simplification of the purification of exhaust gas without great loss of electrical efficiency.
Referring to figure 1, it should be noted that the exhaust gas from the combustion chamber 6 flows through a pipe 10 to the exhaust gas through one or more gas-gas heat exchanger 8, 11 and balancing refrigeration apparatus 12, where the exhaust gas is cooled before sent to the contact device 13, where the gas is introduced into contact with an absorbing agent. The pressure in the contact device 13 is close to the pressure in the combustion chamber 6, as the pressure is reduced only in accordance with the pressure drop on heat exchangers 8, 11 and balancing refrigeration apparatus 12.
Water that appears as a result of combustion in the combustion chamber 6 and which is condensed during cooling of the flue gas through the heat exchangers, is separated in the water separator 50 before the contact device 13. Water can dilute or otherwise damage absorbing agent in the contact device.
On the accompanying drawing the heat exchangers 8, 11 are two coils are connected in series. The number of heat exchangers and their dimensions depend on the actual size and design of the actual station,and so they can vary from station to station. A typical station will contain from two to four heat exchangers connected in series. The temperature in the contact device 13 depends on the absorbing agent and represents a compromise between low temperature, which gives a high solubility, and higher temperature, which promotes reactions associated with the absorption process. Typical temperatures are less than 20°water, 50°for amines and 80°to 100°for use With solutions of inorganic substances, such as potassium carbonate.
Preferred absorbent agents are fluids such as water, aminecontaining solution or an aqueous solution of inorganic substances, such as carbonate solution, which can absorb relatively large amounts of CO2at high pressure and high partial pressure of CO2. Absorbing agent in the contact device 13 preferably flows down the large internal surface in the direction opposite to the direction of gas flow.
The contact device preferably operates at elevated pressure, for example greater than 8 bar, more preferably greater than 10 bar. Pressure may also be higher, for example greater than 15 or 20 bar.
The gas from the exhaust gas that is not absorbed by the solvent, the direction of which is from the contact device through the pipe 14 gas through the heat exchangers 11, 8, where the gas is heated before it is expanded in the turbine 15, 15'that creates the possibility of further use in the process of the energy contained in the hot, high pressure gas. Water from separator 50 is preferably removed through the pipe 52, is pumped by pump 51 and is sent together with the purified gas into the tube 14. Water evaporates when heated purified gas and supplying this gas together with a part of the weight assigned by condensation of water and cleaning, which increases the heat capacity of the gas.
Efficiency also can be improved by entering the compressor to the pipe 14 between the contact device 13 and the heat exchangers 11, 8. This compression causes heating of the gas, the heat of which will be selected later, and makes it possible to achieve a greater pressure drop in heat exchangers. Thus, to really get the best heat transfer over a smaller area, which gives the possibility to use more cheap heat exchangers.
Can also be appropriate compensation reduced mass flow due to exhaust CO2by filing a small flow of compressed gas taken from the pipe 3, the cooling of this gas so that this will not result in a loss of heat, for example, by heating the gas for combustion entering through the pipe 9, which is shown in figure 2, and put the e of the gas in the purified gas to the heat exchanger 11. Preferably, this gas had almost the same temperature as the gas in the pipe 14, so that its cooling should be carried out in accordance with this condition.
In a preferred embodiment, the turbine 15 is a more than one turbine, for example two turbines 15 and 15'connected in series, with the pipe 14 directs the gas, which is partially expanded in the turbine 15, a turbine 15'.
It may be the preferred location of the compressor 2' and the turbine 15' on a common shaft 40' and the design of the compressor 2' and the turbine 15' so that the kinetic energy from the turbine 15' is just sufficient to drive the compressor 2'. The compressor 15 is located on the shaft 40 together with the compressor 2 and a generator 16. The kinetic energy from the turbine 15 is larger than required to drive the compressor 2, as a result, this kinetic energy is used to generate electricity in the generator 16, which is mounted on the same shaft. This generator operates as a motor when starting the installation. If necessary, this kinetic energy can also be used for other purposes, for example for operation of the recirculation pump to supply the absorbing agent, a recirculating pump to supply the water in a boiler, compressor for enriched in CO2or to achieve all of these goals.>
From the turbine 15 advanced flue gas is directed through the heat exchanger 17 in which the remaining gas heat is used for the right application in the installation. In the depicted embodiment, this heat is used for heating the water in the pipe 4.
In the depicted device, the solvent containing CO2is directed from the contact device 13 through the pipe 19 through the heat exchanger 20 and an expansion unit (not shown) inside the device 18 desorption. The pressure device 18 desorption depends on the choice of the absorbing agent, the amount of absorbed CO2and needs regeneration. This pressure will usually be less than the pressure in the contact device 13, and will usually exceed the ambient pressure by an amount in the range between 0.1 and 1 bar.
In order to increase the release of absorbed gas from the absorber in the desorption device, the portion of the absorber will usually be removed at the bottom of the desorption device and sent to the circulation pipe 44 through the circulation heater 22, where the absorber is heated before sending it back to the device 18 desorption. Thermal energy for the circulation heater 22 may be selected from a different location in the plant, for example where divert the flow of steam under suitable pressure and temperature from the turbine 57 low Yes the population, and send through the pipe 76 into the heat exchanger 27 where the flow in the circulation pipe 44 is heated over a hot flow in the pipe 76. Steam, which is allocated through the pipe 76, is condensed in the heat exchanger and is pumped further into the tank 66 water pump 77. For example, in the pipe 76 possible selection of 30 kg of steam per second at a temperature of 200°and a pressure of 2.4 bar.
Energy requirements for this circulation heater is minimal, since the contact device 13 is driven at a high partial pressure of CO2in the incoming gas. At the same time, steam, which is used, has a small value, because it is already partially expanded through the turbine 53 and 54 of the high pressure and intermediate pressure.
Gas rich in CO2, released in device 18 desorption and is discharged from the top of this device, and then preferably directed through a condenser 23 where it is cooled, and liquid separator 24, before it is sent through the pipe 25 transportation CO2in the form of a stream of gas rich in CO2. The liquid separated in the separator 24 and liquid is returned through the pipe 26 to the transport of a liquid.
The regenerated absorbent from the bottom of the device 18 desorption is given and pumped through the recirculation pipe 43, is cooled in heat exchanger 20 and, possibly, additional heat exchangers in front of those who, returns in the contact device 13.
The stream of gas rich in CO2from separator 24 fluid is directed into the compressor system 28 through the pipe 25 transportation CO2and compressor system contains multiple stages of compression at which the gas is compressed so that it can be stored, transported, besiege a safe manner or to sell. The elements and design of this compressor systems are conventional, and further description will be omitted. This stream of gas rich in CO2in the typical case will contain from about 80 to 95%, and more preferably 90%, of the total amount of CO2resulting from combustion, in accordance with the design and control parameters of the installation.
The gas that goes in the pipe 14 from the contact device 13 has a low content of CO2in a typical case, approximately 10% of the total amount of CO2resulting from combustion. As mentioned above, this gas is fed through the pipe 52 with water, which had previously been removed from the exhaust gas, and is heated by heat exchange with hot flue gas in the heat exchangers 11 and 8 before expanding through the turbine 15, 15'.
A significant feature of the proposed method and device is that a significant part of the heat energy received in achiev is Tate combustion in the combustion chamber 6, is taken in the form of steam, which is used to drive steam turbines 53, 54 and 57. The fact that a significant portion of heat energy is taken in the form of steam, is a characteristic that differs from the usual solutions and providing that the temperature in the combustion chamber and accordingly the temperature of the flue gas coming from the combustion chamber, is moderate and adapted to the operation of gas turbines, and can withstand the pressure shell of the combustion chamber is cooled additionally, despite the almost complete utilization of the oxygen and the consequent creation of a high partial pressure of CO2. This leads to a much smaller load, and thus significantly less needs in the heat exchanger 8, which would be a "weak point" in the station, where most of the heat energy is taken in gas turbines, the actuator which operates the exhaust gas resulting from combustion. This is illustrated in the description of table 1, which shows several important measured values for the station corresponding to the present invention.
|Pressure, temperature, flow rate, and the effect for different devices located at various locations on the station capacity is d 400 MW|
|Position on drawings||Pressure (bar)||Temperature (°)||Consumption rate (kg/s)||Effect (MW)|
The corresponding figure 1 configuration the station according to the present invention can be modified in relation to the heat exchangers, pumps, etc. in the framework of the inventive idea. The items shown in this figure, can be a combination of similar or different elements that together perform the desired and described function. Thus, the unit, which was depicted as a heat exchanger, can be described as a combination of heat exchangers. Similarly, such a station may include additional elements, which are not described here, such as additional heat exchangers to maintain smaller amounts of energy, pumps or pressure reducing valves for regulating pressure in some elements, and so forth
Similarly, during the engineering and optimization of a specific installation will be possible deviation from the above details in part describes the flow of mass and energy.
Appropriate increases in efficiency can be obtained by using a combination of means, in which gaseous fuel is heated simultaneously with the filing of additional quantities of chilled air to the cold side of the heat exchanger 11. Heating energy of this gas may be selected from other places where cooling is required, or you can select from the compressor 2, 2', as shown in figure 2. An additional amount of air is directed into the pipe 7, extend through the heat exchanger 80 where the heat exchange with the incoming gas flowing in the pipe pri consumption 9,19 kg/s at 15° With with the purpose of heating the gaseous fuel to a temperature of about 240°while the air is cooled to a temperature of about 60°C. the Cooled air in the pipe 7 is directed into the pipe 14 where it is injected in the exhaust gas, giving the flow a larger volume and greater weight to increase the ability of the gas to take heat and thereby cooling the exhaust gas in the pipe 10 by means of heat exchangers 8, 11. This preheating, as shown in figure 2, can according to the calculations to improve the efficiency of the plant by approximately 1% in the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy through combustion.
If compressed air is not used for heat exchange with the fuel in the pipe 7 can alternatively serve the air directly from the compressor 2, 2' or from a separate compressor (not shown).
High temperature and pressure cause high demands on the design and choice of materials for hot components. The construction of such items as the combustion chamber and heat exchangers for high pressure and high temperature, is complicated and expensive. Traditional combustor to work under pressure are preferred in this case, requires expensive materials. It will be possible to reduce construction costs and reduce the vulnerability of the combustion chamber, making a wall in the chamber SGAs the project consisting of two or more shells, arranged one outside the other, while the outer shell can be maintained at a temperature below 350°C, preferably below 300°C.
Figure 3 shows such a combustion chamber 100 containing the outer shell 101 and the inner shell 102, between which may be a cooling medium, such as CO2. CO2you can enter through the pipe 106 supply of the cooling agent. Hot CO2play and circulates through the cooling circuit for the CO2(not shown). Heat energy is taken from CO2preferably communicated to those threads in the process, for which there is a need for heating, with the help of pipes (not shown)going to any of the several heat exchangers, which are shown in figures 1 and 2, or heat exchangers, which are not shown.
The fuel and oxygen-containing gas, such as pure gas, air, oxygen-enriched or conventional air delivered through pipes 9 and 13, respectively, in one or more burners 103.
As shown in figure 3, CO2you can also send down the pipe 107 for flue gas from the combustion chamber to the next in the processing chain to exchangers, where it can also be used for cooling. The amount of CO2that circulates between the outer and inner membranes, adjust so that the temperature of the external Obolo the key 101 does not exceed 350° With, and in the preferred embodiment, does not exceed 300°C. by maintaining the temperature of the outer shell below 350°can be used in this case is relatively inexpensive materials, and the production of such membranes is easier and cheaper than if the membrane must withstand higher temperatures.
Inside the outer shell 101 is the inner shell 102, which is made of heat resistant material. In a preferred embodiment, between the inner and outer sides of the inner shell is not pressure fall occurs or happens only a small pressure drop, so that this shell is not subjected to high stresses due to pressure. If desired, the wall of the combustion chamber can be performed with more than two shells.
Inner wall of the combustion chamber, i.e. located inside the inner wall 102 covered in one or more tubes 104, which is laid in the form of one or more spirals around the wall. Spiral pipe 104 preferably covers the entire inner surface of the inner shell, protects it from the products of combustion inside the combustion chamber and at the same time reduces as the temperature in the combustion chamber and the temperature of the inner wall 102. Pipe 104 can direct the flow of boiler water, which gives the outer shell high pressure is of additional protection against temperature, making it does not exceed 300-350°Sato heat which is introduced into the water in the pipes 104, may be introduced into the water, for example, when heated, when increasing the pressure of the gas circulates through the heat exchanger, in which heat is used for heating the pipe, where there is a need for heating at elevated temperatures.
The temperature in the combustion chamber further reduce the heating coils 105, which is a combination of several heating coils, in which water and/or steam is supplied through the pipes 4 and 4' and/or directly from the pipe 104.
