Gearbox

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox contains constant-mesh gear cluster as main speed unit and planetary mechanism for additional reduction with multiplication of main low speed. All driven gears of cluster and planetary mechanism are fitted on gearbox output shaft, and driving member of planetary mechanism-sun or ring gear - is nondetachably rigidly connected with driven gear of main low speed.

EFFECT: simplified kinematic of transmission, reduced mechanical losses.

5 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering and is intended for use in various modifications of vehicles with various schemes of the drive wheels.

Known transmission with input and output shafts, a set of multiple pairs of the engagement between the gears and three planetary mechanism, for example by author's certificates SU 1150106, 1985 and 1283123, 1987, patent RU 2254507, 2003, book: Ply, Gaganpreet, Tradional. "Design and calculation of car". Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1984, p.98, RIS, in which the planetary gear changes gear ratio formed by the pairs of gears, providing torque change (MCR.).

Of them the closest analogue (prototype) of the invention on the number of matching essential attributes is the transmission (gearbox) copyright certificate SU 1283123, 1987, containing coaxial input and output shafts, parallel to them, the intermediate shaft, and a set of three pairs of constantly meshed with each other gears, three planetary gear and a driven coupling, including for selective connection of the leading component of the planetary mechanism to one of the gear set, the drive element to the output shaft and the stops are relevant to the choice of his third C is s.

In the prototype, the education of all transfers to the transformation of MCR.is the joint participation of the pairs of cylindrical gears and the planetary mechanism, which allowed to reduce the number of pairs of gears. This prototype has the following disadvantages:

- reduced the reliability of the transmission, as in the transformation and transmission of torque involved increased the number of kinematic chains, gears, couplings, shafts;

- reduced efficiency because of mechanical losses in the gearing pairs of gears and the planetary mechanism is added;

- complicated and requires high energy cost shifting due to the need for simultaneous and coordinated switching of multiple couplings.

The problem solved by the invention is aimed at creating a compact gearbox with high operational reliability and efficiency, in particular for vehicles terrain and/or universal road and climatic conditions of the destination.

The technical result to be obtained from use of the invention is to simplify the kinematic chains of transmission Mkr, reducing mechanical losses on the main gear, the simplification of the switching mechanism.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the CP containing at least two shafts: input and output, set the CT from multiple couples caught between the gears, three planetary gear with the driving member connected with the gear set, and operated clutches for selectively connecting the driven link planetary gear to the output shaft and stop its third link, in contrast to the known analogues, a set of gears formed the basic unit of transmission in which all the driven gears are located on a single shaft, an output shaft gearbox, planetary gear set for common with the driven gear shaft and its leading link has a one-piece rigid connection with the driven gear low gear of the main unit.

In the versions as the leading component of the planetary mechanism serves as a sun gear or crown gear.

Install the planetary mechanism (PM) on a common shaft with the driven gears of the main gear and the rigid connection of its leading link - sun gear or crown - driven main gear low gear is part of the PM in just getting more and low forward gears, multiplying the gear ratio of the main low gear or reverse gear with an acceptable reduction gear ratio (from a set of gears can be eliminated reverse gear) - this allows you to exclude part of the planetary mechanism in transformation is rmacie M CR.on the main gear and thereby to simplify the kinematics of the transmission MCR.and to reduce mechanical losses, to reduce the number of shafts and couplings PM, and exclude the interdependence of the provisions of the clutch switching unit main gear and PM, thus achieving simplification of switching KP and control of the vehicle.

Additional differences KP:

- output shaft is made hollow and in it placed the shaft of additional output link KP, for example the shaft of a leading gear, it allows you to expand the range of distribution of KP and use them in the scheme of permanent four-wheel drive vehicle;

couplings connect the slave link in PM to the output shaft and stop it the third element is a clutch in the clutch and interlocked for simultaneous axial movement with the ability for independent rotation that provides simplification of the switching mechanism.

On the drawings:

figure 1 gives a General view of the CP (the scheme), an example of execution, the two-shaft gearbox with leading solar gear PM; figure 2 - the same, three-shaft gearbox; figure 3 - the same, two-shaft gearbox with leading a crown gear PM; figure 4 - example running couplings PM.

In case 1 KP posted by: input shaft 2, an output shaft 3, a set of several, for example five couples, the engagement between the gears 4-5, 6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13 and PM with solar the second gear 14, a crown gear 15, the planet carrier 16, 17 satellites.

The shafts 2 and 3 can be parallel to each other (figure 1) or coaxial (figure 2), in the second case in the CP, there is an intermediate shaft 18.

A set of gears to form a block of the main transmission, to enable them serve, for example as shown in the drawings, the clutch switch 19, 20 and 21. All the driven gears 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 of the kit is placed on the output shaft 3. PM is mounted on the same shaft and its leading link has a permanent rigid permanent connection with a driven gear low gear, for example, performed with her at the same time.

In one embodiment, gearbox driving member PM is a sun gear 14, the other crown gear 15. When additional transformation MCR.in the PM to send MCR.on the output shaft 3 to it via the coupling 22 connects one of the slave units PM. In the first variant: took 16 or go on the back of the crown gear 15. In the second variant - carrier 16. At the same time corresponding to the selection of the third link TL stops using the coupling 23. Couplings 22 and 23 are moved forks 24 and 25 mounted on the slide 26, associated with the control mechanism (not shown).

In the two-shaft gearbox, designed for vehicles with permanent all-wheel drive (figure 1), the shaft 3 is connected with the housing, center differential 27, is made hollow and in it the size of the puppy shaft 28 for transmission of M CR.on one of the pairs of drive wheels. To send MCR.on another pair of drive wheels is designed shaft 29.

In figure 4 presents the example clutch PM located on one side of its gears, the clutch 23 comprises a sleeve 22 and, entering into a groove, can be moved without interfering with the rotation.

Work KP explained on specific versions KP:

And when the driving member planetary gear is a sun gear (items 1 and 2 claims);

B - when the leading link of the planetary gear is a crown gear (items 1 and 3 claims).

Example A.

Transformation of MCR.and switching gears carried out in the traditional way.

Additional reduction gearing is formed as follows.

When moving the slider 26, the plugs 24 and 25 of the sleeves 22 and 23 from the middle neutral position in the direction of set gear crown gear 15 is connected by a coupling 23 with a fixed element fixed to the body 1 and the carrier 16 is connected by a coupling 22 to the output shaft 3. The leading element of the planetary gear becomes a sun gear 14, the host MCR.from the driven gear 5, is not associated with the shaft 3 in the neutral position of the clutch 19, and the slave - drove 16, driven by a 17 satellites in the same direction as the rotation of the gear 5.

Regarding the giving of angular speed of the sun gear ω cto the angular velocity led ωinan additional gear ratio ito transfer the number of i1already implemented on the driven gear 5. Thus, the total gear ratio iwill: i=i1·i.

The gear ratio is stopped when the crown gear and the leading solar is determined, as is known, the formula: i=1-R.

When thiswhere ztothe number of teeth of the crown gear zc- the number of teeth of the sun gear.

Reverse gear is formed as follows.

When moving the slider 26, the plugs 24 and 25 of the sleeves 22 and 23 away from the gears kit crown wheel 15 is connected by a coupling 22 with the shaft 3 and becomes the slave element of the planetary gear and the carrier 16 is connected by a coupling 23 with a fixed element mounted on the body 1 KP, and becomes motionless. The driving member is still a sun gear 14, and through satellites 17 when the driver stopped 16 rotation is transmitted next, a crown gear 15 in the reverse gear 5 direction.

Gear ratio reverse gear ishwhen the driver stopped and leading the sun gear is determined, as is known, the formula: ish=p.

Thus, the absolute value is the s iand ishdiffer by 1. For example, if you run the i=2,7 2,5...(a particular gear ratio determined by the choice of the numbers of teeth), then reverse ishadditionally, where i1will amount to 1.5...1.7, which represents an acceptable compromise, as fit as when maneuvering vehicle with additional low forward gears and using the tor of the first pass.

Example B.

Transformation of torque and switching gear are made in the traditional way.

Additional downward forward gear is formed by moving the slider 26 and plug 24 of the coupling 22 from the neutral position shown in figure 3, to connect with the planet carrier 16. Torque in the on position of the clutch 22 is transmitted from the driven gear low gear 5 sequentially on the crown gear 15, 17 satellites, carrier 16, the clutch 22 and the output shaft 3. The sun gear 14 is stopped.

Gear ratio ifor PM in this example, when the same geometric parameter p will be less than in example A.

Reverse gear in this example, KP formed as part of the basic unit of transmission in a known manner.

The proposed solution of two - and three-shaft gearbox with three planetary gear makers Mit is. from the driven gear low gear allows you to have additional lower forward gear and a lower gear reverse.

Along with providing increased traction on the drive wheels additional reduction gearing provides movement at very low speeds, which is of importance in connection with the increase in the density of car traffic. Additional reduction gearing in these conditions, simplifies the control of the vehicle and reduces the load on the clutch.

The high flexibility of the proposed solution allows you to create multiple versions of the KP, in particular for vehicles with all-wheel drive, and powered on the same axis, as for all-wheel-drive vehicles with permanent all wheel drive and plug. When this is saved in the basis of the two-shaft or three execution KP, due to scheme the main gear train that promotes constructive simplification KP, provides its compactness and reliability.

When three-shaft gearbox, mounted on four-wheel drive vehicles with the transfer case, the function of the transfer case be reduced to basic, i.e. accommodation, if provided, center differential and distribution of power, which simplifies the construction allows to optimize the circuit handout Corot is key to increase efficiency.

Part of the planetary mechanism in the transformation of torque only on the additional reducing gear and/or on the back of the course, helps to maintain the high efficiency on the main gear, the use of which is overwhelming. In addition, since the inclusion of additional low gear and reverse gear is not associated with the simultaneous movement of couplings not included in the planetary gear, and the inclusion of the main gear is not associated with the state change of the planetary mechanism, ensures the ease of switching and the ability to use a single control for all transmission gearbox.

1. Transmission containing at least two shafts: input and output, a set of multiple pairs of the engagement between the gears, three planetary gear with the driving member connected with the gear set, and operated clutches for selectively connecting the driven link planetary gear to the output shaft and stop its third link, characterized in that it is a set of gears creates a block of the main transmission, in which all the driven gears are located on a single shaft, an output shaft of the box, planetary gear set for common with the driven gear shaft and its leading link has a one-piece rigid connection with Adamou gear low gear main gear.

2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the driving member planetary gear is a sun gear.

3. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the driving member planetary gear is a crown gear.

4. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the coupling connection slave link planetary gear to the output shaft and stop it the third element is a clutch in the clutch" and are interconnected for simultaneous axial movement with the ability for independent rotation.

5. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the output shaft is made hollow and in it placed the shaft of additional output link box.



 

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1 dwg

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18 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

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3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention, gear 14 is secured on primary shaft 3, and gear 13 is secured on first tubular shaft 9 freely fitted on primary shaft 3. Gear rims 21 and 22 are fitted on shafts 3 and 9. Input shaft 2 with hub of three-position shifter sleeve 23 and additional driving shaft 4 are installed coaxially to shaft 3. Two gears 17 and 18 in meshing with gears 19 and 20 of secondary shaft 5 are secured on shaft 4. Gear 19 is fitted on shaft 5. Gear 20 is secured on second tubular shaft 10 freely installed on shaft 5. Gear rims 24 and 25 are secured on shafts 5 and 10. Shaft 6 with hub of two-position shifter sleeve 26 and sun gear 27 of planetary mechanism is installed coaxially to shaft 5. Gear 27 engages through planet pinions 31 with epicyclic wheel 32. Planet pinions 31 are freely fitted on axles of carrier 33. Two gear rims 34 and 35 are arranged on periphery of housing of carrier 33. Shaft 7 of carrier 33 with two position gear rim is arranged coaxially to shaft 5 and shaft 6. Third tubular shaft 11 of housing of epicyclic wheel with gear rim 38 is freely fitted on shaft 7. Output shaft 8 with hub of three-position shifter sleeve 40 is arranged coaxially to shaft 7. Sleeve 40 is movably coupled by guide 41 with two-rim shifter sleeve 42 arranged between gear rim 37 of housing 36 of epicyclic wheel 32 and gear rim 43 of gearbox case provided with two inner gear rims and one outer gear rim.

EFFECT: perfected design owing to reduction of metal usage and complexity.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

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2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in automobiles, tractors, road building machines. Gear 11 of transmission is coupled with primary shaft 2. Additional simple three-members planetary mechanism has two gear rims, gear rim 22 of partition of housing of set 1 and shifter sleeve 23. Main planetary mechanism has gear rims 31, 32 of carrier 25 and housing of epicyclic gear 26 opposite to gear rim of set housing. Gear rims 28, 29, 30 of tubular shaft 27 of housing of epicyclic gear 26, output shaft of carrier 25 and output shaft of set are arranged close to each other. Shifter sleeve D is connected by fork 39 and slider 40 with gear rim 41 with internal and external meshing teeth arranged on gear rim 33 of set housing.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities of vehicle.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: gear 11 and cluster of gears 9 and 10 are freely fitted on transmission secondary shaft 3. Shifter sleeve 24 (B) is arranged on hub of secondary shaft 3 between gear 11 and cluster of gears 9 and 10. Two gears 7 and 8 on primary shaft 2 are united into cluster and are arranged opposite to shifter sleeve of secondary shaft 3. Gear rim 18 of output shaft 4 of carrier 14 is two-position one. Gear rim 19 of output shaft 5 of set 1 is three-position one. Shifter sleeve 25 (C) on said rim has three internal gear rims. Gear rim 28 with internal and external meshing teeth is rigidly secured on slider 27 of shifter sleeve 25(C), external meshing teeth of gear rim being engaged with three-position gear rim of set housing.

EFFECT: improved operating capabilities of vehicle owing to optimum distribution of gears over range, improved gearshift mechanism and reduced metal usage of set.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gearbox of automobiles, crawler vehicles, two-member crawlers, crawler chassis of loggers, etc. proposed hydromechanical transmission has input shaft 1 and output shaft 2, four differential mechanisms, each including carrier, planet pinions, sun and epicyclic gears and six friction control members in form of clutches 11, 12 and brakes 7-10. Three differentials, whose sun gears 31, 27, 23 are installed on input shaft 1, form main planetary gear transmission. Epicyclic gears 28, 20 of first and third differentials are connected with carrier 25 of second differential. Carrier 29 of first differential is connected with brake 7 and, through friction clutch 11, with input shaft 1. Carrier 21 of third differential is connected with output shaft 2 through fourth differential used as divider at output.

EFFECT: simplified design, reduced speed of rotation of differential members and friction members, multipurposeness of transmission.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; automatic transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fixed-ratio planetary gear transmissions. Proposed transmission with seven forward speeds and one reverse speed, has case 1, torsional vibration damper 2, input link 3, output link 4 and planetary reduction gear including three planetary gear trains, two friction clutches and four friction brakes. First planetary gear train consists of sun gear 5, planet pinion carrier 6 and ring gear 7. second planetary gear train consists of sun gear 8, planet pinion carrier 9 and ring gear 10. Third planetary gear train consists of sun gear 11, planet pinion carrier 12 and ring gear 13. Input link 3 is connected by friction clutch 14 with intercoupled ring gear 10 and sun gear 11. Input link 3 is connected by friction clutch 15 with intercoupled carrier 9 and carrier 12. Sun gear 5 is coupled with input link 3. Input link 3 is coupled with torsional vibration damper 2. Carrier 6 is connected with transmission case 1 by friction brake 10. Friction brake 17 connects intercoupled ring gear 7 and sun gear 8 with transmission case 1. Friction brake 18 connects intercoupled carrier 12 and carrier 9 with transmission case 1. Friction brake 19 connects intercoupled sun gear 11 and ring gear 10 with transmission case 1. Ring gear 13 is coupled with output link 4 of transmission.

EFFECT: enlarged kinematic capabilities of transmission and increased its service life.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: active transmission is designed for cross-country vehicles and it includes gearbox 2, transfer case 3 with mechanism to distribute torque between axles and transfer case 4 with mechanism to distribute torque among wheels. Transfer case of vehicle has housing, input and two output shafts. Input shaft is coupled through two floating shafts with double planetary reduction unit whose carriers are coupled through differential. Two central wheels of planetary reduction unit are coupled through differential arranged in common housing with first one. One of differentials in transfer case connecting carriers can be replaced by rigid tie including damping device.

EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced load on engine and transmission, optimization of gearshift mechanism and independent operation of output shaft reverser.

6 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; tractors.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulically operated friction clutches. Proposed friction clutch contains hub secured on shaft of gearbox, hydraulic cylinder with radial projections made on hub, piston with pressure disk, thrust disk, inner drum made integral with driven gear and connected by gear joint with driving disks, driven disks connected with outer drum, ring groove made on inner surface of outer drum, and lockring. Novelty is that outer drum and thrust disk are made in form of common part, outer drum is provided with longitudinal projections, with outer projections of driven disks fitted in slots between longitudinal projections. Ends of projections of outer drum are installed between radial projections of hydraulic cylinder, and lockring is arranged in ring channel formed by ring grooves made on inner surface of outer drum and on outer surface of hydraulic cylinder.

EFFECT: reduced wear of disks, increased transmitted power and improved repairability of clutch.

2 dwg

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