Semi-passive bimorph multilayer flexible mirror

FIELD: controlled optics.

SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.

4 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a managed optics and can be used as proof in the adaptive system to dynamically control the wavefront of the radiation in the telescopes, ophthalmic devices, industrial laser technology.

Prior art

Known bimorph deformable mirror (see P.Jagourel, J.-P.Gaffard. Adaptive optics components in Laserdot. - Proc. SPIE, 1991, vol.1543, p.76-87)containing the active bimorph structure of the two piezoelectric plates bonded together, and has 13 independent control electrodes; the diameter of the driven aperture of 30 mm To both sides of this double piezoplates attached thin silicon wafers, one of which is formed a reflecting surface; the diameter of silicon wafers is larger than the piezoelectric. Through a silicon wafer mirror attached to the substrate-the base at three points. Deformation of the reflective surface of the mirror are provided with active bending bimorph structure during the deformation of the piezoelectric ceramics in parallel optical surface direction due to the action of the inverse of the transverse piezoelectric effect, the key principle is that the stiffness (and hence thickness) of the silicon wafers must be substantially less than for a piezoceramic. In against the om case, controlled deformation of the mirror will be very small. The largest amplitude controlled movement of the optical surface of this mirror is achieved by applying the maximum voltage (400 V) simultaneously on all of the control electrodes and does not exceed 10 μm. The disadvantages of this active bimorph mirrors are: small amplitude controlled deformation of the reflective surface; low sensitivity (not more than 25 μm/kV); high control voltage; the high complexity of the formation of the optical surface, including the use of additional silicon wafers; low quality and stability of the original optical shape mirrors; low strength and reliability of the mirror.

Known bimorph deformable mirror on the basis of the active piezoelectric bimorph structure with 19 control electrodes in the center of the ellipse and two concentric elliptical rings, broken, respectively, at 6 and 12 separate segments (see C.Boyer, P.Jagourel, J.P.Gaffard et al. "Laserdot components of the PUEO Adaptive Optics System." - Laserdot-Cilas, September, 1995). Active bimorph structure formed by two piezoelectric plates with a diameter of 83 mm, on the outer side of one of which has an optical surface with a silver reflective coating. The total thickness of the mirror - 2.5 mm At three points on the external d is ametro mirror mounted in a frame. Deformation of the reflective surface of the mirror are provided with active bending bimorph structure during the deformation of the piezoelectric ceramics in parallel optical surface direction due to the action of the inverse of the transverse piezoelectric effect. The largest amplitude controlled movement of the optical surface of this mirror is achieved by applying the maximum voltage (400 V) simultaneously on all of the control electrodes, while the corresponding radius of curvature on a managed aperture is 34 meters of the Disadvantages of this active bimorph mirrors are: small amplitude controlled deformation of the reflective surface; low sensitivity; high control voltage.

Known invention to increase the amplitude of the deformation of the flexible mirrors based on active bimorph piezoelectric structure (patent WO 97/1226 from 03.04.97). The result of this invention is achieved by increasing the number of layers of piezoelectric ceramics, and the connection, put on them the control electrodes in a certain way. It turns out the single mirror in which the force of bending of the plate is the sum of the bending strength of each layer, the difference between which occurs due to the different distances of the respective layers of the median plane. The invention is intended for use in the project in any of the optical systems to perform dynamic correction (compensation) axisymmetric distortions of optical beams. The disadvantage of this design mirrors is only one degree of freedom, therefore, it is able to play only one specific type of aberrations, but with different amplitude. Also this mirror, as well as any managed corrector on the basis of active bimorph peselow has a coarse structure that does not allow him to grind to get the reflective surface of good quality.

The latter problem is solved using the semi-passive flexible bimorph mirrors, in which part of the mirror is running from a passive substrate (fused silica, copper, aluminum ...), and piezoceramic disks with the control electrodes glued to her from the other side of the reflective coatings. Also the design of this mirror allows the grinding surface to the desired optical quality. Below are a number of patents and publications on piezoceramic bimorph semi-passive mirrors:

- Vijayam, Pivnice, A.V. Smirnov. Response functions bimorph flexible mirrors. - Opto-mechanical industry, 1989, No. 10, p.10-13;

- Avirama, Aviculare, Aguzarova, Sverkunov, Imershein, Aotulia. Adaptive bimorph mirror. - Patent USSR No. 1808159 (1992). IPC H01S 3/02, application No. 4766709/25 from 19.12.1989;

- F.Forbes, F.Roddier, G.Poczulp, C.Pinches, G.Sweeny, and R.Dueck. Segmented bimorph deformable mirror. - J.Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 1989, vol.22, p.402-405;

- A.V.Kudryashov, V.V.Samarkin "Control of high power CO2laser beam by adaptive optical elements. Opt. Comm. 118, pp.317-322, 1995.

- A.V.Kudryashov, V.I.Shmalhausen, "Semipassive bimproph flexible mirrors for atmospheric adaptive optics applications", Opt. Eng. 35(11), pp.3064-3073, 1996.