High-temperature heat exchanger should not be cooled and re-heated, if it performs the function of a casing of a high pressure. Therefore, it may be advantageous construction of heat exchangers, such as heat exchangers, in which one of the threads has a temperature of more than 350°providing for the presence of an outer shell of high pressure and the inner shell between which flows a cooling medium, such as CO2or nitrogen, in the same way as in the case of the combustion chamber. Alternatively, you can directly or indirectly cooling the casing around the heat exchanger of the boiler water as a cooling agent. An additional alternative is to run the heat exchanger inside under high pressure is of the combustion chamber, and then he will no longer perform the functions of the pressure vessel.
May also be appropriate to other correction design of some elements, in particular, improve the working protection, reduce construction costs and reduce the risk of wear and related errors. So, it may be appropriate to use a cooling gas, such as CO2for cooling the shell of the combustion chamber 6 and other hot items, such as hot heat exchangers, such as heat exchangers 8. This thermal energy in the cooling gas can be used in such a way that it will be the supply to the heat exchangers for heating in those places in the process where you can use nizkopotentsialnogo energy, particularly for heating water supplied into the combustion chamber. Cooling under high pressure combustion chamber under high pressure heat exchanger before reaching the temperature of the shell below 350 degrees Celsius makes it possible to use grades of high-strength low-alloy steel. Such a system can be used for heating of these elements before starting station. This reduces thermal tensile stress and reduces the risk of crack formation in the membranes and high pressure pipes.
1. The way we produce electr the political energy of the carbon-containing fuel, including the provision of fuel combustion in the presence of oxygen under high pressure in the combustion chamber, the separation of the exhaust gas after the combustion of the fraction rich in CO2, which is treated so that it is not released into the environment, and the fraction depleted in CO2that extend through one or more turbines for other processes and/or the generation of electric energy before the release of this fraction in the environment, and the temperature in the combustion chamber is reduced when generating steam, which expands through a steam turbine connected to an electrical generator to generate electrical energy.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which more than 50%, more preferably more than 60%, and most preferably more than 70%, for example, more than 80% of the heat of combustion produced in the combustion chamber, away in the form of steam.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, in which the exhaust gas from the combustion chamber is cooled by heat exchange with a fraction depleted in CO2for heating this fraction depleted in CO2before expanding it through a turbine.
4. The method according to claim 3, in which you add water and/or air in the fraction depleted in CO2for selection of heat from the hot exhaust gas coming from the combustion chamber.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which heat the fuel before it is fed into Kam is ru combustion.
6. The method according to claim 5, in which heat the fuel by heat exchange with a partial stream of the air compressor, in that place, where the heat transfer and cooling serves the compressed air stream in a fraction depleted in CO2to increase its heat capacity.
7. Thermal power plant for carbon-based fuel, preferably hydrocarbon containing chamber (6) combustion, in which fuel is burned under high pressure in the presence of oxygen, the pipe (10) gas direction of the exhaust gas from the chamber (6) combustion in the contact device (13), where the exhaust gas is introduced after cooling in contact with an absorbing agent, which absorbed most of the CO2while other gases present in the exhaust gas, mostly not absorbed, pipe (14) gas intended for unabsorbed gas from the contact device, means for heating the gas stream depleted in CO2that means for the extension of this heated gas stream depleted in CO2prior to release into the environment, and the means for transporting the absorbing agent absorbed CO2from the contact device to the place of deposition or means (18) for the regeneration of the absorbing agent for recycling it in the contact device, the camera (6) combustion includes means for generating n the RA and pipes (5, 5') for feeding steam into the steam turbine (53, 54, 57) for the extension.
8. Thermal power plant according to claim 7, which contains a chamber (50) condensing designed to condensation of water in the exhaust gas and located in front of the contact device (13).
9. Thermal power plant according to claim 7, which includes means (51, 52) to add water, which is condensed in the chamber (50) condensing, in a fraction depleted in CO2to increase the heat capacity of this fraction.
10. Thermal power plant according to claim 7 or 9, in which the camera (100) combustion contains the outer shell (101) and the inner membrane (102), between which passes the cooling medium, and are pipe (104), which cover the inner surface of the chamber (100) of combustion, and means for circulating water through pipes (104).
