Furrow irrigation method
FIELD: irrigation of farm crops in furrows, preferably cut along stand pipelines of irrigation network on fields divided into plots for simultaneous irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves uniting simultaneous irrigation plots into daily irrigation groups and separating from one another by means of water-retention webs; performing irrigation of each simultaneous irrigation plot with additional moistening without changing of flow rate by continuing irrigation from each superposed plot with multiple norms for running-up of water along moistened furrows to the end of underlying plot, with superposed plot being irrigated at night; irrigating terminating daily-irrigation plot with soil moisture content not less than critical value and area of said plot being equal to or multiple the area of daily output by tractor after performing of post-irrigation cultivation processes.
EFFECT: provision for irrigation with norms exceeding norms of running-up of water along dry furrows, increased length of irrigation furrows, uniform distribution of water along irrigation furrows, and increased area of daily irrigation.
The present invention relates to irrigation of agricultural crops in furrows in the fields, divided into plots of simultaneous irrigation.
The known method and system of furrow irrigation , in which, to improve the uniformity of water distribution along the length of the furrows by optimization of the mode of water supply, irrigation is divided into two phases: the first continuous watering a large flow rate for fast seeking water until the end of the furrow; the second irrigation water supply pulses with proportional regulation of their duration and pauses between them.
The device for implementing the known method of irrigation is a system containing a distribution pipe with drainage pipes with installed hydraulic diaphragm valves with pneumoperitoneum and means for providing pressure by partial or complete shutoff of flow in the distribution pipeline.
Controlled valve culverts groups associated channels control with servo-valves electro-pneumatic type and system management software.
The servo-valves provide alternate and the alternate actuation of the valve group for distribution of irrigation current in pulse mode between groups furrows in different versions.
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation SOS is the RTO is its complex system of automation of redistribution of irrigation current groups culverts determines its use only in stationary systems with watering down the long furrows, otherwise its use due to the large amount of preparatory work is not economically viable.
Another disadvantage of this method of irrigation is necessary, use a maximum expenditure in the first phase of irrigation. But the use of maximum discharge during seeking when watering the long furrow ineffective. This is because when cutting irrigation furrows on one pass of the tractor wheels and compacts the soil, and other furrows remain unconsolidated. The water in compacted furrows moves up to 30-50% faster than in unconsolidated. Therefore, in the period of completion of the first phase of irrigation by a known method with compacted furrows will be a significant relief. With increasing feed flow rate and the length of the furrow discharge increases.
It would be more efficient than the maximum flow to irrigate in the first phase separately condensed and unconsolidated furrows or to irrigate reduced consumption, but in short furrows. However, in the first case, it will complicate an already complex system of automation of water governance. In the second case, the absolute value of the Bros because of the uneven distribution of the costs of water outlets, some of the differences in microrelief and soil conditions adjacent furrows would be small and the volume of water flowing with compacted furrows could detain them in the end portion of the retaining device jumpers, for example, performed when special cutting transverse grooves. However, in the conventional method of irrigation is not provided, which reduces its effectiveness in saving irrigation water in the first phase of irrigation. In addition, the value of irrigation norms when watering in short furrows would be small, and with increasing length of the furrow would be distributed very unevenly along the length.
Another disadvantage of this method of irrigation is that supply a large flow of water in the furrows in the second phase of irrigation (during doublegene), requires reduction of the pulse duration due to the decrease in the rate of absorption of water by soil and limited capacity of irrigation furrows. In addition, irrigation short pulses are continuously applied irrigation current will require increasing the number of alternately irrigated plots, respectively, passed the first phase of moisture, and with the increase in the number of alternately irrigated plots with fixed irrigation device is reduced using only irrigation device at a time.
In addition, the increase in the number of alternately irrigated plots in erwou phase watering associated with an increase in the total duration of irrigation and increased water losses due to evaporation from watered and prepared for irrigation plots.
Governanee second phase of irrigation could be reduced consumption. This would increase the pulse duration and to reduce the total number of irrigated plots. However, the decrease in consumption in the period doublegene with a limited number doublename areas requires a reduction in feed consumption in the system. But this immediately raises the problem of further use of released rate, which, in the final case, for irrigated land will be lost. If the pulse duration and the rate to appoint such a way that the magnitude of the flowing water volume does not exceed a geometric volume held in the furrow end jumper, then the timeout should be long enough so that the volume can be absorbed before the next pulse of water, otherwise it will be reset. However, there is a need to increase the number doublename areas, which in a known method of irrigation is not provided.
Change and strictly dosed feed consumption in grooves in the phase governane, according to the method, when the speed of the run of water in the furrows 4...7 times more than in the first phase of irrigation, and the rate of absorption of water by soil approaches the speed of filtration, you can only use a complex system voorspellen who I am. Better during doublegene to irrigate without changing the flow rate and the length governing furrows increase from impulse and momentum, however, according to the method of irrigation is impossible to solve.
The drawback of the device for implementing the known method of irrigation is the complexity of its design. The automation system water supply short pulses will require the use of high-speed devices and high-speed system can be fail to hydro-Pavlodar, which reduces the reliability of the entire system.
Another disadvantage of the known constructions stationary irrigation device is the inability of its use for irrigation leading agricultural crops as part of crop rotation, and use a stationary device for irrigation of marginal or less responsive to water crops ineffective.
For irrigation leading culture as part of crop rotation is advantageous to apply the mobile irrigation device. Their maintenance is simplified, the reliability increases their winter storage.
There is also known a method of irrigation irrigated lands, divided into plots , including the filing of variable irrigation rates and alternating regions with odd and even long furrows. Watering by a known method carried out depending on VL is gnosti soil through pre-watering the wetting supply norms seeking in the furrows, poured the last, and watering group of sections begin with decreasing soil moisture below 80% of the set, starting with the last political plot, and wetting furrows at the rate of seeking exercise at night most noneroding flow.
Watering by a known method is from OK-ditch the hose set with microkeratome (floodgates), divided into odd and even groups.
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation is that supply increased flow and wetting is carried out at night, night time, when the irrigation least manageable. Manual reconfiguration of culverts at night is impossible, and the automatic - not available. Therefore, it is a known method will be accompanied by a more uneven distribution of costs furrows that will lead to the erosion furrows and increase the limit discharges. In practice, when conducting night irrigation water consumption in the furrow, trying to reduce. Laying parallel to the two irrigation hoses separately odd and even outlets, with pre-established for a given flow rate, would facilitate irrigation and several would reduce the reset, but would not eliminate it because of the short time run water on the previously wetted furrow, and the inability to monitor the progress of water at UTS is accordance limit jumper.
