Method of deformation treatment of materials and device for realization of this method

FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.

EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.

9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to methods for materials processing pressure and can be used to obtain preparations of materials with specified structure, including submicrocrystalline (QMS) and nanocrystalline (NC), and an appropriate level of physical and mechanical properties of the material, which can be used in the engineering, aerospace, technology, medicine, etc.

Known methods of processing metals by pressure that is applied to obtain the QMS and NS structures for the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of the material. These methods can be combined intensive plastic deformation and thermomechanical processing.

A known method of manufacturing a rectangular forgings by free settling ingots with subsequent reductions to obtain planar faces (Ipharmacy, Vintron, Megaladon. Free forging presses. M: mechanical engineering, 1967, p.222-242).

There is a method of upsetting of prismatic workpiece in the cavity of the stamp, constraining the flow of material in the direction of one of the transverse axes of the workpiece and providing an elongation along its transverse axis, where the workpiece is removed from the cavity and is reset by turning around the longitudinal axis by 90°so that deformation occurred in the direction in which the plastic flow of the material at prospect the previous stage did not occur. The deformation thus can be performed repeatedly until the material required physical and mechanical properties (US 4721537, 26.01.1988).

A known method of manufacturing a rectangular forgings by settling of the workpiece in the closed cavity of rectangular (including square) cross-section. The workpiece is placed diagonally in the cavity of the stamp so that it touches all the edges and rebuff the upper flat brisk. Placing the workpiece on the diagonal in the cavity of the die with a touch of all its edges allows to maintain the stability of the workpiece longitudinal bending regardless of the ratio of its height to thickness (EN 2015781 C1, 15.07.1994).

A known method of deformation processing material, comprising the sequential deformation of the billet in stages, in the direction of one of the three axes. While the course material is in the direction of one of the side faces of the device. At each stage, the workpiece is removed from the device and reinstall in its cavity for subsequent deformation. As a result of this gradual deformation is getting in the final phase materials with controlled structure and properties, including maloplastichnye and hard materials (EN 2202434 C2, 20.04. 2003).

There is a method of forging a comprehensive, based on the use of repeated operations free Cove and: sediment-feed with the change of the axis efforts. Method of severe plastic deformation was used for grinding patterns in a number of alloys, including commercially pure titanium (Hashlishi, Orgalime, Rimgale, Sporyshev. Metals 1996. No. 4. - P.86). However, the draft is not recommended to deform the workpiece, in which the value of the ratio of height to minimum lateral size of more than 2.5, as in this case, it may happen buckling of the workpiece.

The way of deformation of the workpiece in the vertical and intersecting the channels, known as the method of equal-channel angular pressing (Wmel, Vigaplus, Viesnica "a plastic structure formation metals", Minsk: Science and Technica. - 1994. p.26), helps to solidify the metal in the process due to the high intensity shear strain.

A method of obtaining ultrafine-grained titanium workpieces in overlapping vertical and horizontal channels in combination with the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing to form thermally stable ultra fine-grained structure (EN 2175685, publ. 10.11.2001,, IB No. 31).

Known methods of processing the deformation described above, which are expensive and contain a large amount of waste processed material. To the General lack of methods and devices of equal-channel angular press the tion is significant non-uniformity of the strain distribution in end pieces, that does not provide uniform structural state in the entire volume, even in the case of multi-cycle treatment. This disadvantage is compounded with the increase in the transverse dimensions of the workpiece. In addition, high tonnage carried out usually in conditions of high contact friction and intense strain hardening material, require powerful and expensive pressing equipment, especially when processing difficult-to-deform materials or oversized workpieces and complicated tooling.

Closest to the proposed group of inventions is a method and apparatus for materials processing pressure by consistent deformation of the workpiece compression height in the cavity of the device for deformation processing (RU 2202434, publ. 20.04.2003, BI No. 31). The processing method includes the successive stages of the deformation of the workpiece compression height in the cavity of the device. This provides plastic flow of the metal, not the same direction with the direction of deforming efforts, bounded on three sides parallel to the direction of compression. At each stage, the workpiece is placed in the cavity of the device, deform, and then remove from the specified cavity and reinstall for the next stage. From the second this is while the workpiece is deformed to provide a plastic flow of material from one side. The method is implemented using a device containing two working parts, one of which is connected to the crossmember. This method allows due to severe plastic deformation by pressing to obtain a homogeneous submicrocrystalline structure.

The main disadvantages of the method and device include the following: over the deformable material in the direction of one of the free faces leads to heterogeneity of the resulting structure during deformation installed on the press stationary device requires partial disassembly after each cycle by releasing three side faces.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method and device providing a homogeneous ultrafine-grained structure with improved mechanical properties of the material.

The problem is solved in that, as known, in the proposed method, deformation processing of materials, which includes consecutive cycles of deformation of the original piece its compression height in the cavity of the device for deformation processing by providing a plastic flow of the material, not the same direction with the direction of deformation efforts and receiving the blanks with the side edges, the cycle includes placing the workpiece in the cavity of the device, its deformation from the treatment of the workpiece from the cavity of the device and reinstalling it for the next cycle of deformation, what's new is that exercised by plastic flow of the material evenly in two opposite directions along an axis perpendicular to the direction of effort.

In addition, the deformation is carried out in a cavity which consists of two parts, an upper rectangular section and a lower rectangular section having an extension along one of the horizontal axes.

In addition, as the original piece can be selected procurement round, rectangular, square, segmental-shaped cross-section.

In addition, removing the workpiece after the end of each cycle of deformation is carried out with the aid of the ejector.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the proposed device for deformation processing of materials containing a working part with a cavity.

What's new is that the cavity consists of two parts, the upper rectangular section and a lower rectangular section having an extension along one horizontal axis, and upper and lower punches.

In addition, the cavity of the working part is made in such a way that, at least starting from the second cycle of deformation, the four faces of a deformable workpiece in contact with the upper part of the cavity along the entire height of the upper part and the lower part of the cavity of the workpiece touches the two Grand is mi.

In addition, the lower the other one can be made different in height.

In addition, the working part of the device may be integral and/or collapsible.

In addition, the upper punch and the working part of the device can be fixed stationary. This refers to the fact that the upper punch and the working part of the device is not attached to the moving and fixed parts of the press, as is done in the prototype.

The invention consists in the following.

The proposed method and the device allow the deformation of workpieces, the geometrical dimensions of which are determined by the capacity of the compaction equipment. Accommodation billet is carried out in such a way that when the deformation of the workpiece in a confined space and boost its side faces in the upper part of the cavity of the device (mold) is made with four faces. Deformation processing includes consecutive cycles of deformation by compression of the workpiece height in the closed space so that the plastic flow of the material, unlike the prototype, is not in one but in two opposite directions, at an angle of 90° to the direction of the deforming force. This allows us to improve the scheme of the stress state, to improve the uniformity of deformation, to reduce the magnitude of the tensile stresses, the actuator is related to the formation of lateral cracks in the settling of the workpiece. When reinstalling the workpiece for the next pressing cycle (deformation) is the rotation of the workpiece around its longitudinal axis by 90°. It should be noted that after the first cycle of deformation of the workpiece becomes a rectangular shape in the cavity of the device, and further deformation is carried out with maintaining the possibility of obtaining the shape and size of the workpiece, identical obtained after the first cycle. The degree of deformation in each cycle can be varied by changing the height of the bottom of the other one. The removal of the deformed workpiece is carried out without disassembling the mold using the ejector.

This method allows you to get through severe plastic deformation of ultrafine-grained structure of the processed material with an average grain size not more than 0.2 μm, which increases its strength characteristics.

The present invention is illustrated by drawings, presented in figure 1-4.

Figure 1 shows the General view of the device and the workpiece.

Figure 2 presents a General view of the device and the workpiece, the cross-section A-A.

Figure 3 presents a General view of the device and the workpiece after deformation.

Figure 4 shows the extraction of the deformed billet.

Presented in figure 1, the device consists of upper and lower parts of the cavity (1) of the device, the top of the (2) and bottom (3) of the punches, between which is placed the workpiece (4), the base of the device (5), top (6) and bottom (7) of the plates of the press. Figure 1 shows that the cavity of the working part is made in such a way that, at least starting from the second cycle of warp four, faces a deformable workpiece in contact with the upper part of the cavity along the entire height of the upper part and the lower part of the cavity of the workpiece in contact with two faces.

Figure 2 shows that in cross-section a-a the two faces of a deformable workpiece in contact with the upper and lower parts of the cavity of the device over the entire height.

Figure 3 shows the combination of the deformation of the lower part in cramped conditions and deformation of its upper part in the lower horizontal cavity at an angle of 90°. This leads to intense shear in the region of intersection of the channels and a significant refinement of the structure in the whole volume of workpiece material on subsequent cycles.

4 shows removing the workpiece from the device after deformation. The device is installed on the ring-receiver (8), in which by means of the ejector (9) is extruded workpiece (4) and punches (2) and (3).

The method is performed in the following sequence.

Previously the device is placed on the base and is heated in a furnace to a predetermined temperature. Then, the device is a Source procurement procurement can be round or square, or rectangular or in the shape of a segment. The ratio of the height of the workpiece to its diameter (thickness) can reach 4-5. For uniform heating of the workpiece at each cycle was heated with the same speed. The heating rate was calculated by the empirical formula Dobrokhotova NN

t=kD3/2,

where t is the heating time, h; D is the diameter (thickness) of the workpiece, k is a coefficient equal to 12.5 for mild steel and 25 for high-alloy steel (structural materials Technology. M: Engineering. - 1976, 664 C.). The workpiece is subjected to intense plastic deformation in the cavity of the device. Next, the workpiece is removed from the cavity of the device and is reset by turning on 90°. The sequence of operations is carried out 3-4 cycles at each temperature.

Thus, the proposed method and device allow due to combination of free forging method in cramped conditions and the method of equal-channel angular pressing for a single cycle to achieve a greater degree of deformation and consequently a greater degree of uniformity and grinding the resulting structure.

The invention is illustrated by the following example.

The harvesting of commercially pure titanium, grade VT1-0, in the form of a rod with a diameter of 20 mm and a length of 40 mm with a uniform fine-grained structure with an average grain size is 10 μm was subjected to severe plastic deformation by the above method. The plastic deformation was carried out at successive lowering of temperature in the interval 500-390°C. Exposure of the workpiece at a given temperature was 5-6 minutes When calculating the heating rate coefficient k was taken to be 25, since the specific heat of titanium in the specified temperature range close to high-alloy steels.

The heated device together with the workpiece and the base was placed between the upper and lower press plates and the workpiece was subjected to deformation at a rate of 10-2-10-3c-1. At the end of the deformation process, the device was mounted on a ring-receiver, in which by means of the ejector were extracted from the workpiece and punches. Next, the workpiece was pereustanavlivati in the cavity of the device by turning 90°.

At the same temperature of the workpiece is deformed 3-4 cycles (times) with the change of deformation axis. Cumulative logarithmic degree of deformation was reached e≥8. After deformation processing received submicrocrystalline structure with an average grain size not more than 0.2 μm. The table shows the mechanical characteristics of the source and after deformation processing of titanium VT1-0 and for comparison of titanium VT1-0, specified in the prototype.

Mechanical features : the Tiki titanium VT1-0
StateThe grain size d, µmMicrohardness Hμ, MPaTensile strength σIn, MPaYield strength σof 0.2MPa
source VT1-0101860450360
after deformation VT1-0≤0,23000650610
after deformation VT1-0 (prototype)0,3630590

Thus, the proposed method and apparatus for producing ultrafine-grained titanium billets significantly improve the mechanical properties of the processed material.

1. Method of deformation processing of materials, including consecutive cycles of deformation of the original piece compression its height in the cavity of the device for deformation processing by providing a plastic flow of the workpiece material in a direction not coinciding with the direction of application of the deformation efforts, and receiving the blanks with the side edges, with each cycle of deformation includes placing the workpiece in the cavity of the device for deformation processing, deformation, removing the workpiece from the cavity of the specified device, Perea is the stop of the workpiece for the next cycle, characterized in that the deformation of the workpiece is carried out by providing a plastic flow of its material evenly in two opposite directions along an axis perpendicular to the direction supplied deformation efforts.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use the device for deformation processing performed with a cavity consisting of a rectangular cross-section of the upper part and the lower part is made with an extension along one of its horizontal axis.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that use the device for deformation processing with a cavity made of the conditions for starting at least from the second cycle of deformation, placing a deformable workpiece by contact with the upper part of the cavity along the entire height of the four faces of the workpiece, and with the lower part of the cavity - the two faces of the workpiece.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of the original piece using the procurement section of the circular, or square, or segmental form.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein removing the workpiece from the cavity of the device for deformation processing is performed using the ejector.

6. Device for deformation processing of materials containing a working part with a cavity and an upper punch, a different t is m, it is equipped with the lower punch and the cavity of the working part consists of rectangular cross-section of the upper part and the lower part is made with an extension along one of its horizontal axis.

7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the lower the other one is made different in height.

8. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that it is the working part is made of a composite and/or collapsible.

9. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the working part and the punch is made of exception conditions in steady fixation.



 

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4 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

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EFFECT: possibility for forming desired operational properties in material of blank.

1 dwg

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