Laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers made out of the oriented films, the method of the laminate manufacture and the head for the joint extrusion for realization of this method

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods and the heads for production of the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers made out of the oriented films.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers formed out of the films, from which at least two of them have mono-axial or unbalanced two-axial orientation, in which the main direction of the orientation in one of these films intersects the main direction of the orientation in other film and have the modifications of the surface properties executed in the certain tracery of these two films on those their surfaces, which are disposed inside the laminate and are connected with each other. The surface layers of the films located inside contain the set of filaments made out of the material produced by the joint extrusion, and are located so, that these two sets on two films intersect each other. The filaments may by used for control over the adhesion between the films and for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending. It allows to use the laminate in the capacity of the canvas cloth. In the combination with creation of the relief at least on one film, the main layer of which is made transparent for formation of the strips. At that the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate. The visual effect makes the laminate to look more heavy-gage.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the filaments used in the laminate may by used for control over the adhesion between the films, for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending allowing to use the laminate as the canvas cloth and the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate.

58 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex

 

The present invention relates to laminates with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers, for example, laminates of films, of which at least two oriented uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial, where the main direction of orientation in one of these films crosses the main direction of orientation of the other films. More specifically, the present invention relates to modifications made in the appropriate pattern, the surface properties of the two films on the surfaces, which are located inside the laminate and connected to each other. Such modifications of the pattern, there are two practical reasons.

One well-known modification of the inner surface of the laminate (although not used in the laminates with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers) is to print text or decorative pattern on one surface that becomes the inner surface. Thus, the text or the pattern is not erased from the laminate during use.

One aspect of the present invention is an improvement of this method, but it is limited to decorative advertising patterns of color overlapping bands, where relatively expensive printing process is replaced by a cheaper a modification of the extrusion process. Moreover, a special variant of this aspect of the present invention gives a very unusual requirements the dimensional effect as will be described below.

With regard to the importance of visual effects in the products made of plastic, it is necessary to mention an article in the journal "Modern Plastics' December 2002, p.50: "Visual Effects means Business"where it says "producers are considering the appearance not just as a wrapper for the internal parts, and as a marketing tool to differentiate products and their personalization.

Modification of the internal surfaces of the laminates with the longitudinal and transverse orientation layers (hereinafter - "crosslaminated")made with a specific pattern, may also be used, as suggested, to improve the resistance to the spread of the gaps. This characteristic will be described in more detail, and in this regard it will be useful to give a General description of known technologies for crosslaminated. Also for this aspect of the present invention whose main task is to replace the relatively expensive or less efficient process steps inexpensive modification of the extrusion process.

Crosslaminated oriented films of synthetic polymeric materials are produced on an industrial scale since 1968, and at that time was mostly used technology described by the present inventor in the patent GBA 0792976, issued may 23, 1955. As far as known to the inventor, their total world production currently is is about 30,000 tons per year. Crosslaminated is used in particular in industrial packaging, for example, for bags, covers, shelters, and to cover the bottom of ponds and other

To polymeric materials used for these crosslaminated before and now are mainly polyethylene and polypropylene of different types, often modified by mixing old and currently in the production process contains the steps for which ekstragiruyut pipe, which when the hood is oriented primarily in a longitudinal direction, a spiral cut this pipe to the sheet with the main direction of orientation, held at an angle, and continuously laminated two or more of such sheet so that the main direction of overlap. In the laminate may be included film, oriented primarily in a longitudinal direction.

In the first commercial technologies based on these principles, the extruded tubular film, which is oriented melt mainly in the longitudinal direction, further, before the spiral cut, subjected to cold stretching in this direction. In a later commercial technology disclosed, for example, in U.S. patent US-A-4039364 (Rasmussen) each tubular film ekstragiruyut together, receiving layer, which provides the main strength of the laminate to grow the group (hereinafter referred to "main layer") and at least one surface layer (hereinafter "the first connecting layer) promotes binding of films, performed at least partly by heat and pressure.

Also on the films together ekstragiruyut special layers, which become the outer surface of the laminate. These special layers made with the possibility of modifying the surface properties of the laminate, particularly to improve termosvarivaemaya. In this latest technology spiral cleavage occurs immediately after the co-extrusion without surgery cold stretching, but on a different production line. However, additional stretching exercise, when the tapes are connected to each other in a sandwich structure in line to get a laminate or even unrelated. Film stretch in two directions at a relatively low temperature.

The transverse component of the tension in two directions take place between the corrugated rollers.

In the patent US-A-5028289 (Rasmussen) and US-A-5626944 (Rasmussen) further develops the idea of stretching between grooved rollers.

Practical methods of performing spiral cutting disclosed in the patent US-A-5248366 (Rasmussen). This patent also mentions an alternative method of cutting, namely, that the tubular film can be shaped spiral orientat the Yu of the melt at the exit slit of the head for co-extrusion, which occurs due to the relative rotation between the output and the cylinder and, then, cutting can be performed parallel to the axis or at an angle to the main direction of orientation. This process can even be adjusted to obtain a sheet, in which the main direction of orientation of the melt will be perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the sheet.

For completeness it should be mentioned that in the earliest patents were advised of the possibility of discrete crosslaminated and binding on the press polymeric film material with a longitudinal orientation.

In the process, quite different from those described above, have crosslaminated very hard character to use in a special modern products. They consist of polymers which, in the molten or partially molten state are liquid crystals and gaining orientation and become crosslaminated already inside the extrusion head through rotating in opposite directions to parts of the head. However, the product and process of this type are not subject of the present invention.

Returning to another type of crosslaminated, which is more than household or technical products, it should be noted that they are particularly characterized by high resistance to puncturing and high with what honostly to the distribution of gaps. The strength of the heat seal in the seal with a sharp edge is adequate, when the surface layers of the laminate selected suitable polymer with a low melting temperature, at the same time it is necessary if you want good resistance seam to heat stroke in the weld peelable type, which is usually required in the industrial bags with welded seams, take special precautions. These precautions are described in the patents of the same inventor, US-A-5205650 and WO-A-98/23434.

As mentioned above, crosslaminated may have a special resistance to the spread of the gaps, but with a relatively low bond strength. Because of the unbalanced orientation in a separate films and crossing the main directions of orientation, in one film, the gap will tend to spread in one direction and the other in another. Thus, there will be a tendency towards resolving ties at the points of concentration of forces and, if this trend becomes sufficiently pronounced, the gap will be under local delamination and impact of a cut when the gap will be almost eliminated.

Thus, in a General sense, there will be a "competition" between the adhesive forces that try to resist chipping and cohesive forces in each film, which try to prevent rupture or flow in each healthy lifestyles the Institute, which is not parallel to the main direction of orientation. These adhesive forces (still in a General sense) does not depend on the thickness of the films, whereas the cohesive force is mainly proportional to the thickness of the film, when all other parameters are not changed. As a result of this "competition" thin crosslaminated will have or relatively weak resistance to the spread of the breaks, or a relatively high tendency to stratification. For crosslaminated relatively thick layers, this problem is not so serious. For bags such "competition" usually is not a problem, because the filled sacks are usually not exposed to dissecting forces, which means that you can choose the low bond strength, but this problem becomes acute for canvas, covers and similar items that, when used repeatedly bent, for example, when the swaying of the wind. In practice, the inventor and his successors found that the tarpaulin is made of dublenochnogo of crosslaminated, on the basis of the combination of LLDPE (linear low-density polyethylene) and HMWHDPE (high-density polyethylene with high molecular weight), each film should have a thickness of at least 45-50 g/m2otherwise, either the adhesive force or the resistance to propagation of discontinuities Boo the ut unacceptable for users. This experience relates to the tarpaulins for "static" applications, in which there are no swinging in the wind. For "dynamic" applications, such as covers for trucks or trailers, where the tarpaulin strongly and repeatedly subjected to vibrations, requires a much greater thickness.

One objective of the present invention is a solution to this problem so as to simultaneously and in practice, to achieve an adequate link between the films and high resistance to the spread of the gaps in crosslaminated even a small thickness.

In connection with the solution of the aforementioned problems, the inventor has created a ring head for co-extrusion, are able to jointly ekstradiroval in practice, a set of tapes on the tubular film, and this construction also is an object of the present invention.

In the patent GB-A-1095479 dated March 3, 1964 (assigned company Metal Containers), the inventor proposed to solve the above problem by welding solid films to each other at points or along lines and weak weld on the rest of the contact surface (combination of "strong link weak link" is usually better than a combination of strong communication/lack of communication"). This allows the gap to "escape", as described above in the field of weak ties, whereas the General stratification prevents the point or line of strong ties.

For durable CBA is key in the patent are offered when, ultrasonic welding, solvent (preferably in the form of hot steam) for dissolution of a thin surface layer, or the use of rapidly polymerizing monomers acting as a strong binder. For weak welding in the patent proposed (using as example a plastic crosslaminated) to apply the gel of polyethylene with a low molecular weight or paraffin wax dissolved in, for example, toluene or xylene by heating and forms a gel upon cooling. A thin layer of the gel, including the solvent, selectively applied by a printing method to implement welding solid by cooling the surfaces of the film pairs toluene or xylene when they connect between the rollers. Alternative, toluene or xylene is added a small amount of additive, reducing friction, and this "dirty" solvent can be used as a gel.