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed heat power-generating plant build around gas-turbine engine designed for driving main generator or turbocompressor and getting hot exhaust gases contains heat producing system, power generating system and automatic control and regulation system. Heat producing system employs heat of exhaust gases and includes recovery circuit with recovery boiler, pumping unit for circulating water under heating and piping manifold with valves and fittings. Heat producing system of plant is furnished with shell-and-tube heat exchanger providing transmission of produced heat from recovery circuit of heat producing system of plant into power-and-heat supply circuit of heat consumer. Piping manifold is furnished with driven valves providing delivery of hot water from recovery boiler both power-and-heat supply circuit and into circuit of power generating system. Power generating system consists of closed circuit equipped with heat exchange, pumping and reservoir equipment and equipment for condensing vapors of working medium, shutoff and regulating devices and recovery power-generating plant with steam-turbine drive. Closed circuit of power-generating system of plant contains multistage evaporation system of low-boiling hydrocarbon mixture using hot water, device for preliminary heating of condensate, system for condensing working medium vapors and device to remove non-condensed components of gaseous hydrocarbon mixture from low-boiling hydrocarbon mixture circuit. Preliminary heating of condensate is provided by hot vapors of hydrocarbon mixture getting out of steam turbine drive before their delivery into condensing system. System for automatic control and regulation of heat producing and power generating systems contains devices providing operation of recovery circuit of heat producing system in two modes, namely, heat producing and power generating ones.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heat and power generating plant for recovering of heat of exhaust gases of gas-turbine engine.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steam power plant with additional steam turbines includes power-and-heating plant with open power and heat supply system, gas-turbine plant with recovery boiler and make-up water heating and deaerating unit including at least two additional steam turbines with contact condensers which are placed in softened make up water line. Output of power and heating plant unit is connected by pipeline with input of contact condensers of additional steam turbines of make up water heating and deaerating unit. Output of steam recovery boiler unit of gas-turbine plant unit is connected by steam line with input of additional steam turbines. Input of steam recovery is connected by feed water pipeline with make up water heating and deaerating unit. Output of make up water heating and deaerating unit is connected by make up deaerated water pipeline with system heaters of power and heating plant unit and by feed water pipeline, with input of recovery boiler of gas-turbine plant.
EFFECT: facilitated deaeration and reduced cost of make up water deaeration system of heat supply system increased power and economy of power and heating plant.
FIELD: power and heat generation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power and heating plant with open power and heat supply system including boiler unit, steam turbine, deaerator and feed pump includes steam-gas turbine plant unit with low-pressure afterburning chamber, steam gas mixture heat recovery unit containing recovery boiler with high-and-pressure steam generators, spraying device, gas cooler-condenser and separated water utilization unit. Separated water utilization unit is connected with input of low-pressure steam generator of recovery boiler through water softening set and deaerator. Spraying device is connected with raw water softening device of power and heating plant. Input of high-pressure steam generator of recovery boiler is connected with output of steam-gas-turbine plant. Low-pressure steam generator of recovery boiler is connected with additional afterburning chamber of steam-gas turbine plant. Separated water utilization unit is connected by pipeline of softened and deaerated low-pressure feed water with steam-gas mixture heat recovery unit and pipeline of softened, heated and deaerated make-up water with open power and heat supply system. High-pressure steam generator is connected by feed water and steam pipelines with power and heating plant.
EFFECT: provision of effective modernization of steam turbine power and heating plants with increase of power and economy.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes utilization of heat exhausted from additional steam-gas turbine plant for generation of high pressure steam and additional low pressure steam. High pressure steam is sent to and expanded in thermal steam turbine. Low pressure steam is fed to additional low pressure combustion chamber of steam-gas turbine plant, additional fuel is sent same way as steam, and temperature of steam-gas mixture is set mainly at level close to 900°C and it is expanded in low pressure steam-gas turbine. Nutritious water for generation of high pressure steam is fed from deaerator of high pressure heating and electrical line. Into steam-gas mixture, cooled down during generation of low pressure steam, irrigation water is injected, steam component of this steam-gas mixture is condensed, formed condensate is separated and drained into tank for separated water, from which cooled down irrigation water is fed for condensation of steam in steam-gas mixture. Least portion of separated water is used as nutritious water for generation of low pressure steam. Heat of most portion of separated water is used to heat a portion of network water from closed thermal system of main electrical and heating line.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exhausted from additional steam-gas turbine plant is utilized to generated high pressure steam and additionally low pressure steam. High pressure steam is sent to and expanded in thermal steam turbine. Low pressure steam is sent to additional low pressure combustion chamber of steam-gas turbine plant, to where also additional fuel is directed, temperature of steam-gas mixture is set mainly at level close to 900°C and expanded in low pressure steam-gas turbine. Nutritious water for generation of high pressure steam is taken from high pressure deaerator of main electrical heating line. Into steam-gas mixture, cooled down for generation of low pressure steam, irrigation water is injected, steam component of this steam-gas mixture is condensed, formed condensate is separated and then drained to tank for separated water. Least portion of separated water is used as nutritious water for generation of low pressure steam. Heat of most portion of separated water is used to heat up softened nutritious water, which is then deaerated and sent to heating network of open thermal system of main electrical heating line. Irrigation water cooled down during the process is fed for condensation of steam in steam-gas mixture.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system has boiler, steam turbine, electric generator, deaerator and feeding pump, and additionally has steam-gas turbine plant block with low pressure burning chamber, steam-gas mixture heat utilization block and block for using separated water. Block for utilization of heat of steam-gas mixture has utilization boiler with steam generator of high pressure and additional low-pressure steam generator. Block for using separated water via low pressure nutritious water pipeline is connected to input of low pressure steam generator of utilization boiler and via irrigation water pipeline is connected to irrigation device of steam-gas mixture heat utilization block. Input of high pressure steam generator of utilization boiler is connected via steam-gas mixture pipeline to output of steam-gas turbine plant. Low-pressure steam generator of utilization boiler is connected via low-pressure steam pipeline to additional combustion chamber of gas-steam turbine plant. Block for using separated water via pipelines for low-pressure nutritious water, irrigation water and separated water is connected to steam-gas mixture heat utilization block, and via softened heated and deaerated nutritious water pipeline - to base heat and electricity main line. High-pressure steam generator is connected via high-pressure nutritious water pipeline and high-pressure steam pipeline to base main line.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system has boiler, steam turbine, electric generator, deaerator, feeding pump, and is additionally provided with gas-steam turbine plant block having low-pressure combustion chamber, steam-gas mixture heat utilization block and separated water utilization block. Steam-gas mixture heat utilization block has utilization boiler with high-pressure steam generator and additional low-pressure steam generator. Block for using separated water via low-pressure nutritious water pipeline is connected to low-pressure steam generator of utilization boiler and via irrigation water pipeline is connected to irrigation device of steam-gas mixture heat utilization block. Input of high-pressure steam generator of utilization boiler is connected by steam-gas mixture pipeline to output of steam-gas turbine plant. Low-pressure steam generator of utilization boiler is connected via low-pressure steam generator to additional combustion chamber of steam-gas turbine plant. Block for using separated water via pipelines for low-pressure nutritious water, irrigation water and separated water is connected to block for utilization of steam-gas mixture heat and via pipelines for cooled down and heated network water - to base main line. High-pressure steam generator is connected via high-pressure nutritious water pipeline and high-pressure steam pipeline to base main line.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering; developing and updating binary combined-cycle plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combined-cycle plant has low-pressure compressor 1, air intercooler 2, high-pressure compressor 3, combustion chamber 4, gas turbine 5, exhaust-heat boiler 6, steam turbine 7, and power generator 8. High- and low-pressure compressor stages are chosen to ensure high-pressure compressor pressure ratio corresponding to that found from formula proceeding from desired total efficiency of combined-cycle plant.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of intercooled binary combined-cycle plant due to optimal proportion of high- and low-pressure compressor stages.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil-producing industry; oil-processing industry; installations for trapping the vapors of the hydrocarbons from the air-vapor mixtures formed at the oil products storing and transfer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the oil-producing industry and oil-processing industry. The installation for the trapping the of the vapors of the hydrocarbons from the air-vapors mixture formed at the oil products storing and transfer contains: the absorbing apparatus, the refrigerating machine, the heat exchangers, the pump, the feeding and withdrawing pipelines of absorbing agent, the air-vapors mixture and the purified air, the means of automation including the valves, the gates, the sensors and the assembly of the automatic control of the installation operation. At that the absorbing apparatus is made in the form of the horizontal disk-shaped heat-exchange apparatus, which is mounted inclined and with the capability of its adjusting concerning the axis in direction of the outlet of the absorbing agent from it, in the capacity of which the diesel fuel is used, and the installation itself is made in compliance with the modular approach. The absorbing apparatus with the pipe ducts of feeding and withdrawal of the air-vapor mixture, the air and the absorbing agent with the mounted on them means of the automation, the pump and the heat exchangers form the contours of the air-vapor mixture and absorption, which are linked among themselves by the internal space of the absorbing apparatus and are located in the separate block-box. The refrigerating machine and the assembly of the automatic control of the installation operation are disposed outside the block-box and are connected to the heat-exchanger disposed on the pipe duct of feeding of absorbing agent, and with the means of automation. The invention allows to increase considerably the completeness of trapping of the hydrocarbons, to increase profitability and to improve the installation ecological compatibility.