- A.Kudryashov, V.Samarkin, A.Rukosuev, A.Alexandrov, "High-power lasers and apadtive optics", Proc. SPIE 5333, pp.45-52, 2004.

The main advantages of flexible bimorph mirrors are high radiation resistance, ease of polishing the surface, the relatively low cost and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this type of mirror is typically used in modern laser equipment for control and correction of lasers in various applications: laser processing of materials, astronomy, biology, and others.

A prototype of the invention selected flexible semi-passive piezoelectric mirror, the construction of which is shown in figa. It consists of a passive substrate (1) coated with a reflective coating. On the other hand to the substrate glued two piezoceramic disc (2) with control electrodes (3). In the middle is a common "ground" electrode (4). The upper electrode (5) occupies the entire surface of the disk and serves for correction of the aberration type defocus. An example of the arrangement of the electrodes of the lower layer (3) is shown in figb. The radii of the partitioning of the electrodes and their number in each ring depends on the type of aberration, which is necessary to minirovat.

Disclosure of the invention.

This invention is the development of design flexible bimorph mirrors and, thus, has all their merits, but the essence of the invention is directed to the increase of the amplitude of deformation of the reflective surface, increasing sensitivity, reducing the control voltage and reducing the size. In addition, the proposed design allows you to calculate the shape of the control electrodes of the deformable mirror to the independent compensation of aberrations, and thus to increase the accuracy and the amplitude of the playback.

This technical result is achieved by using multiple piezoceramic disks with control electrodes. Circuit design the proposed mirror, the location of the "earth" and the control electrodes are presented in figure 2. The inner layers of control electrodes (3A-g) located between plastische (2A-e) with the "ground" electrodes (4). The polarization of the two layers of piezoelectric ceramics (2B, d and 2C, d) on both sides of a single layer of control electrodes (3b, 3b, respectively) opposite. The outer layers of control electrodes (3A, 3D) cause the piezoelectric force in only one layer of piezoelectric ceramics (2A, 2E, respectively) each.

The function of the response of this electrode flexible mirror depends on the radii and angles section is onirovaniya of the electrode. In optics often meet the need for compensation of certain aberrations of a wavefront of known form (the lowest, the most powerful aberration is defocus, astigmatism, coma, spherical, and so on). Characteristics of control electrodes each aberration known. In the bimorph mirror, selected for the prototype, all of the control electrodes (except for the electrode to compensate for the aberration of the focus/defocus) belong to the layer of piezoelectric ceramics. The line of separation of the electrodes to compensate for the various aberrations are not the same, so if one compensation of aberrations voltage is applied to the composite electrode. For example, to compensate for the spherical aberration of the desired ring electrodes covering the entire surface of the mirror, and to compensate for astigmatism and coma - segmented. Reducing the size of the electrode due to such sections is greater, the greater the number of aberrations to be compensated by this mirror. As a result, the mirror loses sensitivity at lower compensation of aberrations, the amplitude of which the most significant.

The present invention can significantly increase the sensitivity of compensation lower aberrations due to the location of the corresponding electrodes on separate layers. The increase in sensitivity is achieved due to the fact that vnutrennego control electrodes is called a piezoelectric voltage in two layers of piezoelectric ceramics. Also in the mirror of the proposed design reduces the number of electrodes required to compensate one set of aberrations. For example, to compensate for the lower aberrations (astigmatism, coma, spherical, defocus) traditional mirror requires 14 electrodes, but the present invention is 13.

The invention is characterized by the increased capabilities of the mirror to compensate aberrations of higher order. These aberrations are typically much smaller in amplitude than the lower, so the criterion for assessing the quality of the mirror to compensate higher aberration is not within the amplitude, and the accuracy of their reproduction. In traditional bimorph mirror all of the control electrodes are located on the same layer, so the calculation of the shape of the control electrodes in order that the mirror was able to compensate for higher aberration, it is necessary either to increase the number of control electrodes ("cutting" the electrodes are designed to compensate for the lower aberrations), or reduce the fidelity required aberrations. The present invention allows to calculate the shape of the electrodes to compensate for the higher aberrations independently, with corresponding electrodes on a separate layer (2 layers of control electrodes 2A-d).

In the transition from traditional bimorph mirror to the proposed izobreteny is there are various factors, affecting the sensitivity of the compensation of the aberration control electrodes. 1) increasing the number of layers increases the thickness of the mirrors increases its cylindrical rigidity. 2) the total area of the electrodes increases. 3) For the inner layers of the electrodes (2, 2B, C) the number of layers of piezoelectric ceramics, in which the electrode causes the piezoelectric power twice. 4) Layers of electrodes are located at a different distance from the middle surface, the greater this distance, the sensitivity is greater. The sensitivity depends on the thickness of layers of piezoelectric ceramics and the substrate, from the radius of the mirror and method of mounting mirrors. Of these factors only factor 1) is negative. Given that the thickness of the substrate is usually much less than the thickness of plasticcow, its effect is insignificant. He limits the number of layers of control electrodes, if the thickness of the piezoelectric ceramics to reduce to a greater increase in sensitivity. The invention allows to control the sensitivity of compensation of various types of aberrations, so its design is determined by the application for which it is intended. The number of aberrations that need to be offset determines the number of layers of control electrodes. The relative contribution of each aberration determines the location opravlyaushi what about the layer. The maximum sensitivity has a layer, the location of which is shown in figure 2 (2B). Among the layers with two layers of piezoelectric ceramics, it is located at a maximum distance from the middle surface of the mirror. Its electrodes are calculated to compensate for the strongest aberration. The least sensitive is the layer that is closest to the middle surface (2, 2A). The relative contribution of the rest of the layers depends on the geometric dimensions of the mirror.

Thus, the present invention allows to increase the sensitivity of flexible bimorph mirrors, and hence to reduce the voltage on the control electrodes and the geometric dimensions of the mirror.

The number of layers of control electrodes mirrors, and therefore the number of layers of piezoelectric ceramics is determined by the application in which this mirror will be used, and the number of layers specified in the diagram of figure 2 is not the essence of the invention.

The invention according to the requirement of "novelty".

Given the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including the search for patents and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed solution, allowed to establish that the applicant is not detected similar, characterized by signs, identical to all the significant prize is AKAM claimed invention. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, as the closest solutions to the totality of symptoms, revealed a set of essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the claimed object set forth in the claims and the description.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "novelty" under the current law.

The invention according to the requirement of "inventive step"

To verify compliance of the claimed invention to the requirement of "inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed invention, the results of which show that the claimed invention to a person skilled not obvious from the prior art.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "inventive step".

Industrial applicability

In conclusion, it is pertinent to note that the proposed device, including those shown in figure 2, 3, can be implemented on a standard industrial equipment using known materials and technologies. Used in the design of the piezoelectric mirror layer is s are standard commercial products.

Practically, the proposed invention can be used for static and dynamic control wavefront of radiation in various optical devices and systems, including telescopes, industrial laser equipment, ophthalmic instruments.

Thus, the claimed invention is confirmed by the possibility of its implementation in accordance with the description and the accompanying graphic materials. Also the claimed invention, in its implementation, is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "industrial applicability".

The implementation of the invention

Semi-passive bimorph multilayer flexible mirror consists of a passive substrate (figure 2, No. 1) with a reflective coating, piezoceramic discs (figure 2, # 2A-e) and control (figure 2, # 3A-g) and "ground" (figure 2, No. 4) electrodes. The electrodes are a layer of metal deposited on the disks of piezoelectric ceramics, the control electrodes are formed when the metal layer by the method of chemical etching are separating tracks. Electrical contact between the layers of control electrodes no. After the creation of the electrodes necessary form disks of piezoelectric ceramics with electrodes glued together and to the substrate.

The village is e polishing of the substrate, applying a reflective coating on a substrate, the mirror is installed in the frame, as shown in figure 3.

When a voltage is applied to the control electrodes (2, 2A-g) in the piezoceramics an electric field between the electrodes. Due to the inverse transverse piezoelectric effect in the piezoelectric ceramics arise mechanical stress under which the mirror is deformed.

The direction of the occurring mechanical stresses is determined by the relative orientation of the electric field intensity vector (the polarity of the applied voltage) and the polarization vector of piezoelectric ceramics. Therefore, layers of piezoelectric ceramics, located on opposite sides of each of the inner layers of control electrodes, must be polarized in opposite directions.

The mirror in the frame (figure 3) is used as one of the elements of the optical scheme. When the reflected laser beam from the reflecting surface of the substrate, the phase of the radiation is changed in accordance with applied voltages.

A brief description of the drawings.

Figa. The scheme is a traditional semi-passive bimorph mirror:

1 - substrate (material - glass, silicon, copper or aluminum) with a reflective multilayer dielectric coating;

2 - discs of piezoelectric ceramics;

3 - control electrodes;

4 - General Zemlyane the electrode between the two plastische;

5 - the common electrode to play the aberration defocus (electrode No. 1).

Figb. An example of partitioning the control electrodes (figa, item 3). The numbering of the electrodes starts at 2, since the electrode No. 1 is the common electrode (figa, item 5).

Figure 2. Design semi-passive bimorph multilayer flexible mirror:

1 - Passive substrate with a reflective coating;

2 a-e discs of piezoelectric ceramics;

3 a-g - layers of control electrodes;

4 - common "ground" electrodes.

Figure 3. Secure the mirror in a frame:

1 - mirror;

2 - rim;

3 - electrical connector.

Deformable managed semi-passive bimorph mirror based on the passive substrate and a quantity of at least more than two layers of control electrodes with the piezoelectric disks, which are separated by a "ground electrode" configuration and location for independent compensation of aberrations.



 

Same patents:

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SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.

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