In the patent DK-A-1017/67 (de Pont), published on 24 February 1967, declared crosslaminated films connected by points or lines (where possible two sets of lines forming the pattern of the grid), and the rest of the contact area remains as specified in the main claim, "almost not connected". Disclosed are three ways to implement binding points. One way is to apply kauchukopodobnoe middleware required is shown. Indicates that the application is well known methods, but further explanation is not given.

The second way is to process the selected surface areas on one of the films with chlorine, followed by lamination under pressure at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the film material.

The third method, which is preferred, is carried out by treating selected areas of the film by corona discharge, followed by lamination under pressure and at elevated temperature, below the melting point of the film material. In this case, the electrode in the form of a roller, which is connected with the ground caused the desired pattern (which may be a drawing grid) so that electric discharge occurs only in the space defined by this figure. The surface response of the film is treated by corona discharge over the entire area. Indicates that this treatment requires 20 watts/cm width, if the speed is 0.5 m/min

In the above patent US-A-4039364 (Rasmussen), which together ekstragiruyut surface layer of each oriented film ("the first bonding layer") to enhance communication and management system of adhesion "is a strong link weak link" is created through the use of different lamination temperatures in different parts of the laminate. So, p is the iMER 1 through co-extrusion and spiral cutting create three films with different directions of orientation of the melt and the surface layers of ethylene vinyl acetate to facilitate lamination (above "the first laminar layer"). The weak link occurs simultaneously with the transverse orientation due to seven times the bandwidth of a sandwich of three differently oriented films through a set vzaimostsepljaemost corrugated rollers. Step on these rollers is 1.5 mm, of which the groove is 1.0 mm, and a rounded "tooth" to 0.5 mm Between each pass through corrugated rollers folds formed on the sandwich of the films, right.

These steps stretching occurs at a temperature of 20°but nevertheless create some connection (strength at breaking 10 g/cm) due to the close contact between the films and the effect of tension. After seven passages at 20°the film is passed once through a similar set of grooved rollers with the same size and with the same gearing, but which are heated to 120°With, due to which there line of strong ties. Finally, the laminate are oriented in the longitudinal direction.

In the patent EP-A-0099222 (Mercer and others) from April 7, 1983 orientation and crosslaminated the pattern of spot welding implement as a single process in an annular cylinder, and immediately after it, while the head has two rotating in opposite directions part. Each of these parts of the head produces a film provided with a set of edges so that these two sets were facing each other. Blagodarstvennogo in opposite directions to rotate the orientation of the melt in one of the finned films and the direction of the set of edges on it get right, and the second film is left. These two sets of ribs are in contact with each other at the exit of the head or directly after the exit and binding occurs only at the points where the ribs intersect each other. The ribs keep the two films are connected by spot welding, at a distance from each other and in the finished product.

The orientation of the melt in an intersecting manner occurs when the molten resin material flows through the two rotating in opposite directions part of the extrusion head and during blowing and longitudinal stretching, when the laminate is released from the head. No subsequent process orientation does not occur.

This process is not a process of co-extrusion. Film and ribs consist of a single polymeric material and come from a single extruder.

As far as known to the inventor, none of the above methods for producing patterned adhesion type "a strong link weak link" or "strong communication/lack of communication" in crosslaminated never been used in commercial production, although significant, and the great advantage of such systems is recognized for over 40 years. However, each of the proposed methods has serious drawbacks. These methods, which use organic solvents for polyolefins, particularly in the form of PA is s, involve danger to health, unless you use very expensive equipment, not least because it is very difficult to avoid residual traces of solvent in the finished product.

Proposed treatment by corona discharge according to the specified pattern, followed by lamination under pressure and heated to a temperature below the melting point of the polymeric material, applicable only when very small volumes of production. In the commercial production of crosslaminated for household purposes, such as canvas and covers, laminating speed should be about 60 m/min or more, if the width of the product 150 cm or more. Using the above information about the power consumption, 60 m/min and 150 cm will require 900 kW, which, of course, is not practicable. Treatment with chlorine in the pattern are also unsuitable for large-scale industrial production.

Application of the binder, applied by the printing method, dispersion or solution, requires strong preliminary surface treatment, when a polymeric material is polyethylene or polypropylene, are usually very strong corona treatment, so this method is also uneconomical.

Figure "strong ties/weak ties" or "strong communication/lack of communication", obtained at different temperatures, inevitably leads to uneven the Hutch. if the pattern linear or patterned (including pattern in the form of a grid), and this leads to the fact that crosslaminated looks dirty. Uneven shrinkage can be avoided if the parts are strong ties are small points, but in this case, the product looks lumpy, which can be ugly.

Moreover, the device is necessary for adequate heating spot pattern to a controlled temperature, is relatively difficult, especially at high speed, because the laminate must remain in contact with hot spots on the heater in the long passage without any bias, despite a tendency to shrink.

Unitary process crosslaminated rotating in opposite directions head unit from the point of view of strength there is a disadvantage in that the formation of the film and the molecular orientation is very closely related to each other. This makes it virtually impossible to give products the custom properties for different applications. Moreover, the inventor has found that crosslaminated, linked only by points, has a relatively low yield strength and shows a tendency to creep in the direction between the main directions of orientation in the two laminated films.

The present invention is the creation of wave enstvovanii and simplified system "is a strong link weak link" for crosslaminated by using extrusion and/or give it an interesting aesthetic effects such joint extrusion.

The present invention relates to crosslaminated containing mutually linked polymer films, of which at least two adjacent film is a film obtained by co-extrusion and is oriented uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial, resulting in a main direction of orientation in the film And crosses the main direction of orientation in the film and each film contains a layer consisting of a polymer material having a high tensile strength (hereinafter "main layer") and on each main layer facing the next film a or b with at least the first surface layer. This first surface layer on each of the films a and b is discontinuous layer, consisting of a set of jointly extruded thin lived, consisting of a material that is able to modify the surface properties of the respective films. This modification refers to either the optical properties, determining the appearance of the laminate, or the relationship between the films a and B.

Accordingly, in the method of manufacturing crosslaminated of the present invention, where the laminate contains the above-mentioned films a and b (but in the laminate may be other films), each of the films a and b is co-extruded through a flat or annular cylinder for joint extras and, and each of them contains the main layer of polymer material with high tensile strength and above the first surface layer made of a different material. Each of the films a and B is uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial molecular orientation at each stage after the connection of different materials in the head for co-extrusion and prior to lamination. Before laminating film and is positioned so that the main direction of orientation in the film And crossed the main direction of orientation in the film, and during lamination, the connection between the films a and b is created at least partially by heating. A distinctive feature of this method is that during the co-extrusion of each of the said first surface layer is made as a discontinuous layer (intermittent transversely relative to the direction of extrusion), containing a set of lived and when laminating the set lived on film And crosses set lived on film Century

The method is further characterized in that the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, selected with the possibility of changing the surface properties of the respective films. This change applies to optical properties, determining the appearance of the laminate, or the relationship between the films a and B.

One aspect of the present invention, which relates to the properties, and then aimed at improving resistance to the spread of breaks, next, the different characteristics described in claim 2 of the formula, and an additional distinctive features of this method are given in paragraph 24 of formulas. The aspect that is related to the optical properties, determining the appearance and having a decorative, aesthetic purpose, then are signs listed in section 3 of formulas.

The preferred dimensions of the product stated in PP-7 formula.

As for the comments about the need for interesting decorative effects, the experience of the inventor, saving on raw materials, which can be obtained by applying crosslaminated films, often from a commercial point of view offset the negative subjective impressions. For example, agricultural tarpaulins (for example, crop protection) made of crosslaminated oriented polyethylene films with a density of 70 g/m2would be fully adequate substitute for the sheet density of 100 g/m2made of woven ribbon with extrusion coating, if the choice is made according to objective criteria.

In practice, however, the average buyer of agricultural tarpaulins largely make choices on the basis of texture and appearance, and rejects the tarpaulin density of 70 g/m2because of its "plenochnoi" because it looks like a simple plastic film. The problem of "plait is echnosti" is reduced by the application of the previous invention by the same inventor, disclosed in WO-A-9314928, which are briefly described below in connection with one special variant of the present invention, while the issue of appearance, resembling a simple plastic film remains. However, there is reason to believe that the figure overlapping lived according to the present invention will show that this material is crosslaminated and, therefore, has a special strength. Therefore, the user can see that the figure is clearly not printed on the surface of the laminate, and is inside. Slightly blurred edge lines of the figure, which is the inevitable result of technology co-extrusion, shows that line appeared in the production of the film, but not during later printing one or more layers. In General, this figure shows that it is crosslaminated, and therefore it can be expected strength. Moreover, the figure, of course, not deleted as a result of abrasion, while the figure printed on the laminate, are very vulnerable to such influences.

A large part of crosslaminated films produced in the world, is stretched transversely by passing between one or more sets vzaimostsepljaemost corrugated rollers, see, for example, the above-mentioned patent application WO-A-9314928, which describes the current technology associated with crosslaminated films. This processoperator stretching always gives crosslaminated more or less striped appearance due to surface folds with corresponding variations in the thickness of the laminate. Very fine picture of these variations, even a gap of only +/-5%, it becomes very noticeable due to reflection of light. Now the inventor has unexpectedly discovered that the combination of such a striped pattern with the colored wires inside the laminate gives a pronounced three-dimensional effect. Besides the fact that this effect is interesting and able to attract attention, he also invokes in the viewer the impression that the laminate is much thicker than it actually is, and so it counteracts the negative subjective evaluation of the laminate as a simple plastic film. This special three-dimensional effect will be described in more detail below.

In the process of co-extrusion film and/or film preferably provide a continuous surface layer (hereinafter referred to as "the second bonding layer"), which for the purposes of the decorative aspect together can be ekstrudirovaniya or on top of a set lived or under it. For the purpose of bonding the second bonding layer together ekstragiruyut on the main layer under the set lived, due to which the composition of the second binder layer is different from the composition of the main layer and the first binder layer. Further, for the purpose of binding the second binder layer are chosen so that during lamination to create a link in places where there is no first bonding layer, while such a relationship has less strength, che is the link, in pixels.

The method according to the present invention and the product obtained in this way do not have the above disadvantages. This method is well suited for the commercial production of household goods, as shall not be a hazard to health.

Additional costs compared to lamination with a uniform communication in General negligible. Extrusion, stretching and lamination are essentially separate process steps, so each of them can be optimized for the desired end use. Appearance does not suffer from the effect of uneven shrinkage or spots. It is possible to apply the commonly used equipment for the production of crosslaminated with only minor additions to existing lines, co-extrusion, as will be shown below.

To optimize the picture links are very important advantage is that the pattern of lamination may contain not only two, but three elements, if the device for co-extrusion provides a means for extruding the specified second binder layer. Device for co-extrusion with such a tool is not always can be used for extruding the layer.

These three elements in figure lamination are:

(a) each point where intersect each other two cores of the first SV is based layers;

(b) each area in which both of the contacting surfaces do not have a binder layer, and

c) areas in which there is a first bonding layer on one of the two contacting surfaces and missing the first bonding layer on the second.

Components (a) and (C) together form a mesh pattern.

By adjusting the strength of components a), b) and C)are different for different applications, but using the same equipment, this communication system can be very useful for custom properties crosslaminated.

So, as an example task, using tarpaulins, where the thickness should be minimized for cost reasons, but where the resistance to the spread of breaks and ultimate tensile strength are of paramount importance, and the fluidity of tensile and aesthetics have a relatively small value, but where the delamination resistance should be very high, due to fluctuations in the wind. In this case, the preferred system strong communication/lack of communication and co-extrusion of the second binder layer skip. The main component can be applied not only from its own extruder and through their own channels, but also from the extruder and through a system of channels that otherwise would be used for the second is Masoumeh layer. A strong relationship is created by welding at the points (a), where the strands cross each other.

In other cases, you may need to create a strong bond not only in points (a), but in parts (C), whereas in plots (b) should be defined, but clearly the weak link.

This can also be achieved by the appropriate selection of polymeric materials for the first and second binder layers (in this case it is necessary, of course, to apply the second bonding layer). The combination of strong ties in mesh pattern and some, but weak links in the rest of the square gives a very interesting picture lamination, usually looks better than a solid spot welding in combination with a weak link for the rest of the square. In the last mentioned case accidentally started stratification usually covers a large area, if crosslaminated to repeatedly bend, for example, when the fluctuation in the wind. The film will be held together in places of spot welding, but the rest of the area will lose connection and, thereby, lose the appearance and, to some extent, tensile strength and resistance to shrinkage.

In contrast, weak ties, surrounded by powerful friends in the net figure will not allow random stratification distributed in such manner.

However, it should be mentioned that there are applications for which alussa combination is:

a) durable welding,

b) weak link and

c) is also a weak link, but stronger than (b).

Preferably each of the two films a and b should consist mainly of polyethylene or polypropylene, for example, the primary layer may preferably be composed of high density polyethylene or linear low density polyethylene or mixtures thereof, the second binder layer of linear low density polyethylene, but with the addition of 5-25% of a copolymer of ethylene, having a melting point or range of melting points in the range of 50-80°whereas veins can basically be composed of a copolymer of ethylene, having a melting point or range of melting points in the range of 50-100°or mixtures of such copolymers with linear low density polyethylene containing at least 25% of this copolymer.

The distance from the middle to the middle of the neighboring lived in each set should be from 2 mm to 8 cm, preferably not more than 4 cm and more preferably not more than 2 cm

The bond strength at the points (a), measured by peeling (conducted on a narrow sample at a rate of about 1 mm/s), should generally be at least 40 g/cm, and the bond strength in plots (b), defined in this way should be a maximum of 75%, but preferably not more than 50% of the bond strength at the points (a).

Unlike the t crosslaminated, manufactured using rotating in opposite directions parts of the head and containing overlapping sets of edges mentioned above in the description of the prototype, the increase in the thickness of the films a and b in positions where co-extruded strands should normally be a maximum of 30% compared to the directly adjacent areas, preferably a maximum of 20% and, more preferably, not more than 10%.

Joint extrusion of one or both films a and b is preferably carried out with an annular slotted heads for co-extrusion for the formation and stretching of the tubular film. Stretching is produced with the possibility of obtaining substantial uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial orientation of the melt with the main direction of orientation and direction set lived along the longitudinal axis of the film. Alternatively, the orientation and direction set can be performed in a spiral along the tubular film by means of relative rotation between the exit slit of the head and means for removing the film after extrusion. Then the film is cut at an angle to the main direction of orientation and the direction of the set.

The distance from the middle to the middle of the neighboring lived at the exit of the extruder should normally be a maximum of 8 cm, preferably not more than 4 cm, and more predpochtite is) not more than 2 cm, and the circumference of the pipe the output should normally be at least 20 cm

In the scope of the present invention also includes extrusion of both films a and b using a flat slotted head and a cross-connection film under hot pressure, preferably after longitudinal cold stretching of both films.

Crosslaminated according to the present invention is not necessarily limited to two films a and b, it may contain three layers or more. As advantaged design, it can contain two pairs of matrix-related films a and b, especially in combination a-b-a or b-a-b, where the average film has a set of veins on both surfaces, i.e. the first bonding layer and preferably also the second bonding layer.

Other relevant structures containing more than two films a and b, the laminate is included at least one additional film. This film also made by the method of co-extrusion and thanks to that provided with the surface layer of the composition made with the possibility to manage its relationship in the laminate. This composition and laminating conditions are chosen so that the bond strength was higher than the bonding strength between the films a and b at points where there are no jointly excederine veins. Thus creating obstacles to the detachment of this film.

p> Each of the surfaces of the laminate should preferably consist of a layer made with the possibility of improving the ability of the laminate to the sealing and/or improve its frictional properties. Such layers together ekstragiruyut in films, used as an outer film in the laminate.

Normal molecular orientation in each of the films a and b, which may be uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial, should not be limited to orientation, received in connection with extrusion. Before the spiral cut can be additional longitudinal stretching. Alternative or additionally, after the addition of the films in sandwich lamination, the film can be further oriented in the longitudinal and/or transverse direction. This process may be performed after thermal bonding of the sandwich laminate.

Such steps themselves are not new, see, for example, the above-mentioned patent application WO-A-9314928, but in connection with the present invention, they can provide specific benefits.

In the laminating process of the veins in the film And can directly knit with conductors in the film, but, alternatively, the lamination process may be performed during the extrusion process when the connection is created by means of a separate extrudable layer.

Usually set lived on each of the films a and b should not take the m ore than 15%, preferably a maximum of 10%, and more preferably a maximum of 5% of the volume of the respective films And or Century

Except, when together ekstragiruyut second (continuous) surface layer over a first surface layer, forming veins, to simplify or improve the lamination is always good to choose the composition of the material lived to veins, saying, in General, melted at a temperature at which the base layer is still mostly solid. Thus, the average melting point of the polymers, which form a sinewy first surface layer should be at least about 10°C, preferably at least about 15°S, and more preferably, about 20°With lower than average melting point of the polymer forming the core layer.

In this regard, the term "average" should, of course, be understood as the average taking into account the different weights of the components. So, if the veins consist of 20% of the polymer's melting point 125°and 80% polymer Y with a melting point of 90°With the average melting point is 125×20%-90×80%=97°C.

For that aspect of the present invention, the task of which is the establishment of a lamination "is a strong link weak link and, thus, an appropriate combination of proliferation resistance breaks and resistance to delamination, we should mention one more field is surrounding the benefits of option. In this embodiment, the weakest link, which probably should be called "sticking together", is produced by the additive polymer in the second surface layer polymer type as additives in sticky tape. It can be called adhesive additive or Slauson agent.

This Supplement is a sticky polymer, such as polyisobutylene, normal or relatively low molecular weight, which tends to migrate to the surface. As an example of another suitable polymer for this purpose may be mentioned atactic polypropylene. The amount of such additives are, of course, should not be so large as to break the connection between the second surface and formed from lived the first surface layer.

Turning to the second aspect of the present invention, which relates to the appearance of veins on the inside of the laminate should have a color and be visible from both sides of the laminate. As mentioned above, an interesting, attractive and unexpected three-dimensional optical effect, when the surface of the laminate through which see veins, looks like an embossed striped surface. A separate stamping operation for this purpose is usually not necessary, however, relief may be a result of the transverse stretching between grooved rollers, which currently is widely used about the svojstva crosslaminated films, see, for example, WO-A-9314928 ER-IN-0624126 (Rasmussen).

You can get crosslaminated, which has a total maximum thickness of 0.3 mm, looking as if the veins were removed by at least 0.5 mm from the strips. The expression "total thickness" is used because striped relief network variable thickness. The total thickness on the distance perpendicular to the strips should be understood as the average thickness at this distance.

This variant of the present invention is more specifically defined as follows:

a) the laminate has a total thickness of about 0.3 mm,

b) film And forms one surface of the laminate,

c) the surface of the laminate, at least on the side of the film And has a visible pattern of stripes along one direction, formed by folds of the surface with a corresponding change in the film thickness And, thus dividing this figure are for a maximum of 3 mm,

d) thin wires are the same color, and the rest of the film And is quite transparent, so you can see the colored wires, when the laminate is viewed from the side of the film And, thanks to the depth of the folds sufficient to veins looked like spaced at least 0.5 mm from the strips.

Experiments have shown that the three-dimensional effect is partly due to psychological illusion, and partly by the fact that the strips form the alternate location of structures, which can be roughly described as cylindrical collecting lens and a cylindrical dispersing lenses. However, this should not be taken too literally, because these lenses can largely be the nature of the prisms or they may be interleaved lenticularity segments and flat segments. The relief may have a generally constant step or step can be more casual, for example, when relief from several pairs of corrugated rollers are superimposed on each other.

Whatever the explanation found a three-dimensional effect, the inventor has found it very significant, as will be explained in the example.

Particularly strong optical or psychological effect may occur when the laminate is observed in the cross section perpendicular to the strips, shows generally uniform arrangement of ribs, which are thicker than the average thickness of the laminate, and have in General a concave and generally convex surface so that there is a break ribs transversely to their longitudinal direction, and further, so that the material located at the boundaries of the edges or near them, when this material is not stretched, bent in the opposite direction relative to the edges, which gives the material between two adjacent ribs in General, the stretched form. This in itself is not new, and is the main feature of the patent WO-A-934928 (Rasmussen). In this patent the purpose of the ribs is to give the laminate increased rigidity in one direction, but in connection with the present invention, they create a specific optical effect.

Specific aesthetic effect can be achieved when the color of the stripes give a pigment, which creates a metallic luster or iridescent effect. Concentrated dyes for such colors is usually very expensive, but if the application is limited to only strips, this factor does not matter, but the effect obtained in this way may be more pronounced than when the color of these pigments entire film.

Thus, according to one aspect of the present invention proposes a new method of manufacturing crosslaminated containing related to each other polymeric films, of which at least two adjacent film and formed joint extrusion through a flat or annular cylinder, a main layer of polymeric material having high tensile strength, and the first surface layer of a polymeric material, and in which each of the films a and b give a uniaxial or unbalanced biaxial molecular orientation at any stage after the connection of different materials in the head for co-extrusion and before lamination while before laminating film And and B the size is up so, the main direction of orientation in the film And crosses the main direction of orientation in the film during lamination the relationship between films and create, at least partially, heat, characterized in that during co-extrusion of each of the said first surface layers perform discontinuous in the transverse direction, in that it consists of a set of lived, and when laminating the set lived on the film And is positioned so that it crosses the set lived on the film, and characterized in that film And after its co-extrusion supply surface folds of varying thickness, this distance between the folds does not exceed 3 mm.

Preferably, the surface folds applied by the transverse stretching of the laminate mutually acepsimas rollers, as described in WO-A-9314928 so, the entire laminate has a surface pleats that have ribs described above. Preferably, in this aspect, the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, is a colour, and material from which to form the film And is sufficiently transparent that the stripes were visible from the side of the film And the laminate.

It was noted above that the production of crosslaminated you can apply is usually used equipment only with inexpensive additions to existing lines by co-extrusion. This is refers to the co-extrusion set lived, intermittent first binder layer. The inventor has found that this can be achieved by installing special, but it's pretty easy and cheap parts at the output of almost any existing heads for co-extrusion. Of course, you will need another extruder, but veins usually take 1-5% of each extruded film, and therefore it may be a small and inexpensive extruder. The inventor believes that such adapted heads are new.

An extrusion head according to the present invention is an annular extrusion head containing a distribution portion in which at least the first molten polymeric material can be formed in uniform circular flow, and separated from it the output part containing ring main channel with an essentially cylindrical or conical walls, the channel may contain a flat area for transmission of the specified molten polymeric material to the outlet slit from which he comes out of the head in the form of a tubular film structure. A special characteristic of the present invention is that the output part also contains the channel system to the annular extrusion ring set narrow lived from the second molten polymeric material, and this channel system zakanchivau the SJ ring near the inner gates in the outer generally cylindrical or conical wall of the main channel.

In a preferred embodiment, circumferential extrusion begins on one or more inputs to the output part and provides for an equal division of the labyrinth channel system, starting at each entrance and each such system has at least three channel branches.

The term "labyrinth separation" was introduced in US-A-4403934 and refers to the separation of the streams, where one stream is divided into two branches of equal length, each of these threads again divided into two branches of equal length and so on, all the branches are mostly circular and parallel to each other. This is shown in Fig.6.

In order to achieve a sufficiently small distance between the inner gates, channels labyrinth system or systems may result in a common annular channel having a common wall with a part in the overall cylindrical or conical wall of the main channel. Round the number of internal gates is located in this part of the wall.

Such a head for co-extrusion process was developed for the production of crosslaminated as a means of obtaining systems laminating "a strong link weak link" or "strong communication/lack of communication", and may be a need for continuous second binder layer. Therefore, in addition to the means for co-extrusion of the first and second molten polymer is materials, preferably provides a means for co-extrusion ring of the third stream of molten polymeric material on the side of the first material, which is the opposite of the second material. The system of canals to connect the threads of the first and second material is either in the specified distribution or in part, located between the distribution part and a separate output part. In the extrusion head circumference facing the inside of the wall outlet is preferably 20 cm, and the center distance between adjacent gates in the annular row selected with the opportunity to give, after increase or decrease, which will happen if the wall of the main channel generally conical, the distance from the middle to the middle of the neighboring lived, equal to a maximum of 8 cm, preferably not more than 4 cm, and more preferably not more than 2 cm

The extrusion head can be successfully used in the production of the polymer film, non-crosslaminated, such as film, bearing a decorative pattern of colored stripes. In addition to the aforementioned economic advantage that existing extrusion heads can be used with the addition of inexpensive parts and a small extruder, there is also the advantage that the length of the flux is from the extruder to the exit of the head becomes the shortest, when the input of the second material in the cylinder, and the entire distribution system is located near the exit from the extrusion head, resulting in possible to avoid degradation of the polymers.

For completeness it should be added that a set of bands on a co-extruded films a and b for the described crosslaminated, of course can be formed from a flow, which passes through the distribution portion of the head for co-extrusion, in parallel to other threads, but then you may run the risk of degradation, such as veins, as indicated above, typically comprise 1-5% of each film.

In addition, there may be two or more labyrinth system of the type described, or an equivalent distribution system arranged one after the other, and each of which ends in a ring near the inner gates, optionally with the above-mentioned annular channel, is inserted between the end branches and internal gates. Preferably, each such labyrinth system must be powered from a separate small extruder. Can be used in a variety of small extruders. The inner gates, which end in different labyrinth channel system should be shifted relative to each other so that different sets together extrudable lived did not cover each other. This is described in the following with reference to figa.

Although, as indicated above, the various components of the production line for a laminate can be known, it is believed that a device for implementing the new method has novelty.

According to further aspect of the present invention, a device for the manufacture of crosslaminated containing

head for the co-extruded film and head for the co-extruded film, and one or each of the heads includes a first distribution part (8), in which the first molten polymeric material may be formed in a generally uniform flow, the second distribution part (9), in which the second polymeric material can be formed into a stream, the output sprue, the output part, containing the main channel (12) for the specified bandwidth of the first molten polymeric material to the output sprue, and channel system (10, 11) on one side of the main channel for transmission of the second molten polymeric material toward the sprue for forming the surface layer on one side of a flow of the first molten polymeric material, where the material is subjected to co-extrusion exits the exhaust sprue head as a film structure (16);

means for guiding film according To one axis or unbalanced p the two axes after exiting the outlet of the riser;

means for placing the films a and b so that these surface layers facing each other, and so that their direction or the main directions of orientation intersect each other; and

laminating means for laminating films a and b by application of heat;

wherein the channel system for the transmission of the second polymeric material ensures the flow of the second polymeric material being discontinuous in a direction generally transverse to the direction of flow, resulting in each of the surface layers of the films a and b is formed as a set of lived and where films a and b are placed so that their surface layers facing each other, while the tendons of the film And cross veins on film Century

If the tapes a and b are identical, the device can have a single head. This device produces a film of the same type having the required surface layers and places the two films so that they were facing each other, forming a laminate. One or each of the heads preferably is a new head, as defined above. Moreover, the laminating means is the effect of heat on full width of the films a and B.

Preferably one or each of the heads is a circular cylinder and includes tension means for the tubular film, which creates significant about is the prefer of the melt in the direction or in the main direction of melt veins and gives the direction along the longitudinal axis of the tubular film.

The device according to the invention further comprises means for stretching films and In upstream, downstream or at the same point, which is equipped with laminar means, in the longitudinal and/or transverse direction. While the host vehicle is made so that the surface layers on the film And in direct contact with these surface layers on the film Preferably Century the principal means includes means for extrusion laminating layer between the surface layers of the films a and b, and a tool for creating terrain is located downstream from the means for placing the films a and b and contains one or more pairs of overlapping corrugated rollers which stretch runs between them in the film.

Next is a detailed description of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, where:

Figure 1 is a view, in approximately real, the interface between two jointly extruded, oriented, cut in a spiral and crosslaminated films a and b, each of which is normally, but not always, has a thin continuous layer for weak ties and, on top of this layer, set lived the first connecting layer that creates three different coupling element a, b and C;

Figure 2 is a view approximately in real two together ek is erodirovannyj, oriented, spiral cut and crosslaminated films (a and b). The drawing shows one aspect of the present invention, which relates to optical appearance, creating a three-dimensional effect when used in conjunction extruded strands (101) and (102), resulting in a banded terrain (103) creates a three-dimensional effect.

Figure 3 is a cross section on line a-a in figure 2. This section perpendicular to the stripes. The thickness of each layer is shown here with approximately 400-fold increase, whereas the dimensions parallel to the surfaces of the laminate shown with approximately 20-fold magnification.

4 is a schematic drawing in perspective lines for the co-extrusion process for the production of tubular film, suitable after the spiral cutting for making crosslaminated shown in figures 1, 2 and 3. The flow of polymeric material to living comes from a very small extruder (4), and flows three other polymeric materials (for the main layer, a second continuous surface layer and the layer for the surface of the laminate) come from the extruder (5) (6) and (7) are larger in size. The last three of these materials are in the distribution port (8) heads for co-extrusion and each one of them forms a circular flow. The combination of these streams are output from (8), when they pop the give in a separate output portion (9). The flow from a small extruder (4) is fed directly to the output part (9), where starting from the periphery, it is evenly distributed in the labyrinth channel system as shown in Fig.6, and served through the annular set of internal gates on the outer side of the tubular joint flow of the other components. The concept of the labyrinth channel system described above.

Figa - longitudinal section, shown at approximately half scale, separate the outlet part (9), which consists of parts (9a), (9b), (9c), (9d) and (9F). The section carried out along the line x-x of figure 6. Shows several channels (10) labyrinth system.

Fig 5b is a detail figa showing the last branch in the labyrinth channel system and one of the 64 internal gates (11), through which flows the material forming the cores are connected with tubular flow (12) of the three together extrudable materials. This detail shows approximately 6-fold increase.

6 is a perspective view from above of the part (9a), showing the lower half of the labyrinth channel system (10)through which a single stream of material forming strands from the extruder (4) is supplied through the inlet (13), manual is divided into 64 equal partial flow through the channels (10), and each of them is extruded separately through the inner sprue (11). The upper half of the labyrinth the channel system, which is the part (9b), is exactly symmetrical to that which is shown in Fig.6, with the exception of the inlet (13).

Figures 1 and 2 the longitudinal direction crosslaminated paintings shown by the arrow (1). The main direction of orientation, which can be oriented along one axis or unbalanced orientation in two axes, shown by the arrow (2) for one film and the arrow (3) for the other film. Each of them is shown having an angle of about 60° relative to the longitudinal direction (1). The inventor has found that this angle is the most suitable for canvas and covers, while the angle of 30° better suited for crosslaminated used for manufacturing bags. Angle 45° may be preferable in some cases.

For each film the main direction of orientation shown almost, but not quite parallel set lived in the film. If the tubular film at the outlet of the extrusion head stretch right, and if it is not subjected to tensile spiral after cutting, the main direction of orientation will be strictly parallel to this set, but if the tubular film is formed under tension to obtain a spiral orientation of the melt or if it was focused on one or two axes after the spiral cutting, as in the aforementioned patent US-A-4,039,364 (Rasmussen), the main direction of orientation is not parallel to the set.

In points (a), where one set of crosses another, there is a strong spot welding. The relationship used to be so strong that when you try splitting the laminate breaks to avoid these points.

If between the housing and the main layer is jointly continuous extruded second bonding layer remain only in points (a), but, as mentioned above, this relationship is very strong. As explained in the General description, this simple communication system in some cases is preferred. However, head for co-extrusion should preferably contain channel system to the second binder layer, even if its use is not limited to these cases.

Often it is necessary to ekstradiroval second bonding layer between the main layer and set lived. In areas designated by position (b) there is a direct adhesive connection between the second binder layers in two films here, by selecting the material composition and temperature lamination creates a pre-defined well-managed a weak link.

In plots (C) veins on one film connected by adhesion with the second binder layer on the second film. Thus, the bonding strength in plots (C) has a value somewhere between the strength at the point (a) and strength in plot (b). These three values can be selected in a wide range is the azone values and the adhesive system, so to say, be tailored to the intended application of crosslaminated.

In relatively thin films it is possible to make a link in plots (C) is so strong that it cannot be destroyed, without tearing the material, even when the link in the plots (b) created especially weak. Thus, these areas of weak ligaments completely "surrounded" in areas of strong ties. The advantages of such solutions for certain types of applications are explained in the General description. In other cases, it may be preferred, while maintaining a very weak link in the plots (b), to give due in plots (C) of adequate strength between the values of bond strength in parts (a) and (b)that will allow the emergence of stratification during propagation of the rupture, but will have such a high resistance to delamination, that the energy gap will be absorbed and the gap around the point (a) will be prevented.

Figure 2 by the arrow (1) shows the direction of processing crosslaminated paintings. The main direction of orientation, which in this case is unbalanced orientation in two axes, shown by the arrow (2) for one film and the arrow (3) for the other film. They are shown at an angle of 30° to the direction of (1) processing.

For each film the main direction of orientation shown almost, but not quite parallel to the set of cores (101) in the film and (102) in the square is the NCA Century These veins figure 2 shows the thick dashed lines.

It should be noted that in figure 2 the line (103) are not hatching, and are a band formed by topography, shown in cross section in figure 3. This relief occurs as a result of stretching between grooved rollers (see example). These strips of colored wires (101) and (102) are clearly located at a distance from these bands, even when the actual distance is approximately equal to or even smaller than the resolution of the eye (which is approximately 0.1 mm). As already mentioned, it is believed that this illusion stems from the fact that the surface of the laminate consists of alternating concavity and convexity, or, in other words, the film And that it is transparent, consists of many small cylindrical collecting lenses alternating with small diffuser lenses. May also play a role and that the pressure due to the grooved rollers, creates a figure with a different sheen. The film can also be transparent, but may be highly colored to create aesthetic of the substrate for a pattern of colored stripes.

Figure 3 further shows the second surface layers (104) and (105) to control the bond strength and surface layers (106) and (107) laminate made from polymer materials that are selected to improve osobnosti to the sealing and/or frictional properties of the laminate. In the case where the present invention is used not only to achieve an optical effect, but also to create a system of "strong link weak link, as is usually done, these second surface layers should be between the respective forming the first conductor surface layer (101) or (102) and the corresponding main layer (108) or (109), as shown in the drawing and explained in the General part of the description.

However, if the effect is a strong link weak link" is not needed, each of the first surface layer (101) or (102), forming veins, may be subjected to co-extrusion between the main layer (108) or (109) and managing the second communication surface layer (104) or (105).

The cross section of figure 3 shows based on micrographs of the laminate described in example 2. As already mentioned, it is believed that a three-dimensional effect, in which colored wires look much more remote from the strips than actually is the result, at least partially, alternating the location of the cylindrical collecting lens and a cylindrical diffusing lenses, which form stripes.

4, 5A and 5b have already been sufficiently described to give a General idea, but you should add the following.

There are different rows of holes (14) for bolts or screws that hold part one is and the other. On fega show the shallow channel (15) for drainage, which is usual in constructions of heads for extrusion. Really should use a system of canals for drainage, occupying most of the space between the parts (9a) and (9b), but to simplify the drawing shows only one channel. With reference to fig.5b the lower stream portion of the inner gates (11) given the shape, which prevents damage to the axial flow, which otherwise could occur if there are sharp edges on this side of the gates.

In the description it was emphasized that there is an output portion (9), separate from the control part (8). Shows the details (9c) and (9F) can be constructed as a single item. The centering part (9d) is made adjustable in order to compensate for changes in the thickness of the extruded tubular film (16).

If you have two or more labyrinth system, each of which is powered from a separate extruder, between the rings (9a) and (9b) can be inserted one ring, the surface of which are of the form, together with ring (9a) to form one labyrinth system, and together with the ring (9b) - another labyrinth.

Figure 6 each of the 64 of the terminal branches of the labyrinth system inner ends of the sprue, which goes directly in the axial ring potokomna to share a labyrinth of more than 64 branches impractical and if you need more lived, each target branch may open in a common annular channel near the channel (12) for the axial flow. From this annular channel, you can perform a large number of holes in the channel (12).

Example 1

A procedure similar to the one described in the patent US 5028289 (Rasmussen), Example 3, with the following exception.

Line co-extrusion constructed, as shown in figure 4, 5A, 5b and 6, and are jointly extruded strands consisting of a copolymer of ethylene and octene with a low melting point, obtained by metallocene catalyst with a range of melting temperatures of 50-60°and a melt flow index of 1.0.

Added filler of silver pigment. The amount of this additive is increased threefold compared with the number used for the production of conventional silver film.

Layer, which in this U.S. patent is called "laminar layer, and in this description - "the second binder layer is a mixture of 90% linear low density polyethylene and 10% of a copolymer with a low melting point. Linear low density polyethylene has a density of 0.92 g/ml and a melt flow index of 1.0. The main layer and the heat-sealed layer (for sealing the finished crosslaminated) is the same as specified in example 3. The main layer is 75%, the heat-sealed layer of 15%, the second connection is a first layer of 8% and veins 2% of the film volume.

Components for the main, a second binder and heat-sealed layers do not contain any pigments.

The cutting angle is 57°.

Temperature for lamination, stretching and final heat treatment is also different, namely:

Preheating: 60°C.

For the transverse tension between the special grooved rollers described in this U.S. patent, and for the first longitudinal stretching: 50°C.

For subsequent transverse and longitudinal stretching: 35°C.

For heat treatment to obtain the final relation: 90°C.

Moreover, during the main transverse stretching to cool the film is not used ventilation air.

As in example 3, the density of the finished crosslaminated, for which the notation below is called I, is about 70 g/m2and picture communication corresponds shown in figure 1.

This crosslaminated (denoted by II), but without lived, was manufactured for comparison.

Moreover, was made the third laminate (labeled III), similar to the first, but lived without and with increase in the content of the copolymer with a low melting point of the second binder layer with 10% to 15%.

Sample (I) shows the highest resistance to the spread of the gap, sample (II) gave almost the same result, and the laminate (III) showed a significantly lower resistance, good discharge performance is Yu dissemination gap at shock discontinuities, unacceptable to the canvas. This property was evaluated according to the gap manually with the measured speed of 5-7 m/s a group of people who carried out such tests and knowing the requirements of consumers. As far as known to the inventor, there is no standard test for resistance to spread of rupture, which would be closely reproduced the practical conditions of tearing.

Laminates (I), (II) and (III) was also tested on accelerated aging by bending. The laminates were cut into strips of a width of 8 cm, which was set up as a flag on a flagpole with a diameter of 25 mm and pruned so that they deviated from the flagpole at 25 Then see this flag felt artificial wind speed of about 100 km/h Samples (II) and (III) stratified after a few minutes, and the sample (I) 2 hours, during which the tests were carried out, remained bound by all points of intersection of the conductors to each other.

The following notes apply to the examination to test for accelerated aging. When inspecting the sample (I) regardless of which side of the watch, got the impression that the color of the veins by a few millimeters distant from the bands.

The cross section of the sample (I) was studied under the microscope. It showed a uniform pattern of changes in the thickness and the corresponding waviness, but in a very small degree. In example 1 of the aforementioned U.S. Pat the NTA ER-IN-0624126 this structure, referred to as "the structure of U-shaped ribs, much more pronounced, see figure 1 of this patent. "The structure of U-shaped ribs" is defined in claim 9 of the formula of this application. In this example, the objective was to obtain a much less pronounced "the structure of U-shaped ribs" by changing the process conditions, namely, the increase of the cutting angle, mitigation cooling conditions after the longitudinal stretching and a little stronger transverse tensile thermo relaxation.

The thickness of the sample 1 was varied by approximately +/-10% overall uniform pattern, and the angle between the surface indicated by position A, and the average plane of the surface varied by approximately +/-3° within the division, in General, evenly.

These relatively small changes in angle, affecting the character of the reflection of light, giving the impression pronounced banding. The role can play and what grooved stretching rollers give a picture of the changing luster.

Example 2

The purpose of this example is a further study of the optical effects of overlapping lived before and after accelerated aging curve.

Exactly repeated the procedure in Example 1, except pigmentation components.

Sample IV: veins had the same additive silvery pigment as in example 1. In one painting laminate main layer was pigmentosa is in dark blue color so many concentrate, which is approximately twice as commonly used. In another canvas was pigmentirovanie only veins, other parts have been transparent.

Sample V: veins pigmented in white color additive concentrate TiO2. The amount of concentrate tripled usually used.

In both paintings the main laminate layer was painted the same blue pigment, as in sample IV, but half the amount of concentrate.

Sample VI: veins are absent, the main layers are pigmented, as in sample V. The same second bonding layer as in examples IV and V.

The study samples to test for accelerated aging by bending:

Sample IV: transparent hand there's the brilliant three-dimensional silver design. With the "reverse" side: quite beautiful, but not brilliant three-dimensional figure in dark blue.

Sample V: on both sides beautiful three-dimensional pattern of lines lighter blue color.

Inspection of the samples after 5 minutes fast jog, as explained in example 1:

Sample IV: "back" side still looks beautiful and there are no traces of stratification in the areas of material lived. With transparent sides of the laminate look not so aesthetically pleasing because of the progressive stratification in areas where no material has lived.

Sample V: on both sides of the laminate is somewhat accounted for yushima, but the overlapping pattern of the whole over the entire area and still looks beautiful.

Sample VI (no veins): highly stratified and unusable.

Inspection of sample V in 1 hour fast track curve, as explained in example 1: material keeps the relationship at the point of intersection lived. With both sides visible line drawing of lighter color.

Example 3

The procedure of example 1 was repeated with the modification that was extraditables thicker film, so that the finished laminate had a density of 120 g/m2and the second binder layer, the content of low-melting copolymer increased from 10% to 15%.

Pigmentation similar to example 2 for sample IV, namely: core silver, the main layer in one painting was dark blue, the other without any pigment.

This crosslaminated showed excellent properties of resistance to the propagation of discontinuities, which were evaluated as described in example 1. After 5 minutes fast jog by way of examples 1 and 2 did not show signs of stratification.

Thus, after such a test is a three-dimensional figure with transparent side still looked great.

1. The laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers with mutually linked polymer films, of which at least two adjacent films a and b are jointly extruded captured the AMI with orientation along one axis or with an unbalanced orientation in two axes, resulting in a main direction of orientation (2) film And crosses the main direction of orientation (3) in the film and each of them contains a layer consisting of a polymeric material selected for high tensile strength, then the main layer, and at each main layer with the side that faces the adjacent film a or b, has at least a first surface layer that is discontinuous layer, consisting of a set of jointly extruded thin strands (101, 102), veins (101) on film And are located so, in order to cross wires (102) on the film, and veins are composed of a material that is selected to modify the properties on the surface of the corresponding film, with such modification relates to the relationship between the films a and b, characterized in that it contains the second surface layer (104, 105) on the main layer of at least one of the neighboring films a and b on the same side of the main layer, which is converted to the second of these neighboring films, with the second surface layer is made continuous and is located between the main layer and the first surface layer and selected to manage communication between the films a and B.

2. The laminate according to claim 1, characterized in that the films a and b are firmly connected to each other at each point (a), where a vein (101) on the film And overlaps with the housing (102) on the film, whereas the Lenka and less strongly associated or not associated to parts (b) their contacting surfaces, not having any of the first binder layer.

3. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the optical appearance or color of the first laminate is modified by the first layer, preferably, through the choice of pigmentation of the first surface layer.

4. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the thickness lived in each of the films a and b is the maximum of 30%, preferably a maximum of 20% and even more preferably not more than 10% of the thickness of the respective films.

5. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the width lived in each of these films selected to take maximum 60%, preferably a maximum of 50% and even more preferably a maximum of 30% of the surface area of the respective film.

6. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the increase in thickness in each of the films a and b in positions that share extruded strands is a maximum of 30% relative to the adjacent sections, preferably up to 20% and even more preferably not more than 10%.

7. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the distance between the centers of adjacent lived in each set ranges from 2 to 80 mm, preferably not more than 40 mm and more preferably not more than 20 mm.

8. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the bonding strength at the points measured by the detachment conducted on narrow samples from near the capacity of about 1 mm/s, is at least 40 g/cm, and the bond strength in the areas of the contacting surfaces, not with the first binder layer, defined in the same way, is a maximum of 75% and preferably not more than 50% of the bond strength in pixels.

9. The laminate according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains two such pairs related by a set of films a and B.

10. The laminate according to claim 9, characterized in that one film is shared by two such pairs, and this film has set lived on both their faces.

11. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains one or each of the outer films of the laminate surface layer (106, 107), which is also the surface layer of the laminate and are designed to improve termosvarivaemaya laminate and/or increase its frictional properties.

12. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the main layer of at least one of the two films a and b consists essentially of polyethylene or polypropylene.

13. The laminate according to item 12, characterized in that each of the films a and b the main layer consists of high density polyethylene or linear low density polyethylene or mixtures thereof, the second bonding layer consists essentially of a linear low density polyethylene, but with the addition of 5-25% of a copolymer of ethylene, having a melting point or range of melting points in temperature the m interval 50-80° With, and veins consist mainly of a copolymer of ethylene, having a melting point or range of melting points in the temperature range 50-100°or from mixtures of such copolymers and linear low density polyethylene containing at least 25% of the copolymer.

14. The laminate according to claim 2, characterized in that you have a strong bond at the intersection lived, while through the second surface layer formed between conductors of the first surface layer and the main layer in each of the films a and b created a weak link or sticking in parts (b)on which no material has lived, with little connection or adhesion created by the additive in the second surface layer additives that promote adhesion, preferably polyisobutylene or atactic polypropylene with low molecular weight.

15. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the first surface layer on the film and/or film contains two or more set lived, with each specified set is made from a material differing in composition and/or color from the other set/sets, and core sets are displaced relative to each other.

16. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the first surface layer on each of the films a and b is a maximum of 15%, preferably maximally 10%, and more preferably Maxi is real 5% of the volume of the corresponding film a or C.

17. The laminate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the average melting point of the polymers, which form an educated conductors of the first surface layer is at least about 10°C, preferably at least about 15°and more preferably at least about 20°With lower than average melting point of the polymers, which form the main layer.

18. The laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers with mutually linked polymer films, of which at least two adjacent films a and b are jointly extruded films with orientation along one axis or with an unbalanced orientation in two axes, resulting in a main direction of orientation (2) film And crosses the main direction of orientation (3) in the film and each of them contains a layer consisting of a polymeric material selected for high tensile strength, then the main layer, and at each main layer with the side that faces the next film, or has at least a first surface layer that is discontinuous layer, consisting of a set of jointly extruded thin strands (101, 102), veins (101) on film And are located so as to intersect the veins (102) on the film, and veins are composed of a material that is selected to modify the properties on the surface the values of the corresponding film, characterized in that such modification relates to optical appearance color laminate.

19. Laminate on p, characterized in that the modification of the optical appearance is created through the choice of pigmentation of the first surface layer.

20. Laminate on p, characterized in that a) he has a total thickness of about 0.3 mm; (b) film And forms one surface of the laminate; (c) on the surface of the laminate at least on the part of the film But is visible pattern (103) along one direction, the surface formed by the folds with a corresponding change in the thickness of the film And, at this step in the pattern is a maximum of about 3 mm; (d) thin veins are colored, and the rest of the film And is transparent enough to through it were visible colored veins, when laminate viewed from the side of the film And, thanks to the depth of the folds sufficient to veins looked spaced from the strips of at least about 0.5 mm.

21. The laminate according to claim 20, characterized in that the color of veins formed by the pigment, which creates a metallic luster or iridescent effect.

22. The laminate according to claim 20, characterized in that the cross section perpendicular to the strips, laminate exhibits essentially evenly distributed over the edges that are thicker than the average thickness of the laminate, and have essentially convex is Yu and essentially concave surface for the formation of bending ribs across its longitudinal direction, moreover, the material boundaries, edges or areas adjacent to the borders of the ribs, in the unstretched condition of material bent in the opposite direction relative to the edges to make the material between two adjacent ribs essentially straight form.

23. Laminate on p or 19, characterized in that the modification additionally refers to the relationship between the films a and B.

24. A method of manufacturing a laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers that contain linked with each other polymeric films, of which at least two adjacent films a and b are jointly extrusion on a flat or annular cylinder, a main layer of a polymeric material selected for high tensile strength, and the first surface of the layer of polymer material, each of the films a and b is equipped with orientation along one axis or unbalanced molecular orientation in two axes at any stage after the connection of different materials in the head for co-extrusion and before lamination and before lamination film and In placed so that the main direction of orientation of the film And crosses the main direction of orientation of the film, and during lamination the relationship between films and create at least part of the heat during the co-extrusion everyone and is listed first surface layers perform discontinuous in the transverse direction, so it consists of a set of lived, and film and is positioned so that the set lived on film And crosses set lived on the film and directly welded to the conductors on the film, and the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, choose to modify the properties on the surface of the corresponding film, with such modification relates to the relationship between the films a and b, characterized in that in the process of co-extrusion film and/or also provide continuous second binder layer, which together ekstragiruyut between the main layer and the first layer, the what the second bonding layer consists of a polymer material different from the material of the main layer and the first binder layer is selected to control communication between the films a and B.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein when laminating the heat makes generally uniformly to the entire film a and film B, the choice of polymeric material adapted to create a strong connection between the conductors on the film and conductors on the film at the points of their intersection, but to create more poor communication or lack of communication in those parts of the contacting surfaces that do not have a first surface of the layer.

26. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the joint extrusion of at least one of the films And or carried out through the ring EXT Usinas head for forming stretched tubular film, moreover, the extension adapted to generate substantial orientation of the melt along one axis or unbalanced orientation in two axes, with the main direction of orientation and direction lived either pass along the longitudinal direction of the film or by relative rotation between the head and means for removing the film after extrusion, the main direction of orientation make a spiral along the tubular film and then cut the tape at an angle to the main direction of orientation and the direction of the set.

27. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the joint extrusion of at least one of the films And or carried out through an annular extrusion head, and the distance between the centers of adjacent lived at the exit of the extruder does not exceed 8 cm, preferably not more than 4 cm and more preferably does not exceed 2 cm, and the length of the circumference of the pipe this output is at least 20 cm

28. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that after the addition of the films in sandwich lamination before, after or simultaneously with the binding of the sandwich laminate by heat film additionally oriented by stretching in the longitudinal and/or transverse direction.

29. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the second bonding layer consists of a polymer material is a, selected to receive during lamination communication and also in areas where there is no first bonding layer, but to create a weaker link than the link in pixels.

30. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the sets lived together ekstragiruyut on both sides of the film a And the film are located on both sides of the film And, moreover, the set lived on each film In the crosses set lived on the corresponding side of the film A.

31. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the first surface layer on each of the films a and b is a maximum of 15%, preferably maximally 10%, and more preferably a maximum of 5% of the volume of the respective films a and B.

32. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the average melting point of the polymers, which form an educated conductors of the first surface layer is at least about 10°C, preferably at least about 15°and more preferably at least about 20°With lower than average melting point of the polymers, which form the main layer.

33. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that in addition to the films a and b in the laminate includes at least one film, and the specified film produced by joint extrusion and thereby provide the surface layer of the composition made with the ability to control its light is translated in the laminate, what this composition and laminating conditions are chosen so that the strength of such relationships was higher than the bonding strength between the films a and b in areas where there are no jointly extruded strands.

34. The method according to paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, choose to modify the optical appearance or color of the laminate.

35. A method of manufacturing a laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers that contain linked with each other polymeric films, of which at least two adjacent films a and b are jointly extrusion on a flat or annular cylinder, a main layer of a polymeric material selected for high tensile strength and a first surface layer of polymer material, each of the films a and b is equipped with orientation along one axis or unbalanced molecular orientation in two axes at any stage after the connection of different materials in the head for co-extrusion and before lamination and before lamination film and are arranged so that the main direction of orientation of the film And crosses the main direction of orientation of the film, and during lamination the relationship between films and create at least partially exposed to heat during co-extrusion each is h above the first surface layers perform discontinuous in the transverse direction, so it consists of a set of lived, and film and is positioned so that the set lived on film And crosses set lived on the film, and the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, choose to modify the properties on the surface of the corresponding film, characterized in that such modification relates to an optical appearance or color of the laminate.

36. The method according to p, characterized in that the modification of the optical appearance create through the choice of pigmentation of the first surface layer.

37. The method according to p or 36, characterized in that the lamination process is a lamination by extrusion, resulting in link creating by separately extruded layer.

38. The method according to p or 36, characterized in that a) the thickness of the films used for the manufacture of laminate and elongation adapted so that the final laminate had a total thickness of about 0.3 mm;

b) film And is used as one surface of the laminate;

c) the surface of the laminate at least from the side of the film And perform relief for forming a visible pattern along one direction, the surface formed by the folds with a corresponding change in the thickness of the film And, in this step the specified figure is a maximum of about 3 mm;

d) the material for the LM which is a colour, and the rest of the film And retain sufficiently transparent so that through it were visible colored veins, when the laminate is viewed from the side of the film And, thanks to the depth of the folds sufficient to veins looked spaced from the strips of at least about 0.5 mm.

39. The method according to § 38, characterized in that the relief receive a flowing film of the laminate, when they are pivoted to each other for lamination, before or after creating the connection, through one or more pairs of mutually siteplease corrugated rollers, resulting in the step of obtaining relief also occurs stretch laminate.

40. The method according to p or 36, characterized in that the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, choose to modify the connection between the films a and b, and the veins on the film And lead in direct contact with conductors on the tape In and weld with the conductors on the film Century.

41. A method of manufacturing a laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers that contain linked with each other polymeric films, of which at least two adjacent films a and b are jointly extrusion on a flat or annular cylinder, a main layer of a polymeric material selected for high tensile strength, and the first surface of the layer of polymer material, each of the films a and b is equipped with orientation along one axis or unbalanced the molecular orientation in two axes at any stage after the connection of different materials in the head for co-extrusion and before lamination and before lamination films a and b are located so that the main direction of orientation of the film And crosses the main direction of orientation of the film, and during lamination the relationship between films and create at least partially exposed to heat during co-extrusion of each of the said first surface layers perform discontinuous in the transverse direction, so that it consists of a set of lived, and film and is positioned so that the set lived on film And crosses set lived on the film, and the material from which ekstragiruyut veins, choose to modify the properties on the surface of the corresponding film, which is realized by means of a ring head for the extrusion containing the distribution part (8), in which at least the first molten polymeric material may be formed in a substantially uniform annular flow, and a separate output portion (9)containing a ring main channel (12), with an essentially cylindrical or conical walls, the channel may contain flat, passing radially area for transmission of the specified molten polymeric material to the output gap, from which he comes out of the head in the form of a tubular structure of the film (16), characterized in that the specified output part also contains the channel distribution is calculating the system (10) for extrusion with peripheral feed ring set narrow lived from the second molten polymeric material, while specified channel distribution system ends in a ring near the inner gates (11) in the outer essentially cylindrical or conical wall of the main channel.

42. Ring head for extrusion containing the distribution part (8), in which at least the first molten polymeric material may be formed in a substantially uniform annular flow, and a separate output portion (9)containing a ring main channel (12), with an essentially cylindrical or conical walls, the channel may contain a flat radially passing zone for transmission of the specified molten polymeric material to the output gap, from which he comes out of the head in the form of a tubular structure of the film (16), characterized in that the output part also contains channel distribution system (10) for extrusion with peripheral feed ring set narrow lived from the second molten polymeric material with the specified channel distribution system ends in a ring near the inner gates (11) in the outer essentially cylindrical or conical wall of the main channel.

43. Head on § 42, characterized in that the peripheral extrusion begins on one or more inlet openings (13) in the output part and contains the d the I the uniform distribution of the labyrinth channel system (10), starting at each inlet, each such system has at least three channel branches.

44. Head on p.43, characterized in that the channels of the labyrinth system or systems end in a common annular channel having a wall in common with a part of the essentially cylindrical or conical wall of the main channel (12), in this part of the wall is annular series of internal gates (11).

45. Head on any of PP-44, characterized in that the circumference of the inner wall at the outlet is at least 20 cm, and the distance from center to center of adjacent gates in the annular row chosen to create after the increase or decrease that occurs when the wall of the main channel are tapered, the distance between the centers of adjacent lived, not exceeding a maximum of 8 cm, preferably not exceeding a maximum of 4 cm and more preferably not exceeding a maximum of 2 see

46. Head on § 42 or 43, characterized in that in addition to the means for co-extrusion of the first and second molten polymeric materials provides a means for co-extrusion ring of the third stream of molten polymeric material between the first flow of molten polymer and conductors of the second material, the system of channels for connection to the shackles of the first and third materials are located either in the distribution part, or in part between the distribution part and a separate output part.

47. The device for manufacturing a laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers containing the head for co-extrusion film and head for co-extrusion film, and one or each of these heads contains the first distribution part (8), in which the first molten polymeric material can be formed essentially in a uniform stream, the second distribution part (9), in which the second molten polymeric material can be formed into a stream, the output gap, the output part, containing the main channel (12) for the transmission of the first molten polymeric material to the exit slit, and a channel system (10, 11) on one side of the main channel for passing a flow of the second molten polymeric material for forming the surface layer on one side of a flow of the first molten polymeric material to the slit, means for guiding film according To one axis or unbalanced on two axes after leaving the exit slit, means for guiding the films a and b so that these surface layers were facing each other, and so that their direction or the main directions of orientation of the crossed each other, and laminating means for laminating films and warm, wherein the channel system for the transmission of the second polymeric material creates a thread of this second material which is discontinuous in a direction essentially transverse to the direction of flow, resulting in each of the surface layers of the films a and b is formed as a set of lived, and when the tapes a and b are located so that their surface layers facing each other, the cords on the film And cross veins on the film, and the head further comprises a channel system to create an annular flow of a third polymeric material for forming a layer between the first and second materials, and the flows of the first and the third material are connected in a junction part or in part between the distribution part and the output part.

48. The device according to p, wherein one or each of the heads is annular head on § 42.

49. The device for manufacturing a laminate with the longitudinal and transverse orientation of the layers containing the crown § 42 and a means for orientation of the films a and b on the same axis or unbalanced on two axes after leaving the exit slit, means for guiding the films a and b so that these surface layers were facing each other, and so that their direction or the main directions of orientation of the crossed each other, and miniraise means for laminating films and warm.

50. The device according to § 49, wherein the laminating means is the effect of heat on full width of the films a and B.

51. The device according to § 49, wherein one or each of the heads is a circular cylinder and includes tension means for the tubular film, which creates a significant orientation of the melt in the direction or in the main direction of melt veins and gives the direction along the longitudinal axis of the tubular film.

52. The device according to § 49, wherein one or each of the heads is a circular cylinder and includes means for removing a film that can be made with the possibility of rotation relative to the output gap, through which the main direction of orientation of the film is coiled along the tubular film, and which further includes cutting means for cutting the pipe at an angle to the main direction of orientation and the direction set lived.

53. The device according to § 49, characterized in that it further comprises means for stretching films and In upstream, downstream or at the same point, which is equipped with laminar means, in the longitudinal and/or transverse direction.

54. The device according to § 49, wherein the host vehicle is made so that these surface layers on the film And neposredstvennostiu with these surface layers on the film Century.

55. The device according to § 49, wherein the placing means includes means for extrusion laminating layer between the surface layers of the films a and B.

56. The device according to § 49, characterized in that it further comprises means for creating relief on the film And downstream from the exit slit of the head with a striped pattern is formed by the folds and corresponding changes of the film thickness And, when this strip are separated from each other by not more than 3 mm.

57. The device according to p, characterized in that the means for creating terrain is located downstream from the means for placing the films a and b and contains one or more pairs of overlapping corrugated rollers which stretch runs between them in the film.

58. The device according to § 49, characterized in that it further comprises in the head for making films And channel on each side of the main channel for film And which passes the second polymeric material flow, which is discontinuous in the transverse direction, due to which the surface layers are formed on both sides of the film And in the form set lived, and the film placed on both sides of the film And so that its surface layer directly facing the film And causing the veins of each of the films In cross veins on the film And on the side, which on the Sabbath.grown to the appropriate film Century

Priorities for items:

04.03.2002 - claims 1 to 4, 6 to 13, 18, 19, 23-30, 33-37, 41-55, 58;

20.09.2002 - PP, 20-22, 38-40, 56, 57;

21.10.2002 - PP, 17, 31, 32;

03.03.2003 - pp.5, 15.



 

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EFFECT: the invention ensures production of elements of the tire out of rubber mixtures.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: tire industry; production an element of a pneumatic tire based on rubber mixtures.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the tire industry and may be used at production of an element of a pneumatic tire based on rubber mixtures, two of which one form a tire tread. The method of production of an element based on the rubber mixtures and intended for production of a pneumatic tire provides for extrusion of at least two layers of the rubber mixtures with the help of the main extruder supplied at least with two extrusive feed screws having accordingly the channels of outflow opening into one and the same hole of then extruder limited by the first and the second walls of a plate. Then using extrusion simultaneously through two layers interpose at least one insert made out of the rubber mixture with the help of a microextruder nozzle. The nozzle of the microextruder is pressed to the second wall of the plate of the main extruder. The device for extrusion of the rubber mixtures has the main extruder with an extrusion head with at least two outflow channels for each of two rubber mixtures. The channels are going in one and the same hole of the extruder, through which the two rubber mixtures are extruded. The hole of extrusion is limited by the first and the second walls of the plate. The device contains at least one microextruder intended for extrusion of the third rubber mixture. The head of the microextruder on its end is supplied with a nozzle, which is inserted in the first wall of the plate of the main extruder so, that the nozzle is placed in the hole of the main extruder and pressed to the second wall of the plate of the main extruder so, that to feed the third rubber mixture into a profiled structure, made out of the rubber mixtures coming out of the main extruder. The invention allows to produce elements of the tire out of rubber mixtures.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of elements of the tire out of rubber mixtures.

7 cl, 3 dwg

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