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase completeness of trapping of the hydrocarbons, to increase profitability and to improve ecological compatibility of the installation.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: fluidics; methods of cleaning vapor-and-gas mixtures from hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of liquid medium to liquid-and-gas jet apparatus by means of pump, scavenging of vapor-and-gas mixture from reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline and compression of this medium in liquid-and-gas jet apparatus. Mixture of vapor-and-gas and liquid media formed in liquid-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to separator. Liquid medium is removed from separator to reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline. Oil or gasoline is fed to pump inlet or to separator. Gaseous phase from separator is fed to the second liquid-and-gas jet apparatus; liquid phase fed to this apparatus by means of pump compresses gaseous phase. Mixture of gaseous phase and liquid medium formed in the second vapor-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to the second separator. Liquid medium from the second separator is discharged to reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline and simultaneously oil or gasoline is fed to the inlet of the second pump or to the second separator. Gas mixture from the second separator is fed to the third liquid-and-gas jet apparatus to which adsorbent is fed by means of the third pump and hydrocarbons are absorbed by this absorbent from gas medium. Mixture of gas medium and absorbent formed in the third liquid-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to the third separator where pressure is maintained within 0.7-2.5 Mpa and mixture is divided into gas medium cleaned from hydrocarbons and absorbent saturated with hydrocarbons of gas medium; this absorbent is directed to the desorber where pressure is maintained below pressure in the third separator; hydrocarbons of gas medium contained in saturated absorbent are separated from it and absorbent from desorber is directed to the third pump inlet. Plant may be provided with additional liquid-and-gas jet apparatus and preliminary desorber.
EFFECT: reduced losses of oil or gasoline; reduced power expenses; high degree of cleaning vapor-and-gas mixture discharged into atmosphere from hydrocarbons.
21 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis and gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to treatment of emission gases in the cumene process-mediated phenol and acetone production. Treatment process comprises continuous-mode absorption of cumene from emission gases in a plant comprised of absorber, cooler, and pump. Cumene is removed from absorbent and reused in the phenol-acetone production process circuit. As absorbent, cumene production by-product, namely polyalkylbenzenes, is used at temperature below 10°C. Content of cumene in purified emission gases does not exceed 158 mg/m3.
EFFECT: simplified gas treatment procedure, eliminated complicated equipment and waste, and reduced cost.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 17 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying fluid to the liquid-gas get device by pump, pumping out the vapor-gas fluid from the vessel or tank for storing liquid, and compressing the fluid in the liquid-gas jet device using the liquid energy. The mixture produced in the liquid-gas jet device is supplied to the separator, is separated into gas phase and liquid phase. The liquid phase is discharged to the vessel or tank, and the oil or gasoline is sup-plied to the inlet of the pump or separator. The gas phase is supplied to the second liquid-gas jet device from the separator. The second pump supplies liquid to the jet device, and, due to the fluid energy, the gas phase is compressed. The mixture produced in the second liquid-gas jet device is supplied to the second separator and is separated into gas phase and liquid phase. The liquid phase is discharged from the second separator to the vessel or tank, and, simultaneously, the oil or gasoline is supplied to the inlet of the second pump or the second separator. The gas phase is supplied to the absorber from the second separator. The absorbent is made of hydrocarbon liquid. The gas phase free from hydrocarbon is removed from the absorbent, the hydrocarbon liquid with hydrocarbons of gas phase dissolved in it is directed to the desorption unit. The device comprises pump, liquid-gas jet device, separator, second pump, second liquid-gas jet device, absorber, and desorption unit.
EFFECT: reduced oil or gasoline loss.
18 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas industry; dehumidification of gas to be piped through considerable distances.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in bringing the moist natural gas in contact with sulfuric acid of constant composition. Part of natural gas is directed to contact with sulfuric acid after which it is mixed with remaining part of natural gas. In the course of contact, concentration of sulfuric acid is maintained at level no less than 80% H2SO4 by continuous removal of part of acid from process and introduction of fresh acid whose concentration exceeds concentration of acid being removed. Removed sulfuric acid may be used in processes of handling low-concentration sulfuric acid.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of gas dehumidification; low cost of process; simplified equipment.
FIELD: simultaneous absorption of selected components of acid gas and topping light fractions of hydrocarbons entrapped by liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of gas flow and liquid flow to first mixer where they are brought in contact in direct flow and are subjected to turbulent mixing; then multi-phase flow from first mixer is directed to second mixer and after second mixer multi-phase flow is divided into gas phase and liquid phase. Second mixer has housing 102 with inlet hole 122 and outlet hole 123. Housing is provided with at least one movable control member 104 mounted hermetically; control member has central chamber for forming part of first wall connected with inlet side of housing and part of second wall connected with outlet side of housing. These parts of walls are provided with through passages 106A and 107B.
EFFECT: enhanced topping of entrapped hydrocarbons; increased absorption capacity by acid gas.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: cleaning gas mixtures from CO2 by multi-stage absorption method; chemical and oil-and-gas industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes absorption of CO2 from gas mixture by means of water in four absorbers (3,4,5 and 6) interconnected in succession. Water is fed to absorbers in parallel by means of one pump (7). Gas mixture to be cleaned contains 60-70 mass-% of CO2. Diameters of absorbers are decreased successively in such way that velocity of gas mixture in absorbers is within limits ensuring required final concentration of CO2 in cleaned mixture and height of absorbers is approximately equal.
EFFECT: high degree of cleaning gas mixture.
FIELD: processes of chemical infiltration or chemical deposition from vapor phase, case hardening in furnace.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for monitoring process realized in furnace with use of gas reagent containing at least one gaseous hydrocarbon. Method comprises steps of adjusting working parameters of furnace; adding into furnace gas-reagent containing at least one gaseous hydrocarbon; discharging from furnace exhaust gases that contain by-products of gas-reagent reaction; washing out exhaust gases by means of oil that absorbs resins present in exhaust gases; receiving information related to process according to measured quantity of resins absorbed by oil. It is possible to change working parameters of furnace such as temperature, pressure in furnace, gas-reagent consumption and composition.
EFFECT: possibility for monitoring process in furnace without special apparatus of infiltration furnace.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of heat of hydrocarbon fuel combustion products.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes absorption of water vapor from flue gases by cooled aqueous solution of salt of metal, cooling of combustion products transferring heat to heat-transfer agent and return of solution diluted after absorption for heating, evaporation and cooling. Before absorption, combustion products are cooled down transferring heat to heat-transfer agent at partial condensation of water vapor from combustion products. Absorption is carried out at transfer of absorption heat to heat-transfer agent and cooling of diluted solution. Diluted solution is heated at transfer of heat from combustion products. Water vapor formed at evaporation is condensed transferring heat of evaporation to heat-transfer agent. Evaporated solution is cooled with diluted solution returned for heating. Heat-transfer agent is first heated during cooling of combustion products after absorption and then during cooling of combustion products before absorption and then at absorption stage and at stage of condensation of water vapor formed during evaporation of diluted solution.
EFFECT: possibility of utilization of heat of combustion products and heat of evaporation in heat supply systems.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: gas treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: reagent is prepared via reaction of paraformaldehyde with methanolamine in presence of modifiers, in particular bipolar aprotic solvents: dimethylformamide and/or dimethylacetamide and/or hexamethylphosphortriamide.
EFFECT: increased yield of desired products and, respectively, reduced specific consumption of reagent on treatment of natural gas.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for fine purification of gases with removal of carbon dioxide at elevated pressures, in particular in hydrogen or ammonia production processes. Absorbent is an aqueous solution containing N-methyldiethanolamine, piperazine, potassium carbonate, and morpholine. Invention achieves reduced equilibrium pressure and increased carbon dioxide absorption at low degrees of carbonization (as low as 0.1 mole CO2 per mole tertiary amine) without appreciable N-methyldiethanolamine degradation rate.
EFFECT: enhanced carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.
2 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex