Hydraulic set of hydroelectric power station

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use on hydroelectric power stations with insignificant fluctuation of lower pond level at high head and water flow ranges. According to invention, vertical shaft of set rest through lower end with cone-shaped working surface of frame-step bearing. Pan is hermetically attached to shaft and working wheel, and suction pipes are attached tangentially to pan. Jets from suction pipes are directed to blades of active wheel freely rotating on shaft and transmitting to shaft rotation through speed-up and direction-change reduction gear, parts of which being parts of hydraulic set. Number of pipes is equal to number of blades. Jet are directed to working surfaces of blades under constant effective angle of action. Seals of reaction wheel are made by elastic box-shaped rings contacting through convex side surfaces from opposite sides exposed to pressure of water. Delivery of water to seal from bottom to top prevents getting of solid particles between friction surfaces.

EFFECT: increased speed and efficiency.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydrocarboncontaining and construction of the power plant.

The predominant use of hydro power plants on the rivers with minor variations in the water level downstream from the pressure of from 5 m to 700 m or more and with a large range of water flow.

Known units similar to the proposed technical solution with the location of the generator rotor and turbine on a common vertical shaft integral or whole. Installation of the units is made on a console is suspended from the shaft with the various systems supporting the rotating parts.

Apply to units with an umbrella generators, in which the thrust bearing is located under the rotor of the generator, and they rely on a powerful lower crossbar or transmit the load on the turbine cover through the support structure [2, p.20-38], [4, p.52-68]. The bearing system includes a turbine guide bearing located above the turbine and as close as possible thereto, and a rotary guide bearing. In the case of umbrella execution of the generator requires a powerful lower crossbar or a powerful cover of the turbine. Besides umbrella execution of the generator on the cover of the turbine is also difficult or even impossible at speeds close to 200 rpm [4, p.53].

A variety of systems supporting the circuit with the outboard generator, in which the thrust bearing, perceiving axial load, and the upper guide bearing, preventing radial movement of the rotating parts, rely on a powerful upper crossbar. Spider transmits the load on the turbine stator housing, reinforced concrete structures. The second guide bearing is located in the lower cross-piece, which is fastened to the concrete, and the third turbine guide bearing mounted on the turbine cover.

The closest analogue is the unit with outboard generator adopted for the prototype [2, Risa]. Common symptoms with the proposed unit is securing the shaft in its end and a unified system of supports rotating parts. The thrust bearing in the process takes all axial loads from the weight of the rotating parts of the unit, and the axial pressure of the water on the blades of the impeller.

Common faults are listed analogs and prototypes is a console-outboard unit design, where Ravnopravie along the entire length of the shaft operates in tension and torsion, and are exposed to heavy radial loads from the working turbine. Due to a changing mode of the turbine shaft and turbine guide bearing work in difficult conditions. Powerful cross-pieces or caps turbine unit adds cost and complexity to the construction of the power plant.

Itself cantilever-suspension design the unit with the location of the turbines on the free lower end of the shaft in principle involves placing the heel above the turbine and the need for suction pipe made in the concrete construction part. As you know, the dimensions of the suction pipe dictate the size and layout of the dam and powerhouse and require a large amount of excavation and concrete works [2, p.20], [4, p.41-42].

The growth of the power of the unit determines the increase of the axial load from the flow of water through the turbine on the shaft and, consequently, increasing the weight of the entire machine. That is, it contained almost does not reduce the specific weight of the unit when the cost of construction part.

Use any of the existing turbines in the unit does not correct these deficiencies.

Known turbine - analogues of 2 classes: active and reactive. The jet around the duct flow pressure and the impeller is capable of converting all three components of energy of the liquid:

kinetic and potential, consisting of energy and pressure energy [1, str-156]. Reactive basically convert the potential energy of the water flow. These include system: rotary-vane axial, Kaplan diagonal, propeller, radial-axial with the vertical position of the shaft.

Significant disadvantages of the first three systems are:

1. Water leakage between the ends of the blades and the walls of the chamber, and mounting the blades to the hub, which reduces the power and the PD turbine [2, p.31].

2. Constraint (decrease) cross section of water flow in the flow channel of the turbine caused by the placing in her body bushings, bushing mounting blades and cowling, which increases the diameter of the spiral chamber [6, p.4].

3. Console consolidation of the blades carrying a big load in root cross-sections and requiring appropriate moment of resistance, which increases the specific gravity of the turbine and limits the growth of its power [2, p.28].

The second class includes turbine in which the flow in the impeller gravity (with a free surface of the jet). The impeller such turbine only uses the kinetic energy of the fluid. Active refers Pelton turbine, comprising a supply line, cnodalinae nozzle for the formation and regulation of the jet, which performs the role of guide vanes, shaft and impeller with buckets (turbine of the Pelton). From the class of active turbines Pelton adopted for the prototype.

The disadvantages of this turbine, which eliminated the proposed technical solution should be considered:

1. The impossibility of deciding nozzle directly to the working surface of the bucket under the effective angle of impact of the jet, which negatively affects the capacity and efficiency.

2. Cyclic loading of the buckets from zero to maximum, that adversely affects Dolgova the particular materials of the wheel and buckets and harmful to mount buckets.

3. Uncontrolled scattering of the reflected jets in different directions, partly, and in the direction of retarding the impeller.

4. Nonpoint discharge of spent water stream without full use of his jet action.

The closest analogue to the proposed technical solution of the reactive class turbines is Francis (Francis turbine), adopted for the prototype. Common features of the prototype and the proposed turbines are:

1. Contain the rim of the impeller.

2. Blades and rims form a single rigid structure.

3. The blades can't change the angle.

General shortcomings of the prototype and all jet turbine-analogues are:

1. The need in the suction pipe in the construction of the hydroelectric power station, where there are hydraulic power loss of the turbine as a result of water contact with the walls at a great distance and loss at the exit speed of water flow, especially at low and medium pressures [2, p.94-97], [3, 9], [5, str-149]. As shown by studies of energy balance in the model turbine these losses reach more than 21% of the power turbine [5, table 8].

2. The placement of the impeller on the free lower end of the console of the shaft, which causes vibration and run-out causes severe working conditions guide turbine is of Podshipnik, requiring adequate structural strength.

Radial-axial turbine also has the disadvantage of complicated seals design, not precluding the leakage of water between the rim and the wall of the chamber impeller [2, p.46-49], which reduces the efficiency of the turbine. Apply mounted on the lower rim of the slotted seal, which is based on creating a small gap between the rotating and stationary part (1.5-2.5 mm). Sometimes the purpose of increasing the coefficient of resistance and even widened grooves. When very high pressures are applied labyrinth seal also uses the principle improve the resistance to flow of. Applied structural types of seals: fricatives, fricatives with grooves, comb or comb with cutting permit useless water leakage through the gaps [5, p.91-93].

The task of the invention is to create a turbine and unit in General, a larger power range exceeding achieved and high feasibility level due to:

1. Increasing the axial load on the turbine, with a simultaneous decline in the relative weight of the unit, which will increase capacity and apply it to the increased costs and pressures above 700 m

2. Fuller utilization of the kinetic components of energy flow, elimination of water leaks past the t is rbine, that will increase the power density, efficiency and speed.

3. The device of the suction pipe in the construction of the impeller, to prevent the suction pipe from the construction of the power station and, thereby, simplify, reduce the cost and accelerate its construction.

The problem is solved by moving the support unit (heel) under the lower end of the shaft on a frame placed on a concrete pedestal at the level of the downstream water. Jet impeller attached to the shaft above the heel of the upper and lower ends. Rigid fixation increases the resistance of the shaft bending and torsion. The close location of the turbine to the support improves the working conditions of the shaft, the turbine bearing and bearing when changing modes and allows you to load the turbine to a greater extent.

The shaft in this arrangement supports works in compression and torsion, and the maximum axial load is subjected to only the lower end of the shaft from rotating parts of the unit and the water flow. The remaining part of the shaft feels axial load only from its own weight and the weight of the generator rotor. Therefore, you can perform shaft neravnopolochny length, reducing its diameter at the top and, accordingly, the reduction of its diameter above the turbine. This contributes to the working shaft for compression, and, as of the local, steel has a much greater resistance to compression than in tension. The obvious possibility of reducing the specific gravity of the unit by reducing the mass of the shaft along its length.

Reference-cantilever design of the unit allows the execution of a support in the form of a spherical or angular contact bearing in a sealed tub with excessive oil pressure.

The power and speed of the turbine is increased due to the jet action flowing into the atmosphere jets of water from the suction pipe connected tangentially to elongate the rim of the impeller, closed-bottom pallet. Water jet reactive power increases the speed of rotation of the turbine (effect Saharova wheels). While a certain amount of a flowing stream of water is kept in a rotating pan and tolerated them. The mass of this volume of water together with a relatively small mass of the pallet and short suction pipes increase the axial load on the shaft that allows the design of the bearing Assembly.

For full utilization of the kinetic components of the jet stream of water from the suction pipe coaxially directed to active the turbine wheel. It rotates freely on a common shaft in the opposite jet wheel direction and transmits the rotation of the shaft is rigidly secured a gear wheel through the transmission gear mounted on the main frame. Forof the lower rim of the active wheel fitted with a toothed wheel with internal toothing. As the flow of water gives in jet wheel most of the energy, the peripheral speed of rotation of the active wheel knowingly provided below peripheral speed jet. To transmit shaft torque from the active wheel is a gear, details of which are and the turbine - shaft, base-thrust bearing and the lower rim of the active wheel. The gearbox is made increasing the angular velocity of rotation of the shaft with the possibility of considerable increase of the angular velocity from the jet wheels. At the same time it reduces the operating speed of the active wheel. It is reached by calculating the diameters of the gear shaft and the transmission gear.

According to the author, the essential hallmarks from the screener turbine is:

1. The suction pipe is constantly directed at the most efficient angle of exposure to the working surface.

2. The pipe is drawn at the minimum possible distance to the input edge of the working surface (gap).

3. The number of tubes equal to the number perceiving the load elements.

4. Output edge of the working surface is oriented at a right angle to the radial direction.

On the output edge of the blade stream is not directly aimed (no effect), which makes it possible to extract the reflected formed flow tangentially to the turbine with the use of the its reactive actions. These characteristics are undoubtedly essential, as they affect the completeness of the use of energy flow and are a consequence of the technical result.

All blades are constantly carry the load, slightly decreasing during the transition of the jets with the blades on the blade. The number of lobes equal to the number of pipes. This ensures uniform loading and the active rotation of the wheel, which increases its durability.

Flowing through the turbine, the flow of water gives energy to the impeller jet at the outlet of the suction pipe, in the active operating wheel and off him. Almost energy flow, both potential and kinetic components, are completely except for the inevitable friction losses in the flow path of the turbine and the local vortex when you change the size, direction and speed. From the point of view of completeness of the use of energy is not necessary in the suction pipe, the purpose of which is to use only part of the kinetic energy possessed by the water after exiting the impeller jet turbines. The recovery factor or efficiency good suction pipe of a sufficiently large length and diffusivity are reached in the best case 80-85% [2, p.97].

Close placement of reactive wheels to the frame of the thrust bearing and securing it by the pallet to the shaft provides in order to reduce run-out and vibration and to reduce the gap between the rim and the camera. This, in turn, will help to seal the gap two flexible elastic ring box-shaped profile comprising one another. One side they are attached to the sealing parts, and the other convex side contact between them, and an opposite concave surface exposed to the water pressure. Design eliminates water leakage through the gap. Entrance of water into the seal from the bottom up eliminates the ingress of solid particles between the friction surfaces.

Pressure control and non-stationary processes in the stream below the blades of jet wheels perform the calculation and regulation of the total cross-sectional area of the suction pipes of pan.

Figure 1 shows drawings shows a top view of a storage chamber of the impeller conventionally not shown); figure 2 - a section a-a figure 1; figure 3 - section In figure 2 (in the upper quarter of the rim not shown); figure 4 - node And compaction of the bed-heel); figure 5 - node In (seal jet impeller with the camera).

The unit (Fig.1-5) contains a vertical shaft 1 supported by the lower end on a frame-thrust bearing 2, jet impeller turbine 3 with the lower rim 4. Upper end to the edge of the rim and the lower end of the shaft is hermetically secured to the pallet 5. The bottom of it is made cone-shaped with a concave surface to reduce hydrauli the definition of resistance. Tangent to the side surface of the pallet attached to the rectangular cross section of the suction pipe 6. They focused on the blade 7 with pointed input active edge of the impeller 8. It consists of vertical blades 7, the arcuate cross section, rigidly connected with the upper and lower rims, and cover the pan with pipes of small length. Pipe fit to the input edge of the blades from the back side by a distance equal to the gap between the effective angle of impact. Output edge 9 of the blade is oriented at a right angle to the radial direction of the turbine with a smooth transition from the direction of the blade beyond the reach of the jet. Figure 3 shows arrows change the direction of the velocity vector of the jet in the sector impact on the blade. The angle of the jet with the working surface 45 shown° (most effective).

The active wheel 8 rotates freely on the shaft 1 in the opposite direction of the jet wheel 3 (Fig 1, 2 and 3). The direction of rotation is shown curved arrows. For transmitting rotation to the shaft in the same direction of the lower rim of the active wheel fitted with a toothed wheel 10 with internal gearing. It rotates the shaft with a fixed toothed wheel 11 through the transmission gear 12 on the axis 13, are installed on the frame of the thrust bearing 2. This paratachardina reduces the operating speed of the active wheel, what is important when a large diameter. Along with this it provides the transmission of the rotation shaft with an angular velocity greater than the angular velocity of the jet wheels (boost speed two-stage gear reducer, changing the direction of rotation).

Seal rim 4 jet impeller with the wall of the chamber 14 (2, 5) made of an elastic flexible box-shaped profile of the outer ring 15 attached on one side to the camera with G-shaped profile metal mortgage 16, and within it the inner ring 17, is also sealed on the input edge of the rim between the lamellar rings 18. The o-rings when the radial displacement of the ring 17 constantly contacting convex springing the sides and their opposite concave surface exposed to the water pressure. They are made from synthetic materials, such as rubber coated contact surfaces with Teflon.

Seal the base of the heel implemented widely used in the technique of the sleeve 19 with the annular spiral spring 20.

The unit rotates under the action of the flow of water supported on a frame-thrust bearing 2 shaft 1 (figure 2). Having the blades of the jet impeller 3 (2) turbine flow gets into the rotating pallet 5. The water falls from the blades in the direction FR is opposite to the rotation of the pallet. The volume of flowing water in the pan rotates with it. The speed of water in the pan below the speed of the pallet, i.e. at this point the stream slows down the pan. However, rotating it prevents the separation of water from the lower edges of the blades of the wheel, causing a cavitation phenomenon. The trajectory of the stream divides into tubes, complex: in the radial direction, down and around the circumference. Given the pressure under the water wheel speed is in the pipe. Formed jet emerging from the pipe, jet action increases the speed of jet wheels. However, it affects the blade 7 moves from the input edge to reach (before moving on to the next blade), giving the kinetic component of the energy flow. The blades are constantly carry the load, slightly decreasing during the transition of the jet. Beyond the impact of the jet on the vane with trailing edge 9 comes tangentially to the turbine organized by the exhaust flow, the reactive effect of increasing the rotation speed of the active wheel.

The proposed unit includes the essential features of both classes of turbines (Francis and Pelton) and is essentially reactive-active turbine that long, and therefore it is reasonable to assign the name "Turbine Kazachenko".

Sources of information

1. Manual DL the study of operating rules for Hydraulic structures and hydraulic installation" M, Energy, 1971

2. Krivchenko GI "Hydraulic machines, turbines and pumps. Meters, Energy, 1978

3. "Turbine equipment hydroelectric power station". Edited Graphs M. - L., Gosenergoizdat, 1958

4. Reference design turbines. Edited Nov. L., engineering, 1971

5. Smirnov I. "Hydraulic turbines and pumps. M., High school, 1969

6. Kovalev NIKOLAY. Achievements of domestic hydrocarbonate". M., Knowledge, 1956

Hydraulic unit power plant with suction pipe and a support containing mounted on the vertical shaft of the generator rotor and turbine jet impeller having a sealed rims, characterized in that the shaft is supported by the lower end with a conical working surface on a frame-thrust bearing and the upper end to the edge of the rim and the lower end to the shaft tightly attached to the pallet with bottom made cone-shaped with a concave surface tangent to the side surface of the pallet attached suction-liners aimed at the active blade impeller with sharpened input edges, freely rotating on the shaft and giving him a rotation through increasing the speed and change the direction of rotation of the gear reducer, the details of which are part of the unit, and the number of tubes equal to the number of blades, pipes fit the angle of the inlet edges of the blades from the back side by a distance equal to the gap between them, and output edges of the blades are oriented at right angles to the radial direction of the turbine with a smooth transition from the direction of the blade beyond the reach of the jet, thus sealing rims jet impeller with the flow direction from the bottom up is made of two elastic rings box-shaped profile comprising one another and contacting the convex springy side surfaces with opposite concave sides exposed to the working pressure of the water.



 

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2 dwg

FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.

EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.

1 cl, 4 dwg

Power plant // 2246033

FIELD: converting energy of fluid media to mechanical and electrical energy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed power unit includes foundation with several identical power units mounted on it through bed frames. Each unit has body located over vertical axis of symmetry, lower and upper partitions with holes, level gauge, gas chamber, gaseous working medium discharge pipe line fitted with adjusting valves, tank-mixer, natural gas supply and discharge pipe lines and inner and outer lower, middle and upper clamping rings. Each unit is provided with flexible dome-shaped gas receiver with weights-anchors, fastening hinges and ropes laid in sea or ocean where natural gas or hydrogen is extracted. Power units have several identical power stages provided with axles with adjusting keys, sectional screw conveyers, drive belts, bypasses with valves, electric generators, waste gaseous medium discharge pipe line with moisture trap, counter, pressure gauges and valves.

EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency and ecological safety; enhanced reliability.

2 dwg

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