In addition, variable rate irrigation network settings and irrigation devices shall be designed to pass the increased costs, and this leads to higher irrigation network, the problem arises of further use of released expense in the period doublegene.
In addition, there is a method to separate watering on odd and even furrow, as a way of watering through the aisle, is applied to the soil, allowing watering through the narrow row spacing. These include increased soil and partially - medium permeability. On soils of medium and low permeability watering perform furrow with wide row spacing. Thus, there is a method of irrigation has limited application area by soil type.
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation separately for groups of even and odd long furrows though and allows you to reduce the discharge due to the differences in the rates of water movement in tight and loose grooves, but does not exclude it. The reason for the formation of reset is that when cutting furrows loose grooves are alternated with furrows, sealed rear and front wheel of the tractor, and separately watering three types of furrows will complicate the device for irrigation.
The disadvantage of this method is that its application by watering down the long furrows which m does not allow for uniform distribution of irrigation norms regardless of does watering separately for odd and even, dry or moist furrows of equal length, as by watering the norm seeking the duration of wetting the initial sections of the grooves is greater than the length of the wetting their lower part. Therefore, to achieve uniform wetting of the soil by watering down the long furrows without reset, according to the method of irrigation, it is impossible.
To ensure uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the irrigation furrows when watering a constant flow would be possible in two cases: when the length of the furrow when the wetting is less than the length of the furrows in their governanee, or when the quantity of feed water to governanee is carried out repeatedly, and to provide such watering by a known method impossible.
The device for implementing the known method of irrigation, despite its structural simplicity, the operation is costly manual labor on the layout of the irrigation hoses before watering, assembling and moving off the field before polupoltinykh cultivation and cutting of irrigation furrows. Their adjustable outlets do not have a fixed position opening at the desired flow. In practice, the opening of the floodgates for a given flow rate is set unevenly, depending on the intuition of the waterer.
To conduct frequent poly is s irrigation hoses must be laid in the beginning of the irrigation furrows stationary, and this is due to increasing economic costs and complicates the conduct polupoltinykh cultivation.
In addition, the device for irrigation, including OK-Aryk, is associated with a decrease in the use of irrigated land and loss of irrigation water on the filter, which may lead to a rise in groundwater level, and under adverse conditions cause soil salinization.
There is also known a method of furrow irrigation along the lines of hydrants, implemented using multisupport machine , including the supply of water in the furrows, cut along the line hydrants irrigation network in series plots of simultaneous irrigation of equal area, since underlying the inclination of the grooves, with the filing of specified irrigation norms, seeking the best costs for their absorption in the promotion of the dry furrows within each plot simultaneous irrigation.
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation is that to achieve a uniform distribution of a given irrigation rates along the length of the irrigation furrows without crossing water on reset is only possible when watering rules seeking for a very short furrows, at the end of which is made of retaining jumpers. But frequent device jumpers manually associated with an increase in labor costs, and in mechanized method increases povrezhdaemost the ü plants.
Another disadvantage of this method of irrigation is that when watering in short furrows at the rate of seeking its absolute value is small. But at the same irrigation norm of irrigation small irrigation depths requires an increase in the total number of irrigations, and therefore requires more effort to move the irrigation device and increase the number polupoltinykh soil.
Another disadvantage implemented method of irrigation is that when watering small irrigation depths difficult to implement-irrigation. If in the daytime moving irrigation device with position is not complicated and is determined by the level of mechanization technical means, then change positions in the night time requires the use of artificial lighting. Therefore, in practice, change positions at night, not spend. The increase of duration of the irrigation device to position at night leads to increased irrigation norms and is accompanied by swelling of the water on the underlying, previously watered areas and hinders them polupoltinykh cultivation, and reducing the input flow in the night time due to the difficulty of further use of the released flow.<> It would be - irrigation to areas simultaneous irrigation with different length of furrows: the day is short and the night is long. However, the uniformity of soil moisture by watering the norm seeking the long furrow without increasing the flow rate will decrease.
Another disadvantage of this method of irrigation is that with a small length of furrows emerging from under watering the plots have a small area. Holding polupoltinykh soil (tilling, seal moisture) and the subsequent cutting of irrigation furrows on small plots reduces the efficiency of the use of tractors, with daily production 8...16 Ga. Using one tractor to handle multiple simultaneous plots of irrigation on irrigated array complicates the organization system of simultaneous irrigation and polupoltinykh treatments. This is only possible when issuing these areas equal irrigation rates under equal initial soil moisture, which is practically impossible due to their different soil and topographic characteristics of plots and type of irrigated crops. Holding paleolimnol tillage in irrigated plot at several sites simultaneously irrigation will be determined by the willingness of the soil of the site, poured into the last turn, and previously watered plots will be happening is ü water loss to evaporation.
For coordination of irrigation and holding polupoltinykh cultivation would be more effective areas and simultaneous irrigation to make the area equal to or a multiple of the daily output of the tractor, but this will require increasing the length of furrows and feed them to the costs of water, which will lead to an increase of the parameters of the irrigation network and the mass of the irrigation device. Thus the uniformity of the irrigation rates on long furrows will be reduced, and therefore, will be reduced and the yield of irrigated crops.
Known multisupport irrigation machine , which implements this method of furrow irrigation, cut along the lines to hydrants, irrigation network, includes water conveyance pipeline, mounted on a support, testcaseclass wheels connected to it via torque intake coupling irrigation plumes held parallel to the pipe with evenly spaced along its length l-shaped, pin-jointed arms with balances for fixing the position of the drip loop.
In the known device the water conveyance pipeline is to transport water and bearing the irrigation plumes with brackets and balances, and is also used as a shaft for torque transmission from the drive truck to supports the output to the wheels to move the pipeline. This multifunctional use of water conveyance pipeline determines the appropriate requirements for the materials from which it should be produced.
In practice, for the use of these structures adopt costly rigid aluminum pipe, which reduces consumer properties of all irrigation device.
Another disadvantage of the known device is the need for a large amount of installation work to move from one field to another, including for irrigation leading crops or for winter storage.
Running water conveyance belt of the pipes with quick couplings would facilitate the carrying out of the installation, dismantling and transportation of the device, however reliable structures of such compounds for the transmission of torque without increasing the deflection of the water conveyance pipeline, not yet.
The disadvantage of known construction multisupport irrigation machine is also on the complexity of the design of the node connecting and mounting the spray plumes to the pipeline, material moving couplings and swivel arm with counterbalance. The presence of the counterweight increases weight multisupport pipeline and requires more effort to move it.
In addition, the lack of known construction is that when re is eminii wheel of the pipeline due to its curvature is periodic jamming brackets on the pipeline, resulting in a broken horizontal position of the plume, causing damage to irrigated crops.
With increasing length of the water conveyance pipeline its movement is accompanied with the development of elastic deformations. Resulting in the violation of his uniform promotion, there is a gap at the supports that have to be cleared manually.
Lack of irrigation plume in the well-known design is the need for its manufacture of rigid material, otherwise the bracket will need to be set very often, and it increases the weight of the entire drip line.
You could apply a flexible irrigation train, stretched between two brackets. However, in this case, when the movement of the pipeline are not excluded disadvantages of low reliability stabilize its position with respect to the pipeline.
Also known irrigation method multisupport machine for furrow irrigation, located along the line of hydrants , in which irrigation is carried out on a short furrows on the rate of advance. However, the implemented irrigation method has the same disadvantages of the known method of irrigation, which is implemented by means multisupport machine :
the inability to achieve uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the irrigation furrows without reset or is trojstva retaining jumpers performed in their end portion;
- the value of standards seeking when watering in short furrows are small and if the same irrigation norm requires to increase the number of irrigations, and this increases labor costs by moving irrigation equipment;
- conducting night irrigation accompanied by an increase in irrigation rates and water swelling on the underlying, previously watered areas, making it difficult to hold polupoltinykh cultivation;
- conducting polupoltinykh cultivation in areas small area reduces the effective use of tractors.
A known design of irrigation devices - Multisupport machine for furrow irrigation, located along the line of hydrants that implements this watering method also has drawbacks:
as in the known construction of the device , its water conveyance pipeline can only be done from the rigid pipe;
- move irrigation device on winter storage and use it for watering the leading culture of the agricultural crop rotation is associated with the need for a large amount of installation work.
In addition, irrigation devices  and  can be applied only to furrow irrigation, located along the line of hydrants. Their application for furrow irrigation, situated across the line hydrant is, require for device  for a significant amount of installation work, and the device  for furrow irrigation, situated across the line hydrants, do not apply.
Also, these known devices for your move from position to position require the use of power carts. Given that the duration of the shift positions is small compared with the duration of irrigation on position, the time-material-drive trucks becomes ineffective.
Analyzing the known methods of irrigation can be considered that the best method of irrigation would be the way in which:
1) during doublegene uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the irrigation furrows was achieved through multiple (pulse, discrete) water flow in furrows, how this is achieved according to the method of irrigation , but without changing the amount of feed consumption, carried out in a complex program;
2) the period of seeking not accompanied by release from compacted furrows, as this is achieved by irrigation method , but not by separate irrigation groups of even and odd grooves and complex alternating regions, and how this is achieved by the device  when watering in short furrows constant flow, not appointed by the erosion of security, and most of its absorbency;
3) create conditions for timely polupoltinykh cultivation of the soil watered section to close the moisture and to create optimal water-air regime of soil, how it is achieved when watering by a known method , but the plot emerging from under irrigation would be equal to or a multiple of the daily output of the tractor;
4) would start watering the first section, on the basis of allowable soil moisture, not only as it is carried out by a known method , but would allow a timely manner to finish watering the last section before the onset of lower moisture threshold for the type of soil and irrigated crops;
5) would not require the use of complex of technical means for the irrigation of his-conducting and the greatest efficiency of its use for irrigation leading crops, as this is achieved with the help of the device  and method .
The purpose of the proposed method of irrigation is to increase irrigation water saving, uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the irrigation furrows on sites daily watering without changing the feed flow rate and expansion of its application conditions for persistent watering the leading crops in the composition of a rotation.
The essence of the proposed method of furrow irrigation is shown in figure 1.
On offer is th way irrigated plot 1 with grooves 2, cut along the line hydrates 3 irrigation network 4, divided into plots of daily watering 5 device in the lower part of the retaining jumpers 6 and parcels daily watering divided into 5 plots the simultaneous irrigation 7, in the upper part of which is positionally set connected to the hydrant 3 mobile irrigation device 8 with outlets 9, dispersed his front against irrigation furrows 2. Along the line of hydrants 3, the upper and lower parts of irrigated land 1 made field road 10 for travel and the spread of irrigation and tillage equipment.
Irrigation irrigated area of the proposed method starts at the beginning of the daylight hours with irrigation underlying the slope of the plot of daily watering 5, and with the underlying plot of simultaneous irrigation 7 (position I), the rate of advance of water on dry furrow 11 limited jumper 6. Then the irrigation device is moved to a new area (position II) and irrigate the second overlying plot simultaneous irrigation 7 also on the rate of advance on dry furrow 11 and continue watering moist furrow 12 underlying parcel bounded by jumper 6 time seeking water until the end of the first section. Then start watering from the third plot (position III) the rate of advance on dry furrow and continue watering n is the rate of advance on previously moistened second and first sections, etc.
Watering last Vernisage plot simultaneous irrigation 7 (position IV) begin before the end of the daylight hours so that the total length of time seeking water on dry furrow and all previously moistened downstream areas would correspond to the duration of the night-time. Emerging from under irrigation area daily watering will have the same moisture content that will facilitate the conduct of its paleolimnol processing.
The flow rate of the water supplied to the grooves, the proposed method prescribed terms and conditions exclude the development of erosion processes and its complete absorption on the length of a section daily irrigation taking into account the daily avtransport its accumulation at the end of the jumper
Uniformity of soil moisture along the length of the irrigation furrow is determined by the ratio soak irrigation norms in their lower part to irrigation norm, soak in the beginning and mainly depends on the ratio of the length of time of contact between water and soil in these areas.
Duration of initial moisture and lower plots on the area daily watering consists of two phases: the time of issuance of irrigation norms, seeking on dry furrow and time doublegene. At the same lengths simultaneous watering when watering equal consumption norms seeking for the soup furrow will differ only by the magnitude of the daily avtransport, you want governat the upper portion of the daily watering. This is achieved by regulation of the absorbency of the soil and a few slow the progress of water on dry furrow.
Wet long furrows on short sections reduces differences in soil compaction furrow wheel of the tractor, and the subsequent multiple governanee these sites by analogy with the discrete (pulse, irregular) irrigation will improve the uniformity of the irrigation norms along the length of the furrow site daily watering.
The device jumpers in the end portion of the lower section will periodically accumulate the volume of water flowing from the top sites and, thereby, Governate end part of the underlying parcel of the daily watering until a uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the entire site daily watering.
Watering long furrows with variable length fields for periods of advance and doublegene allows varying the length of these sections and their number, to apply for the issuance of irrigation norms in a wide range of initial soil moisture and to conduct frequent, and watering pot on the phases of development of irrigated crops.
Watering of the proposed method fundamentally can be done from a stationary underground irrigation pipes, irrigation is s machines, automatically moving irrigation pipes and mobile irrigation device.
To carry out the proposed method of irrigation is proposed device is presented in figure 2.
Device for irrigation of 8 consists of a set of unified trucks 13. Each bogie consists of two support wheels 14 rigidly mounted on two hollow axles 15. Axis 15 in the middle part rigidly connected to each other through a hollow crossbar 16, bushing tubes which are equipped with quick couplings 17 for connecting links of the inlet 18 and outlet 19 Flex with the same type of quick couplings 17. Above the cross-piece 16 is freely rotatable on the axles 15 of the drum 20 for winding the level of the inlet pipe 18. The outer ends of the axle shafts 15 are equipped with quick couplings 21 for interchangeably connecting irrigation pleskovawhatever loops 22 with a calibrated outlets 9 or blank 23. On one of the outer ends of the axle shafts 15 is fitted with a removable, freely rotating drum 24 for winding the spray plume 22. On the inner part of the axle shafts 15 pivotally mounted rod 25 to move the trolley 13.
The implementation of the method of irrigation with the help of the device illustrated in the drawing (Fig 3). Unified truck 13 set FR is in hydrant 3 irrigation network 4 and sequentially connected to each other by links of flexible water conveyance pipelines 18 and 19 (position I). Irrigation loops 22 with a calibrated outlets placed along the front of watering perpendicular irrigation furrows 2. Link flexible water supply pipe 18 of the first trolley 13 is connected to the hydrant 3, on the last carriage 13 at the point of connection of link Flex 19 installing the plug 26 and serves water from the hydrant.
Water from the hydrant 3 irrigation network 4 through the inlet pipe 18 through the cross-piece 16 enters the hollow axis of the trolley 13 and the discharge pipe 19, which is lead to the next cart. Through open shafts trucks 13 water enters connected to the trucks irrigation loops 22 and through their calibrated outlets 9 enters the grooves 2 a given flow.
Moving along the slope dry furrows 11, water hydrates the plot simultaneous irrigation 7 normal seeking. Made in the lower part of the site daily watering 5 booster jumper 6 keep flowing volume of water generated due to the uneven progress of water in compacted and loose grooves and uneven distribution of costs for culverts 9 irrigation loops 22.
After seeking water on dry groove 11 on the lower area of simultaneous irrigation 7 water supply during the irrigation device stop closing working hydrant 3 and start training device for p. the motion to the next position. To do this, disconnect from the hydrant 3 and crosses 16 links of flexible conduits 18 and 19 and after emptying wound on the reel 20 unified trucks and put them on the reels in the wound position.
Irrigation loops 22 are sequentially disconnected from the trolley 13 and wound them on drums 24 and is fixed in the wound position. Collected in this form of truck 13 for traction 25, manually, one by one, or several trucks - by tractor move on the road 10, which is located along the line of hydrants or on the opposite end of the field, and then move on to the next position and install them in the same order.
In his new position unwound from the drum 20 units of power pipes 18 and 19 and connect them to the crossbar 16 of the trolley, and the trolley to the hydrant irrigation network 3. Unwound from the reel 24 irrigation loops 22, stack them perpendicular to the irrigation furrows 2 and connect them to the trucks. Open the hydrant 3 and start watering the overlying plot simultaneous irrigation 7 (Position II).
After seeking water on dry furrow 11 continue watering on previously wetted furrow 12 up until the water reaches a limit jumper 6. Subsequent Assembly, movement, and the layout of the irrigation device is carried out in the same order.
After practicing irrigation n the all areas of daily watering in the same way irrigate the next overlying plot of daily watering. At the watered sites daily watering when ready field exercise paleolimnol cultivation of the soil, and irrigation device is moved to the initial position for the next growing season irrigation or for winter storage.
The proposed method of irrigation has common properties with the known method : feed water flow in long furrows, irrigation division into two phases: the norm seeking on dry furrow and governanee pulse water supply by regulating the pulse duration, and differs from the known method of irrigation  the fact that long furrow divided into short sections, watering on dry furrow spend the norm seeking not across the furrow, and advance time of water in these areas, thereby reducing the absolute value reset with compacted furrows, and with a reduced section length blowdown is reduced and it is retained by the dam, completed in the end of the long furrows, and pulse flow water phase doublegene provide pulses with increasing duration in the range from the duration of time seeking water until the end of the furrow in humidified underlying plot to the duration of seeking water on all the underlying parts, starting with the penultimate, the upper plot, and the constant flow, the number of lots to Bo osde accept the conditions of absorption is equal to the irrigation norms at the beginning of the upper section during its continuous hydration and the bottom portion of the furrow during the run of water in the dry furrow and the total time of doublegene by watering all of the overlying sections.
As for uniform wetting of individual sections, it is achieved in the process of self-absorbed, irrigation rates, and uniformity of soil moisture along the length of the end portion increases due to repeated creation of backwater at the end of the bridge.
The increase in time continuous irrigation upstream of the furrow, eliminating the need to change the size of the feed consumption during irrigation create the conditions for it in the night time, allows you to apply for the implementation of the proposed irrigation method is the most simple design of the device.
While achieving uniform distribution of irrigation norms along the length of the irrigation furrows and out from under the irrigation areas of the same humidity creates the most favorable conditions for them polupoltinykh cultivation.
In contrast to the known method of irrigation  the proposed method of irrigation, having common properties: irrigated array, irrigated areas, the supply variable irrigation rates with alternating regions of irrigation on the degree of compaction of the furrows, irrigation norms seeking to wetting and governanee depending on the time of day, priority watering and maximum allowable soil moisture before irrigation, has the following differences:
castke simultaneous irrigation have consistently the inclination of irrigated area and in groups within the site daily irrigation area, equal to or a multiple of the daily development of the tractor when conducting polupoltinykh cultivation, watering on the wetting is carried out on short segments of furrows without separating them according to the degree of compaction, and governanee exercise furrow of increasing length, and governanee plots carried out without changing the feed flow continuation soaking overlying each plot at the time of seeking water on moist furrow of each group, and watering of the overlying plot each group spend the night time with a duration of doublegene time seeking water on the wetted furrow to the end of the plot simultaneous irrigation and watering of the latter group of sites is carried out at moisture estimated soil layer is not lower than the maximum allowable.
In contrast to the known method of furrow irrigation, sliced lengthwise hydrants irrigation network , the proposed method of irrigation, including irrigation irrigated plots furrow, cut along the line hydrants irrigation network sites simultaneous irrigation, since the underlying, feed them regular costs of water on the rate of advance on dry furrow, followed by them polupoltinykh cultivation, characterized in that the sections of simultaneous irrigation unite in the areas of daily watering and the Department is aout them from each other device in the lower part of the retention ridges, and watering stations simultaneous irrigation is carried out with governanee by continued irrigation with each of the overlying plot increasing regulations seeking for moist furrow of the underlying plots, and the highest rate serves in the dark on the whole plot of daily watering, and the value supplied assign costs from the condition that the total time doublegene overlying plot simultaneous irrigation would be no less advance time of water on the wetted furrow plot daily watering.
The proposed irrigation method allows irrigation standards that exceed the standards seeking on dry furrow, to increase the length of irrigation furrows, distribute it evenly along the length of the irrigation furrows and to expand the area daily watering to a value equal to or a multiple of the daily development of the tractor when conducting polupoltinykh cultivation.
The last irrigation of the overlying section daily watering is carried out at moisture estimated soil layer is not lower than the upper limit, which will eliminate yield losses from delaying the period of irrigation.
The proposed method of irrigation has almost an equal number of common properties with the known methods of irrigation, but the closest to it is possible to consider the method implemented by the device . Proposed for their implementation, the devices also have the t most similar characteristics and can be used for furrow irrigation, chopped wills lines, hydrants, and across. However, the device for implementing the proposed method of irrigation is more convenient in operation and more efficient when using it for irrigation leading crops.
Sources of information
1. U.S. patent No. 4577803, 1986.
2. Copyright certificate EN NO. 2035854, 01G 25/00, BI, No. 15, 1995.
3. USSR author's certificate No. 1409165, 01G 25/09, BI No. 26, 1988.
4. RF patent №2239991, IB No. 32, 2004.
The method of irrigation irrigated plots variable irrigation rate furrow, cut parallel to the line of hydrants, using wheeled mobile irrigation device, including water conveyance belt is rigidly mounted on it, as on a hollow axle, supporting wheels and provided with l-shaped irrigation plumes, consistently plots simultaneous irrigation, starting with the first, underlying the slope to the top, supply a constant flow of water on the rate of advance on dry furrow followed by them polupoltinykh of cultivation, characterized in that the sections of simultaneous irrigation in groups of parcels daily watering and separated from each other water-retaining retaining jumpers and watering areas within the group is carried out with governanee by passing water from each of the overlying plot simultaneous irrigation on all the underlying rules which cover water wetted furrow, where the duration of doublegene the top plot in each group carry out time seeking water on moist furrow of all the underlying parcel and not less than the duration of night time of day, while watering the last group of sections is carried out at moisture estimated soil layer is not lower than the upper limit, and the area daily watering take multiple daily formulation of the tractor when conducting polupoltinykh of cultivation.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, technique for cutting of temporary irrigation system, may be used for opening of terrace and closing of temporary irrigation system with ground.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has frame hung laterally onto tractor girder, hydraulic cylinder for lifting of apparatus, and shield pivotally connected to stem of hydraulic cylinder. High-quality closing is provided by fabricating shield from two parts unequal in length, said parts being pivotally connected to frame of apparatus. Compression spring attached to shield and shield rotation limiting device provide returning of shield after executing of closing procedure to position perpendicular to frame of apparatus.
EFFECT: improved quality of covering irrigation system terrace, and reduced costs for strip irrigation process.
FIELD: mechanized irrigation of farm crops by sprinkling process, in particular, equipment used in sprinkling irrigation systems.
SUBSTANCE: pulsed sprinkler unit has valve with seat and piston. Cavity between seat and piston is communicating with nozzle cavity and cavity formed under valve is communicating with air-and-water tank and pressure pipeline. Locking device is equipped with auxiliary piston spring-loaded relative to valve piston and provided with large-sized and small-sized cylinders and divided by means of perforated partition. Auxiliary piston is positioned for axial displacement within casing cylinder and abuts with small-sized cylinder end against seat. Valve and piston are positioned within cavities of small-sized and large-sized cylinders of auxiliary piston, respectively. Distance between partition of small-sized cylinder and valve is greater than distance between right-hand ends of valve piston and auxiliary piston. Outer diameter of small-sized cylinder is smaller than inner diameter of large-sized cylinder of auxiliary piston.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation, reduced consumption of power owing to providing of working capacity within wide range of flow rates and pressures and due to eliminating influence of frictional force of sealing means upon working capacity of locking device in its opening phase.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process and technique for crop irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing water outlet selected on the basis of its flow rate and equipped with heads, said water outlet being spaced apart from center by distance multiple the serial number of unit of given water outlet on water feeding pipeline of irrigation machine; establishing similar water outlet with the same heads on parts of water feeding pipeline proximate to center at distance multiple the serial number of unit k; controlling time-pulse or width-pulse mode of operation; setting ratio of irrigation time tik of established water outlets with heads to irrigation time tik and no irrigation time tnk, said ratio being equal to ratio of their serial numbers k to serial number of selected water outlet with heads i according to dependence: tik(tik+tnk)=K/i. Valve or hydromechanical pulsator is mounted on each of equally spaced water outlets disposed close to central support on water feeding pipeline. Valve is controlled by generator. Hydromechanical pulsator has adjustable water feeding switch-on time or water feeding switch-off time during periodic operation thereof, said time being individually adjustable for each pulsator. Depending on serial number of pulsator corresponding to arrangement on water feeding pipeline and serial number of selected water outlet, pulsator cylinder piston stem is made hollow and is equipped at the side adjoining piston with piston stroke restricting device having radial openings therein. Inlet branch pipe positioned on cover is provided with outer thread and is connected to water outlet. Throttle regulator is made spherical and is equipped with scale and device indicating no water feeding time. Channel which connects cavity under piston and stem cavity is provided within cylinder. Valve with hollow stem is positioned on cylinder base within outlet branch pipe in axially aligned relation with respect to piston for axial displacement within branch pipe. Radial outlet apertures are provided on end of hollow stem. Restricting washer is rigidly fixed on cylinder base. Outlet branch pipe has scale. Retainer for fixing outlet branch pipe in predetermined position is formed as sleeve. Irrigation heads are positioned at outlets of each pulsator.
EFFECT: improved quality of irrigation process and simplified construction of machine.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves locating water outlets with heads in equally spaced relation along radius with equal flow rate characterized by and equal to flow rate of water outlet outer from center; creating pulsed operation mode for water outlets by width-pulsed or frequency-pulsed controlling; setting and tuning ratio of periodic irrigation time tui for each of water outlets with heads to irrigation time tui and lack of irrigation Tni with ratio of ordinal number i of water outlet from center to total quantity n of water outlets in accordance with dependence: Each of water outlets uniformly positioned on water pipeline is equipped with valve connected to control device or pulse generator with adjustable switch-on and switch-off time during periodic operation thereof for regulation of time-pulsed and width-pulsed controlling, which are individually adjusted for each valve depending on its ordinal arrangement on water pipeline and total quantity of water outlets thereon. Heads for sprinkling, surface irrigation and circular irrigation are mounted at valve outlet ends.
EFFECT: improved quality of irrigation and simplified construction of irrigation machine.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, sprinkling and fertilizing technique in irrigated agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: machine, in conjunction with its anchor driving road track equipped with end reversal stops, is spaced from ground surface by altitude of up to 50 m through on-board supporting toroidal aerostats rigidly threaded by means of rim hubs on on-board water-and-pulp pipeline furnished at perforations from mid portion to ends with water-and-pulp pneumatic ejection-type sprinkling-fertilizing units. On-board, pipe connection, comb-shaped hydrogen and air-ballast collectors laid laterally of on-board water-and-pulp pipeline along the length thereof are adapted for on-board supporting toroidal aerostats furnished with long and short mooring anchoring guide ropes. Two parallel carrier lightning-guiding ropes of annular stays of supporting toroidal aerostat tubular current-conductive puller sleeve are pivotally hung in current-conductive manner from the bottom between both end on-board supporting toroidal aerostats on double-support steel back pin of each pendulum crank, puller sleeve being joined without tension with its out-board telecommunications with on-board tubular current-conductive communications. Rope-road rollers of mechanisms for synchronous front shuttle movement along rope road track are fixed on outer ends of both end tubular constructive parts of on-board water-and-pulp pipeline. Paired wells of airlifts are provided in mid portion of shoulders of each catch of portion to be ameliorated, airlifts being hydraulically, electrically and pneumatically sealed in parallel way from irrigation pump-and-compressor station. Both lower ends of puller sleeve are brought to said wells. Ends of tubular current-conductive telecommunications of puller sleeve, except for annular stays, are freely passed through throat of conductive gauge of hawsehole into well of airlift water-and-pulp pneumatic lift pipeline branched from puller sleeve train is connected to internal well hydrant of airlift. Airlift has chamber permanently filled with water and positioned in airlift base and is further provided with three sluice fertilizer chambers.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of machine by delivering finely dispersed irrigation spray of predetermined intensity or uniformly distributed granulated and liquid fertilizers.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, self-propelled multitower sprinkling machines adapted for intake of water from pressure pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: self-propelled reversing cart has frame with pair of carrier wheels and brakes, hydraulic drive cylinder equipped with piston and connected with distributing unit through distributing valve and regulating valve connected to two-way synchronization mechanism, forward and backward stroke tips mounted on pushers of front and rear wheels and cooperating with ground-engaging means, additional distributing valve located in feeding line of hydraulic cylinder lower cavity and adapted for providing alternative communication of said cavity with pipeline of sprinkling machine and atmosphere. Water is fed simultaneously into main and additional distributing valves from pressure pipeline by means of T-pipe. Piston is furnished with two collars having thrust washers arranged at both sides in opposite orientation with respect to one another and located for sliding on upper part of hydraulic cylinder stem, said sliding motion being restricted in lower position by rib and in upper position by tightening nut. Hydraulic cylinder stem has sealing member positioned in lower part of hydraulic cylinder casing. Stem 7 of distributing valve and stem 24 of additional distributing valve are joined with their lower parts through threaded connection by means of bushing. Ground-engaging means is made in the form of hollow square with oval-shaped working surfaces engageable with forward and backward stroke tips arranged at left-hand and right-hand sides of pushers in the vicinity of their leading end and connected therewith through pivot joints, which are fixed at forward and backward stroke by means of front and rear splints.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by reducing power consumed for conversion of machine motion from forward stroke to backward stroke.
FIELD: sprinkling equipment.
SUBSTANCE: each tower of sprinkler machine is fixed on satellite rigidly coupled to activator, which is actuated for motion by means of two hydraulic cylinders, with one of said hydraulic cylinders being rigidly connected to frame and other hydraulic cylinder being connected pivotally. During operation, hydraulic cylinders are offset with respect to one another.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by reducing disadvantageous effects upon soil.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for sprinkler irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkling machine is adapted for mounting on tractor frame and is equipped with pumping plant, central column, pipelines and mechanisms for changing inclination angle of pipelines relative to horizontal plane. Pumping plant has water intake float valve and is hydraulically communicated with pipelines through flexible members. Pipelines are hung to central column through cable tension members. Pipelines are equipped with gun sprinkler units fixed on their free ends and short-range sprinkler units disposed lengthwise thereof. Mechanisms for changing pipeline inclination angles relative to horizontal plane are formed as power hydraulic cylinders mounted with their bases on central column, their stems being kinematically connected with ends of cable tension members. Gun sprinkler units and short-range sprinkler units are mounted on pipelines so as to keep unit casings in vertical position by means of counterweights. Counterweight body is positioned for rotation around horizontal axis on threaded pipe sleeve. One end of pipe sleeve is fixed by means of check nut in threaded part of nipple oriented in horizontal plane on pipeline. Cavity of pipe sleeve is closed at its other end with treaded stopper. Casing is positioned on outer surface of pipe sleeve between washers made from antifriction material. Washers are biased on said surface by means of flexible member, such as compression spring disposed between shaped washer and disk mounted in conjunction with check nut on free threaded end of pipe sleeve. Counterweight body cavity is adapted for filling with liquid ballast. Water used as liquid ballast is delivered through nipple radial openings. Casing cavity is hydraulically communicated with threaded receptacle for mounting threaded part, casing of gun sprinkler unit or casing of short-range sprinkler unit.
EFFECT: improved quality of sprinkling regardless of wind direction and speed in the process of sprinkling farm crops.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, irrigation equipment for farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has pumping plant, pipeline hung on tension members operating in upper and side directions. Pipeline consists of joined sections. Short distance jet and long distance jet sprinkler apparatuses are mounted on pipeline. Each of joined pipeline sections is additionally connected with upper and side tension members through closed cable run. One end of cable is inserted into conical opening of pipeline bracket. Other end of cable is mounted in blocking device for blocking said end of cable in fixed position. Blocking device for other end of cable is paired with U-shaped bracket of pipeline.
EFFECT: high quality of irrigation provided by means of sprinkler units located lengthwise of pipeline.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: agricultural irrigation systems.
SUBSTANCE: irrigation apparatus has immovable support and pipeline sections supported by self-propelled supports for synchronous movement and connected with each other. Pipeline sections are provided with sprinkler units mounted by means of T-shaped inserts between pipeline sections. Sprinkler units have increasing flow rates and irrigation radii with increasing discrete values from immovable support toward terminal sprinkler unit. Each of sprinkler units is joined to free end of T-shaped insert through set of diaphragms. Diaphragms are adapted for continuous altering of water flow effective section. Diaphragms have identical construction. Each of diaphragms is provided with opening offset to its peripheral edge.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation, reduced irrigation erosion of soil owing to uniform distribution of precipitations and increased efficiency of movable irrigation apparatus.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: irrigation equipment mounted on mobile sprinkler units for drop or fine-dispersion sprinkling systems.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction comprising pipes mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping station and intake hose. Flexible water supply pipeline with sprinkler apparatuses is fixed on frame by means of cables. Water supply pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has segment and flanges connected with one another by means of carrier member made in the form of bent C-shaped profile or rolled part. Sections are connected with one another through adapter member made in the form of hollow spherical shell with disk arranged in meridian plane and with the help of fastening means. Adapter member is arranged in cavities at inlet end and at outlet end of adjacent segments of flexible water supply pipeline. Fastening means are made in the form of pins inserted into axially aligned openings of flanges and disks. Adapter member disk is connected through cable with frame of three-dimensional construction.
EFFECT: simplified construction, reduced metal usage, increased efficiency and improved distribution of artificial precipitation along flexible water supply pipeline.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agricultural irrigation equipment used in mobile sprinkler units.
SUBSTANCE: boom-type sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction composed of pipes and mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping unit. Flexible water pipeline with sprinkling apparatuses is secured on frame by means of cables. Flexible water pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has flexible pipeline segment positioned on carrier member made in the form of pair of longitudinal supports having bent C-shaped profile and flat rings at their end portions. Wide strips of pair of bent C-shaped profile are arranged at an angle to horizontal plane and perpendicular to one another. Said profiles define, in conjunction with rings, trough of carrier member. Adjacent carrier members are connected with one another by means of connecting parts through spacer bushings. One, two or three spacer bushings are made in the form of brackets for connecting cable ends to join with frame. Ends of flexible pipeline segments are mutually joined via transition portion made in the form of bushing. Ends of transition member have conical entrance portions. Annular portion formed on transition member surface is joined with ends of adjacent segments and pairs of yokes on their surface. Cable ends joining brackets are equipped with eye ring receiving slots and mounting openings. Diameter of carrier member rings exceeds outer diameter of transition member by 1.5-1.9 times.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, sprinkler equipment for continuous sprinkling of plants on fields.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has drive part with two pivotally fixed girder booms. Girder has central panel, columns, struts and sprinkler heads arranged on water-feeding belt. Drive part is provided with supporting table and rotary plate. Supporting table is mounted on vertical wall of rear axle of drive part above centrifugal pump. Rotary plate is mounted on supporting table for rotation around shaft, which pivotally connects said plate with supporting table, said plate and table being additionally mutually connected by hydraulic rotational drive. Girder central panel is fixed on rotary plate by means of vertical shaft. Central panel is additionally coupled to rotary plate by means of hydraulic drive of turning mechanism. In operating and transport positions, weight of girder is distributed over surface of supporting table. Mechanisms for rotating of rotary plate and turning of girder central panel simplify movement of girder from operating position to transport position and vice versa.
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, irrigation of farm crops by means of multitower front sprinkler machines.
SUBSTANCE: wheeled pipeline is made sectioned and is furnished with sprinkler heads, wheeled supports, drive arranged in mid portion of central section, and section coupling means. Pipeline sections have variable section reducing in direction of supplying of irrigation water. Each pipeline section coupling is made in the form of two concentric branch pipes positioned for rotation one with respect to another and for axial displacement. Outer branch pipe is connected with flanges of adjacent carrier members. Inner branch pipe is joined with ends of adjacent pipes of different sizes, said pipes being made from high-pressure polyethylene. Pipes are positioned in cavity of carrier member. Carrier member of each section is made in the form of pair of opposite bent C-shaped sections. Ends of C-shaped sections are joined to flanges. Mounting rings are positioned in mid portion of pairs and adapted for mounting of wheel support hub. Outer branch pipe of pipeline section coupling is made in the form of detachable pair of semi-circles, each being formed by packet of spacer bushings arranged in equally spaced relation between pair of arced belts. Inner branch pipe for connecting ends of pipes made from high-pressure polyethylene is made in the form of outer and inner threaded bushings, each provided with diametrically oriented slots for special wrench for joining with ends of pipes to be connected. Inner bushing has threaded part for screwing into end of pipe of smaller diameter. Ring is disposed on outer end perimeter of pipe of smaller diameter. Inner bushing has cylindrical part joined with inner cylindrical surface of pipe of larger diameter. Its conical part is joined with sawn-through parts at end of pipe of larger diameter. Inner surface of inner bushing is defined by two intersecting conical surfaces with single base of minimal diameter.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of precipitation in the form of rain drops over area under irrigation process owing to constant flow speed of irrigation water into pipeline cavities.
10 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, sprinkling irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has supporting members made in the form of cables attached in cantilevered manner to frame top, and irrigation pipeline connected to vehicle through pumping unit. Irrigation pipeline is coupled to frame by means of carrier carcass. Irrigation pipeline and carrier carcass are made sectioned. Each carrier carcass section is defined by pair of C-shaped bent profiles with flat rings at their ends. Profiles are arranged at an angle to one another with their wide strips to define trough. Sections of flexible pipelines made from low-pressure polyethylene are laid on trough. Ends of pipelines are embraced with bands made in the form of steel bushings. Ends of pipelines are joined by means of adapter member. Input parts of connecting member are made conical. Each adapter member is formed as hollow screw with left-handed and right-handed conical threads on their outer surface. Mid portion of screw has disk for fixing irrigation pipeline sections in operating position in rings of carrier carcass by means of paired spacer bushings and attachment means. Disk of adapter member is equipped with group of openings used for assembling-dismantling works. Openings for connection to threaded ends of cables are made in peripheral portions of carrier carcass flanges.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of precipitation in the form of rain drops through width of mobile unit, reduced material usage, simplified construction, and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, mechanized irrigation equipment used on wheeled rollable pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: sectioned sprinkler is provided with sprinkling nozzles, wheeled supports, drive disposed in mid portion of central section, and section connecting couplings. Each section has water supply pipeline made from low-pressure polyethylene pipes. Pipes are successively joined to one another by means of couplings. Water supply pipeline is arranged in cavity of carrier part defined by C-shaped bent profiles. Ends of profiles are mutually connected by means of flanges. Length of carrier part is 11,720 mm. Hub of each wheeled support embraces carrier part. Sprinkling nozzles are connected with pipeline through nipples arranged between strips of adjacent C-shaped bent profiles of carrier part.
EFFECT: prolonged service life, simplified construction and reduced production costs of sprinkler.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, mechanized sprinkling irrigation with the use of rollable wheeled pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler is made sectioned and is furnished with sprinkler heads, wheel-type supports, drive located in mid portion of central section, and section couplings. Each section has water supply pipeline manufactured from low-pressure polyethylene pipes sequentially connected through couplings. Water supply pipeline is placed in bearing part cavity defined by C-shaped bent bars. Bar ends are mutually connected through flanges. Bearing part is 11,720 mm long. Hub of each wheel-type support embraces bearing part. Sprinkler heads are connected with water supply pipeline through nipples interposed between strips of adjacent C-shaped bent bars of bearing part. Each wing connected with central section has overtime clutch.
EFFECT: prolonged service life and simplified construction of irrigation pipeline.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machines for mechanization of drop sparkling of farm crop. Proposed truss includes central panel in form of regular pyramid with square base made of pipes with flanges for connecting bottom chords and four suspensions. Suspensions are orientated along ribs of pyramid and one post. Post is arranged in central panel on one of side faces along apothem. Left-hand and right-hand cantilevers are mated with central panel. Each cantilever consists of one end panel and thirteen intermediate panels. Each intermediate panel is made in form of two posts, one distance piece, front and rear water passing pipes of bottom chords, one upper chord, two inclined braces, two horizontal tension members and two short-range sprinkler heads. End panel is made in form of guy truss. End panel is mated with truss panel by means of distance piece and inclined braces whose mated ends are orientated downwards in cross vertical plane of truss and are located lower than distance piece. Ends of front and rear water passing pipes are connected with guy truss pipeline by V-shaped water passing member. Panels of guy truss are formed by posts and distance pieces, inclined braces and tension members vertically orientated in longitudinal vertical plane. Water passing pipeline of guy part of truss is furnished with drain cock. V-shaped water passing member consists of steel pipes of equal section equal to sections of front rear water passing pipes and pipe line of guy truss. One of pipes of V-shaped water passing member is sectional and provided with threaded sleeve. Sleeve is fitted on threaded bushings. Bushings are installed with displacement outwards from ends of pipes. Bushings are connected by closed girth welds with end sections of parts of pipes to be connected. Insert made of plastic, for instance, fluoroplastic, is mounted between end faces of sectional parts of pipes and in plane of threaded bushings. Inner section of insert is equal to sections of pipes of V-shaped water passing member. Proposed two-cantilever self-aligning truss for sprinkling machines provides uninterrupted delivery of sprinkling water to short range heads of intermediate panels and long-range heads on guy part of truss.
EFFECT: reduced materials usage, improved sprinkling.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machines for mechanization of drop irrigation of crops. Proposed truss has upper and lower chords, central panel in form of regular pyramid with square base and left-hand and right-hand cantilevers mated with pyramid. Central panel has square base made of tubes with flanges for connecting lower chords and four suspensions orientated along ribs. Panel is provided with one post located on one of side faces along apothem of pyramid. Each cantilever consists of thirteen intermediate panel and one end panel. Each end panel is made up of two posts, one brace, two front and rear water tubes of lower chords, one upper chord, two tilted struts and two horizontal tension members. Two heads are fitted on each intermediate panel and end panel. End is made in form of guy-rope truss. It is mated with truss panel by brace and tilted posts. Ends of tilted posts are relative mated from top and bottom by horizontally orientated brace. Mated ends of tilted posts are orientated downwards and arranged lower than brace. Ends of front and rear water tubes in guy-rope part are relative mated by V-shaped water supply member with tube of truss guy-rope part. Panels of guy-rope part of truss are formed by posts and braces, tilted struts and tension members orientated in longitudinally vertical plane. water supply pipeline of guy0rope part is furnished with drain valve. Proposed truss provides 15-20% reduction of materials usage.
EFFECT: improved quality of sprinkling, facilitated servicing.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 53 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, irrigation equipment, more particular, continuous motion sprinkler machines for farms.
SUBSTANCE: girder has central panel with two cantilevers pivotally fixed thereon. Each of two cantilevers is made in the form of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal girders having belts, columns, angle braces and sprinkler heads on water supply girder. Pipelines on central panel and water supply girder are made in the form of curved circuit line in transverse-vertical plane of sprinkler unit. Circuit line equation is y=a/2(ex/a+e-x/a), where a is distance from surface of field to be irrigated to pipeline arranged in mid portion of central panel; e is Napierian base (Napierian number); x and y are abscissae and ordinates of unknown points of pipeline in Cartesian coordinates XOY, the beginning part of which is aligned with field surface and with vertical axis of symmetry of girdle.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency.