Method and floating rig for diamond-carrying kimberlite pipe development
FIELD: mining, particularly open cast kimberlite pipe mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mining ore body by hydromining device of floating dredger; supplying diamond-containing pulp to floating dressing plant, recovering diamonds and transporting reject material from pit to preliminarily prepared plate for following utilization thereof. Ore body is developed by hydromining device reciprocation across total ore body area. Diamonds are recovered by serial pump decomposition, sizing, dressing and conditioning. Residual material is utilized by dewatering thereof in centrifuge and stacking for following usage for building material production.
EFFECT: simplified method and rig and decreased power inputs for kimberlite pipe development.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry, namely to open the development of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes. Most successfully the present invention can be used for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes in the European North of Russia and, in particular, in the Arkhangelsk region.
From the patent of Russia №2258810 known method of kimberlite pipes in difficult hydrogeological conditions of permafrost and install floating airlifting dredge for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes in difficult hydrogeological conditions of permafrost.
How is that before opening hydrate accumulations aquifers from the bottom of the pit are a well of large diameter to a final depth of mining, constructing inclined shaft, which connects to a given depth with the hole, and then in the career space launch hydrate accumulations of the high pressure brine. On the surface of a pond place airlifting the dredger. At the bottom of the reservoir is lowered bulldozer-loosening universal crown. Loosening pre razuprochneniya brine kimberlites produce a bulldozer spiral benches, starting from a well of large diameter to the end edges of the horizon. And for the best of the destruction of kimberlites spiral moves bulldozer ori is notroot in two opposing directions. Destroyed small fraction of ore by airlift dredger the pulp is transported to the beneficiation plant. A large fraction, which has not passed through the air pump dredger, bulldozer served to the mouth of the well, which under its own weight through the hole, coffered vault gets on skimovie lifts inclined shaft. On the inclined trunk of ore fed to the surface to the warehouse ore. Mining of kimberlite pipes below the bottom of the quarry are under vertical angles maturity bots without production Stripping. In stock ore is zaratrusta ore, and then fined ore is fed to the concentrator.
The disadvantage of this method is that its implementation uses a large number of complex high-energy equipment and that the method is applicable only for the development of permafrost kimberlites in complex hydrogeological conditions.
The system includes a floating dredge with air pump connected to the discharge sloping pipeline beyond career over the orebody kimberlite pipes. The pipeline is associated with a processing plant located on the surface of the earth. Quarry filled hydrate accumulations of the high-pressure brine. To do this, from the bottom of the pre-selected career center kimberlite pipes are well bol the large diameter to the final depth testing. Construct inclined shaft, which is connected with a bore of large diameter at the level of finite depth testing. Well of large diameter and inclined shaft equip skipovymi lifts. Skimovie lifts associated with the stock of ore placed on the ground surface near the concentrator. After execution of the skip hoist in an inclined hole and the Central hole in the pit let hydrate accumulations of the high pressure brine. On the surface of the brine is located above the floating dredger with the airlift suction tip. At the bottom of the reservoir is placed bulldozer-loosening.
The device operates as follows.
Bulldozer-the Ripper produces loosening partially razuprochneniya brine rock kimberlite spiral approaches, starting from the mouth of the well of large diameter to the end edges of the horizon. And for the best of the destruction of kimberlites spiral moves bulldozer oriented in two opposing directions. Then use airlifting dredge carry out the extraction and transportation of the formed fine fraction by slurry pipeline to the concentrator. A larger fraction of the ore, which were not in the airlift, the bulldozer is served to the mouth of the well, in which the ore under its own weight at first, gets to the valve bore, and the ZAT is it loaded into the skip hoist. Skips deliver ore on an inclined shaft to the ore stockpile. In stock proizvoditsa zaratrusta ore crushers. Melatonina ore is fed into the concentrator.
The installation has a complex structure and contains a large number of high-energy equipment. In addition, the installation is applicable only for the development of permafrost kimberlites in complex gidrogeologicheskikh conditions.
The closest analogue of the claimed inventions are the way of the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes and floating installation, described in the patent of Russia №2081321.
Method development is as follows.
In the preparatory period outside of the outline of the ore body along the perimeter to create a cutoff barrier, insulating aquifers in the overlying sedimentary rocks and partially in the host rocks. Then make the opening of the ore body open mining quarry or suction apparatus. The excavated soil from the trench above the ore body is moved and placed in a tailings dam tailings after Stripping in a pit filled with water to the level of the natural ground water level, lower suction shell and floating concentrator equipped hydroporinae units. Direct develo the weave kimberlite pipes deep-sea dredging is carried out in the following sequence. Pre-ore body in plan and section mark in the form of a tube on a vertical concentric blocks. Allocate Central ore, which extends vertically down to the design depth of the mine, and the peripheral units with the development of the zone of contact with the host rocks. Concentric elongated ellipsoid contour lines periferiinyh vertical blocks correspond to the shape of the tube in the plan. The excavation of the ore body is carried out by sequential testing concentric blocks from top to bottom with a gradual lowering of excavation in the form of a funnel from the Central ore pillars to the sides and forming in the contact zone of the safety pillar of the massive rocks of the ore formation. Dredge and concentrator equipped hydroporinae units, consisting of giant shells and airlifting units. Hydroporinae units is placed over the face, down the column to the bottom, served in hydroporinae aggregates working agents (high-pressure water and compressed air) and proceed to the hydraulic breaking, loosening, disintegration and erosion of ore high-pressure jets acting downward and lateral directions. Repulsed ore body is continuously pumped by air lift in the receiving device of the dredger and concentrator. From dredger Hydra is a mixture of flexible floating pipeline serves on the concentrator. Giant shells and airlifting columns, merged into hydroporinae aggregates dredger and concentrator have technical grid that provides the linkage of the adjacent jetting faces. Technological equipment concentrator set to experience layout almatycnnkhaleej drag, developing alluvial deposits. Final tailings beneficiation plant for flexible floating pipeline serves on the beach and then through the main pipeline is sent to the tailings pond. After settling of the pulp clarified water layer of abstraction serves to pump station water recycling and transfer on suction projectile and processing plant for reuse. To reduce the amount of tailings slurry tailings pre-sent for installation thickening and filtration. The filtrate is returned to the suction projectile and concentrator, and the thickened tailings are placed in the tailings pond, where they accumulate without any subsequent disposal, representing a substantial danger to the environment.
The installation includes a craft, consisting of two modules floating of dredges and floating concentrator. Dredge and a concentrator is equipped with a set hydropobic is x units, consisting of a water jet cutting apparatus and airlifting columns. Technological equipment concentrator set to experience layout almatycnnkhaleej drag, developing alluvial deposits. Dredge associated floating slurry pipeline from a floating processing plant. Final tailings away from the floating concentrator on floating pipeline associated with onshore pipelines, culminating in a pre-prepared TMF limited bulk dams. Before tailing dump at the end of the trunk pipeline is hosted installation thickening and filtration of the pulp. Near the tailings placed in the water intake and pump station recycled water supply associated with the dredge and processing plant pipelines recycled water supply.
Before developing diamond deposits along its outline perform a cutoff barrier, which is constructed by drilling and filling them with cement slurry. Construction of the tailings carried out by excavation above the ore body and the construction of dams around tailings outside of the ore body. The ore body of the Kimberley mark on concentric blocks. In a water-filled pit place of floating samsara and floating concentrator.
Floating installation for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes works as follows. The excavation of the ore body is carried out by sequential testing of the previously marked vertical blocks kimberlite pipes, starting from the Central unit and carry it downward. In hydroporinae units served working agents (high-pressure water and air) and proceed to the hydraulic breaking, loosening, disintegration and erosion of ore high-pressure jets acting downward and lateral directions. Repulsed ore body is continuously or periodically pumped by air lift in the reception device of the dredger and concentrator. From the dredge slurry on floating pipeline enters the floating concentrator.
Final tailings beneficiation plant floating on the slurry pipeline act in terrestrial trunk pipeline through which the liquid tailings are sent to the tailings pond. Before entering the tailings go to install thickening and filtration. The clarified water being sucked into the water intake station and the circulating water is returned via pipelines water recycling on the dredge and floating processing plant, and the condensed liquid tailings accumulated in the tailings pond.
The basis for this is the way of the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes and floating plants for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes was tasked, to the operation of the method was carried out in such a manner and in a floating installing hydroponicly aggregate dredger and a processing plant would be designed in such a manner that a simplification of the method and the installation in General and the reduction of energy consumption on the development of the Kimberley, thanks to what was achieved would reduce the cost of production of diamonds.
This object is achieved in that in the method development diamondiferous kimberlite pipes, including the development of the ore body hydroponicum unit floating dredger, filing diamond slurry on a floating processing plant, the extraction of diamonds and transportation tails beyond career on a prepared site for recycling, what's new is that the development of the ore body is carried out by consecutive reciprocating movement hydroporinae unit floating dredge over the entire area of the ore body, the extraction of diamonds at the processing plant is carried out by sequentially performed operations disintegration of the pulp, the classification of particles on the screens, abrasion particles in the planetary mill, separation of particles by size in megarectum the noise and the extraction of diamonds on rudersberg tables and rentgenolyuminestsentnye separators, and disposal of tailings ASU is estlat by dehydration by centrifugation and storage for subsequent use in the production of construction materials.
The task is achieved by the fact that in the floating installation is to develop diamondiferous kimberlite pipes containing suction projectile with hydroponicum unit associated floating slurry pipeline placed on the pontoon processing plant, associated floating slurry pipeline from the onshore main slurry pipeline, what's new is that floating installation contains one hydroporinae unit suction type concentrator contains a number of centrifugal disintegrator, screens, at least one planetary mill, rudersberg tables and x-ray separators.
Due to such operations of way, and such execution hydroporinae unit and concentrator achieved simplification of fashion and design in General, reduced power consumption on the development of kimberlite pipes, which leads to reduction in cost of production of diamonds.
Below the essence of the proposed method the development of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes and floating plants for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes is explained in more detail detailed example with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:
figure 1 shows the scheme of processing of kimberlite ore using the proposed floating mouth is ovci;
figure 2 shows the block diagram of the concentrator.
The inventive method and installation for its implementation is implemented as follows.
As shown in figure 1, revealed quarry flooded by groundwater. In the waters of the quarry there is a craft consisting of two modules - floating suction dredger 1 and the floating concentrator 2. Dredge 1 has hydroponicly unit 3 is lowered to the bottom on the frame 4. Given the low strength of kimberlite ore tubes, for the development of which the unit may be used, hydroponicly unit 3 has a Central porogressive discharge pipe and covering his pulpotomy pipe 5, which dredger 1 is associated with the processing plant 2. When designing a floating installing more durable kimberlite ore hydroponicly unit 3 can be made in the form of airlifting hydroporinae unit, similar hydroponicum aggregates used in the nearest equivalent. If necessary, the floating installation can be performed in a single floating block that hosts the dredger 1 and a concentrator 2.
The development of kimberlite pipes is carried out by consecutive reciprocating movement hydroporinae unit 3 dredger 1 (figure 1) over the entire area of the host kimberlite Tr is the KJV. Soft ore kimberlite pipes (the ratio of strength Protodyakonov - no more than 1.6) with a high content of clay fraction easily eroded hydroponicum unit 3 dredger 1 and pulpotomy pipe 5 is supplied to the floating concentrator 2.
Concentrator 2 (figure 2) comprises a centrifugal disintegrator 6 and odniesieniu rumble 7, forming a block of disintegration. Oversize space screen 7 is connected with the second centrifugal disintegrator 8, which is connected odniesieniu thunder 9, forming a second disintegrating unit. Oversize space thunder 9 is connected with the planetary mill 10 deep abrasion. Planetary mill 10 is connected with mnogorazemny roar 11. Oversize space rumble 11 depending on the size they separate fractions associated with rudersberg tables 12 and rentgenolyuminestsentnye separators 13. Planetary mill 10, mnohohrishny rumble 11, rudersberg tables 12 and rentgenolyuminestsentnye separators 13 form a block enrichment and refinement. Fine fraction (particle size of 1.6 mm or less), separated on all screens, form tails released from the concentrator on floating pipeline 14 (figure 1).
Floating pipeline 14 is associated with the coastal trunk pipeline 15. Coastal trunk PU is improved 15 associated with dewatering centrifuge 16. Dehydrated tails with an approximate moisture content of 15-20% by Elevator 17 received in stock tails, from where they subsequently collected for use in the production of construction materials. The filtrate from the dewatering centrifuge 16 is returned back into the quarry. Part of the moisture remaining in the tails after zentrifugenbau, further away from them due to drainage through the drainage channels 18. If necessary, the number of disintegration blocks and blocks of enrichment and refinement can be more specified above.
Received from the dredge slurry is fed to the first cage 6. Disintegrated them with the mixture comes to dvuhestny rumble 7 where it is separated into two fractions with a particle size of from 1.6 to 50 mm and less than 1.6 mm, oversize space rumble 7 allocated fraction is fed to the second cage 8, where the fraction of re-desintegrated. With the cage 8, the mixture is fed to screens 9, which emits predominantly fraction less than 1.6 mm, and the fraction is larger than 1.6 mm arrives in a planetary mill 10, where there is a deep abrasion of the material at virtually 100% preservation of diamonds. With the planetary mill 10 material goes to managerexecutive rumble 11, where a final separation of the fractions by size. The fraction with a particle size of from 50 to 4 mm comes the t rudersberg tables 12, and the fraction with a particle size of from 4 to 1.6 mm come on rentgenolyuminestsentnye separators 13. Tables 12 and the separator 13 is 100% allocation of all diamonds received from the pulp to the beneficiation plant.
Separated on the screens 7, 9 and 11 of the fraction of particle size less than 1.6 mm, form the tails, which are discharged from the concentrator 2 floating on the slurry pipeline 14 (1) in the coastal pulpotomy the pipeline 15. With a pipeline of 15 tails come in dewatering centrifuge 16, where it is dehydrated to 15-20% moisture content. Dewatered tailings Elevator 17 is fed to the stock tails. The filtrate from the centrifuge 16 is returned back into the quarry. In stock tails is further dewatered by drainage. Eye-catching moisture back through the drainage channels 18 back into the quarry. Thus in the warehouse remain almost dry fraction with particle size less than 1.6 mm, which are retrieved from the warehouse for successful application in the production of building materials. Thus, the use of the claimed floating installation for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes does not require a cumbersome and dangerous for the environment tailings requiring constant supervision for their safety.
From the specific examples of the proposed ISO is reteni for each specialist in this area there is a clear opportunity to implement them with the task. However it is also clear that in their implementation can be made small changes, which, however, will not exceed the volume of the inventions defined by the following claims.
Method and installation for its implementation simple. Installation is simple in construction and reliable in operation. In the process, and the operation of the unit requires very little energy, which reduces the cost of production of diamonds. Used in the installation of the concentrator contains the minimum number of processing equipment. This ensures 100% extraction of diamonds. When implementing the method, and when using installation is not required dangerous for the environment tailings, and the resulting dry tails can be used in the production of construction materials.
1. Method development diamondiferous kimberlite pipes, including the development of the ore body hydroponicum unit floating dredger, filing diamond slurry on a floating processing plant, the extraction of diamonds and transportation tails beyond career on a prepared site for recycling, characterized in that the development of the ore body is carried out by consecutive reciprocating movement of the Hydra the production unit over the entire area of the ore body, the extraction of diamonds at the processing plant is carried out by sequentially performed operations disintegration of the pulp, the classification of particles on the screens, abrasion particles in the planetary mill, separation of particles by size in megarectum the crash and recovery of diamonds on rudersberg tables and rentgenolyuminestsentnye separators, and disposal of tailings is carried out by dehydration by centrifugation and storage for subsequent use in the production of construction materials.
2. Floating installation for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes containing suction projectile with hydroponicum unit associated floating slurry pipeline placed on the pontoon processing plant, associated floating slurry pipeline from the onshore main slurry pipeline, characterized in that the floating installation contains one hydroporinae unit suction type concentrator contains a number of centrifugal disintegrator, screens, at least one planetary mill, rudersberg tables and x-ray separators.
FIELD: mining, particularly for underground mining of steeply-dipping and inclined ore bodies having low and high thickness, as well as streaks.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and substeps in pit side slope; constructing deep pit with steeply-dipping side slopes in hanging and lying ore deposit walls, wherein side slope direction vary up to vertical direction at final stage; cutting zones in upper horizons and constructing the first continuous transportation path made as conveyer lifting means in trenches as pit is excavated; moving upper conveyer lifting means to new pit side point of upper stage when shifting to other mining stages at central and deep horizons and constructing conveyer system in trench located in central horizon; mounting conveyer lifting means at vertical side slope reinforced with polymers, bolts and mesh along with deep horizon excavation so that curvature of formed stable side sections correspond to surface and path of continuous ore and capping rock transportation from lower horizons to upper ones, wherein increasing shear loads in material to be transported are accommodated in conveyer structure by control of pull system and pressing means of tape drive mechanism. Device for said method realization is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency, decreased costs of ore and capping rock delivery from deep pit.
2 cl, 1 ex, 10 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to create high dumps during open pit mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming preliminary dump layer near outermost deep pit outline with the use of cyclically acting means at optimal rock transportation shoulder; digging out steeply inclined semi-trench in pit side in overburden rock location zone and in direction of pit outline sections of the first, the second and the third excavation orders from depth corresponding to optimal vehicle operation height; creating embankment on surface by forming a number of transversal transport paths made as temporary dumps having heights increasing to preliminary dump mark so that embankment is at predetermined angle to preliminary dump; mounting crushing machines on main haulage level inside pit; installing in-line conveyance means in trench and in preliminary dump; covering thereof with light-weight snow-protection tent. Dumping operation is performed in parallel runs from stacking conveyor, wherein rock is received with inclined boom-mounted mechanism of plate feeding means arranged in tube-shaped structure supported by sliding supports so that the structure may rotate in place of structure connection with stacking conveyer. Boom length is selected from inclined dumped rock layer thickness to provide minimal dump settlement in unloading device installation place. Dump embankment forming for main conveyer of the second order is continued by preliminary dump forming within design dump outline by means of in-line conveyance means and by rock stacking on dump and by cyclic means. After that the second and the third dump layers are constructed. To prevent dump deformation rock layer stacked in winter is covered with snow-free buffer rock so that said layers have equal thicknesses. As central and deep pit zones are developed main conveyer is enlarged by installing new crushing equipment section on the second haulage level formed in permanent side. Conveyer path enlargement is continued with the use of steeply inclined and vertical conveyers to provide threshold distance of rock conveyance to crushing unit by collecting transport specified by optimal collecting transport operation.
EFFECT: increased dumping efficiency.
1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly safe refuse disposal during deep laying kimberlitic pipe excavation in extreme northern permafrost zone conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing protection dam of overburden and creating water-tight screen of loamy soil; stacking waste and rock mass of different types inside protective dam; dumping rock in layers along with layer slopes and berms creation. Each protective dam layer is formed along finite outline. Water-tight screen is covered with zeolite layer to neutralize poisonous gas. Rock saturated with brine is stacked inside formed bowl in direction from layer periphery towards center thereof. As layer is filled with brine-saturated rock the layer is covered with zeolite layer. Then upper layer is formed in the same order. After all layer dumping termination slopes are treated to impart variable geometry thereto and the slopes are covered with sapropel. Dump has elliptical configuration oriented depending on wind rose.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of aggressive brine-saturated rock dump stacking and storage.
1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opened development of horizontal and gently sloping mineral deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting next to last overburden bench; providing explosion to shift rock to goaf during above cutting operation; forming road over shifted rock; performing transportation of rock cut from next to last bench; transporting rock remaining after explosion out of ore body outline along with rock bench slope cleaning and ore body roof cleaning; removing remaining cone with bulldozer; digging-out pit along contact line between ore and shifted rock; mining mineral and transporting thereof along temporary ore-transportation road formed over shifted rock pile.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development, increased discharge coefficient, decreased distance of next to last bench and mineral rock transportation.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during open combined excavation of bed deposits with two coal formations with alternating extraction of formations and parting and technology of stripping operations based on transporting and non-transporting excavation system.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, at predetermined sections usable for processing parting in accordance to transport-less dragline technology, special dumping vessels are created and moved for required value towards excavated space, meant later for excavation of parting rocks into them. Volumes and amount of these vessels is determined depending on mining conditions and parameters of stripping equipment. Therefore, a part of volumes of transport stripping is redistributed to non-transport stripping.
EFFECT: lower costs of stripping operations and less harmful blowouts into atmosphere from vehicle transport.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, in particular, technology for extracting mineral resource deposits, possible use for extracting ores of balance and over-balance resources during extraction of mineral resources.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparing the massif, supplying reagents, draining solutions, sedimentation of useful components. Ore sections of useful components are detected in massif beyond limits of pit contour above the level of depression cone. These massif portions in pit sides are subjected to explosive crushing, well is drilled to upper area of each prepared ore section, and then lixiviation solutions with reagents are fed into the well. Solutions, self-flowing downwards along ore section, lixiviate metal and then enter common flow of underground waters, formed by depression cone. Sedimentation of metal is performed in the pit on geo-chemical barrier, in place of common exit of subterranean waters.
EFFECT: ensured fullness of extraction and high efficiency when completing a formation in accordance to open method.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use mainly during extraction of argillaceous placers by open method.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical shrinkage of mass and extraction of sands using digging-transporting equipment. Shrinkage of mass is performed with creation of crowns, and extraction of sands is performed by cutting off aforementioned crowns.
EFFECT: increased recovery of useful components from argillaceous sands of mass, containing large pieces.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mining of mineral deposits in the case of limited vertical ore bodies, for instance kimberlite pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming pit sides having inclinations less than minimal possible ones to provide pit side stability; preparing rock for further excavation by drilling-and-blasting operations; transporting ore and overburden via main incline by wheeled vehicle; forming transfer point plate at the second stage; excavating up to design depth along with forming pit sides having maximal possible inclinations, which provide pit side stability; cutting main incline from transfer point plate, wherein inclination thereof is increased in longitudinal direction; cutting ore pillars of the first stage; forming pit side having high ledges; forming lower ledge along ore body outline; forming temporary incline in one pit part; transporting ore and overburden to transfer point plate by means of caterpillar vehicle; forming temporary incline to provide pit cutting to design depth and cutting ore pillars under temporary incline.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit excavation due to reduced overburden volume within the bounds of deep limited pits.
3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stepping rock up to design outline with leading in the first stage pit edge; transporting ore along main decline to plant and stacking overburden in dump; excavating connection entry between the first stage pit and the second stage pit so that the entry is opened in previously excavated the first stage pit; cutting the second stage pit; transporting ore and overburden from the second order pit via connection entry; depositing overburden from the second order pit in the first stage pit goaf after termination of the first stage pit excavation. Before ore and overburden transportation from second order pit via connection entry overburden excavated from the second order pit is accumulated in outer dump. Overburden from the second order pit is conveyed to day surface along temporary decline system. When the second pit side reaches designed outermost outline temporary declines are killed.
EFFECT: reduced costs of deposit development and decreased hazardous action of mining operations on environment.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of coal, ore and non-ore deposits by open method.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, geological structure of massif is analyzed, position of potential sliding surface is detected, physical and mechanical properties of rocks are determined. Along profile parallel to edge of shelf in its middle portion, frequency of alternation of impulses of natural electromagnetic radiation is measured. On intervals where this frequency exceeds level of background radiation more than 2 times, interval-wise measurement of relation of strength level of signal electric field at two working frequencies is performed. By means of computed logarithmic dependence, depth of location of potential sliding surface is determined. With consideration of change of this depth, structure of massif, technological parameters and physical-mechanical properties of rocks, values of stability reserve coefficients are calculated on basis of ratio of momentums of holding and moving forces within limits of detected dangerous portion. Probability of landslide development is evaluated on basis of minimal values of stability reserve coefficients.
EFFECT: increased precision when predicting stability of quarry sides.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: waste stream containing bauxite tails is dispersed to form homogenous powder and water is then added to form freely flowing suspension. The latter is treated with acid to neutralize any alkaline compounds present therein to pH about 5.5-6, resulting in formation of aqueous solution of salts of acid utilized. This solution is separated from insoluble suspension material, which is added to building and other materials.
EFFECT: increased strength of materials and reduced water absorption thereof.
28 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry; methods of the minerals concentration.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the minerals concentration and may be used at reprocessing of the cobalt-bearing iron-manganese oceanic formations (crusts and concretions) extracted from the bottom of the world ocean and containing besides manganese, cobalt and iron also the nickel, copper, noble and rare metals. The method of reprocessing of the cobalt-bearing iron-manganese oceanic formations includes crushing, grinding, grading and the subsequent separation of manganese and the nonferrous metals. The first version of the method provides, that after the grading from the fraction of 0.5÷0.074 mm exercise extraction of the manganese and the nonferrous metals by the gravity concentration on the table concentrator with the subsequent three-stage magnetic separation of the light fraction of the table concentrator. At that the intensity of the magnetic field of the separator on the first stage compounds from 3500 up to 4000 oersted, on the second stage - from 6500 up to 7200 oersted and on the third stage - from 8000 up to 8200 oersted. At that the manganese and the nonferrous metals are extracted into the magnetic fraction of the third stage. The second version of the method provides, that the grading is exercised for the fraction of 12÷0.5 and 0.5÷0.074 mm, and separation of the manganese and the nonferrous metals is exercised from the received fractions by the gravity concentration on the settling machines from the fraction of 12÷0.5 mm and on the table concentrators from the fraction of 0.5÷0.074 mm. At that the manganese and the nonferrous metals are extracted into the light fractions of the gravity concentration, which are routed to the chemical-metallurgical finishing. The cycle of reprocessing for the both versions of the method is exercised in the module on the ocean floor. The technical result of the invention is the increased share of the manganese extracted into the joint concentrate of manganese, cobalt, nickel and copper, the improved world ocean floor environmental ecology, the reduced volume of the material lifted from the ocean floor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased share of the manganese extracted into the joint concentrate of manganese, cobalt, nickel and copper, the improved world ocean floor environmental ecology, the reduced volume of the material lifted from the ocean floor.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a sedimentation/flotation system wherein mineral flow, such as concentrate after pre-flotation or cleaner flotation, is subjected to two-step separation. In the first step, riddle allows creating flow of coarse particles, above 110 μm, and flow of particles lesser than 110 μm. In the second step, small particle flow is subjected to further separation, wherein cyclone produces flow of superfine particles/slimes having p80 value lower than about 25 μm and flow of intermediate-size particles with p80 value higher than about 25 μm. Intermediate-size particle flow is subjected to flotation to recover nickel sulfide, which is sent to final concentration and removal or sedimentation of magnesium oxide, which is subjected to gravitational separation to concentrate MgO. Nickel sulfide and magnesium oxide minerals possess significantly differing densities that can be utilized to employ gravitational separation equipment to achieve separation of magnesium oxide.
EFFECT: enabled efficient separation of magnesium oxide.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: mining; methods of extraction of the useful ingredients from the naturally clay bonded sands.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of dressing of the natural resources, in particular, to the preparatory processes of the gravity concentration of the gold-bearing sands, desintegration and extraction of the useful ingredients from naturally clay bonded sands. The method of extraction of the useful ingredients from naturally clay bonded sands provides for pressing in the block of the naturally clay bonded sands of the mechanical impurities, their feeding in the scrubber, desintegration, gravity concentration, separation of the mechanical impurities in the pure state and with the nondesintegrated argillous pellets. The further routing of the mechanical impurities to pressing in the block of the naturally clay bonded sands, and the nondesintegrated argillous pellets - repeatedly - to the flushing. Before each cycle of feeding in the process of pressing in of the mechanical impurities they are treated with the surface active substances in the amount of 0.05-0.4 m3 per 1 m3 of the particles. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the desintegration and the decreased losses of the useful ingredient with the nondesintegrated argillous pellets.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the desintegration and the decreased losses of the useful ingredient with the nondesintegrated argillous pellets.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: concentration of minerals; concentration of ore raw material requiring preliminary grinding.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes crushing, grinding, floatation and cyaniding of ore. At grinding stage, bornyl acetate is added in the amount of 30-45 g/t which is obtained by extraction from sage-brush or fir oil. Ground ore is subjected to classification and fraction of ore lesser than 0.1 mm is directed for main floatation, further cyaniding and sorption by coal.
EFFECT: increased extraction of finely-disseminated - finely-dispersed gold from auriferous ores; enhanced operational efficiency of grinding unit; reduced power requirements.
FIELD: mining industry; methods of concentration of the magnetite ores.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of concentration of the minerals, in particular, the magnetite ores. The method allows to reduce the share of the ballast (not requiring crushing) material. The method includes the feeding of the pulp-shaped material intended for the wet magnetic separation into the apparatus, where using the gravitational method the pulp-shaped material is separated for two fractions: the light fraction and the heavy fraction. The heavy fraction is sent directly for crushing (uniting it with the magnetic product of separation), or using the magnetic field divide it into the nonmagnetic part and the magnetic part. At that the nonmagnetic part is dumped in the refuse tailings, while the magnetic part is directed to the mill or subjected to the gravitational separation with production of the heavy and light products. The heavy product consisting of the particles of the opened useful mineral is withdrawn avoiding the crushing as the rough iron concentrate. The light product consisting of the accreted particles is routed into the drum-type mill.
EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce the share of the ballast (not requiring crushing) material.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: processes for separating carbon-containing component of natural coal, coal slime or waste materials of coal concentration, possibly in coal, fuel and metallurgical industry branches for producing high-grade, high-calorie, low ash content coal.
SUBSTANCE: method for concentrating coal comprises steps of mixing initial coal raw material and water for receiving water-coal suspension; adding to said suspension agglomerating agent; separating carbon-containing component of coal raw material and ash in water-coal suspension; extracting carbon-containing component by flotation; in addition introducing frothing agent to water-coal suspension and separating carbon-containing component of coal raw material and ash by means of steam blown-in by separate streams for thinning ash-fraction component. Water-coal suspension includes 7.00 - 50.00 mass parts of water per 1 mass part of coal. Flow rate of steam is no more than 500 kg per ton of initial coal raw material. Flow rate values of agglomerating agent and frothing agent are in range 3 - 7 kg and 0.05 -0.15 kg respectively per 1 t of water-coal suspension.
EFFECT: reduced expenses for realization of method, less loss of yield of carbon-containing component, enhanced efficiency of removing ash from carbon-containing component.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: automatically controlled operation of concentration mills, in particular, flotation separation of converter matte.
SUBSTANCE: method involves additionally determining content of 20-45 micrometer fractions in wastes of test classifications of first and second grinding stages and maintaining said content within the range of 15-20% and 10-15% by weight of ground mass, respectively, and maintaining content of fraction sized up to 45 μm within the range of 45-50% and 25-35% by weight of ground mass, respectively, with waste density of 2.0-2.2 kg/l and 1.9-2.1 g/l, respectively, by altering water to converter matte ratio during charging of first grinding stage mill and density of wastes of test classifications of first and second grinding stages depending on variations in content of fraction of 20 μm to 45 μm; additionally determining content of 5-45 μm fraction and maintaining said content within the range of 65-75% by weight of ground mass, and maintaining content of fraction sized up to 45 μm within the range of 80-95% by weight of ground mass by varying water to converter matte ratio during charging of first stage grinding mill depending on variations in content of 5-45 μm sized fractions.
EFFECT: reduced slug formation and increased extent of releasing concretions of ground crude material.
3 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: concentration of minerals; coal concentrating plants for producing coal concentrate from coal sludge.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in pulping the starting material followed by separating the grain coal part from rock component by hydraulic classification in vertical gravity-type hydraulic classifier where grain part is separated from rock component due to difference in size of grains and density of medium in ascending flow of water carrying the suspended rock part and entrapping the rock component in thickeners. Rock component is entrapped in thickener by means of polyfunctional material used as filtering, coagulating, flocculating, sorbing, draining and water-repellent layers; this material is subjected to regeneration at release of rock part. Water passed through water-repellent layer is returned to hydraulic classifier for washing-off the coal, thus completing the circulating cycle. Concentrated grain coal part obtained in hydraulic classifier is subjected to dehydration in centrifuge for separation of centrifuged effluent in circulating water storage tank and coal concentrate which is mixed with binder in mixer and is directed afterwards for granulation and subsequent drying.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of extraction of combustible mass from coal sludge.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: processing consists in separation of glass microspheres from total waste mass by agitating slurry for 10-12 min while maintaining liquid-to-solids ratio between 3:1 and 5:1 followed by settling and removal of microspheres from the slurry surface. Separation of non-burned organic residues is performed after they are reduced to fragments (90% of class 0.044 mm) in flotation process, which is carried out at initial pH 7 and flotation pH 9 employing kerosene in amounts 45-70 kg/t in main flotation and 25-40 kg/t in control flotation. Flotation is followed by step-by-step magnetic separation, first in week magnetic field at 50-150 mTl and then in magnetic fields of gradually increased intensity: from 500 to 1700 mTl with steps of 200 mTl.
EFFECT: increased integrated recovery of all valuable constituents of ash-and-slack waste.
FIELD: concentration of minerals.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes disintegration of dust at simultaneous preparation of pulp and removal of foreign admixtures; operations are performed in scrubber-washing drum. Then pulp is admitted to pulp line in counter-flow; aeration of pulp is performed in pulp line by means of air bubbles of one size and duration of life no less than 1-2 minutes; proposed method includes also forming standing acoustic waves perpendicularly to pulp flow at frequency ωac corresponding to resonance frequency ω0 of air bubbles of one size 10. Action of centrifugal and acoustic fields on pulp is performed in acoustic chamber at hydrostatic pressure of 4-5 atm. Acoustic field is formed in acoustic chamber by waves of final amplitude at frequency ωac corresponding to resonance frequency ω0of air bubbles of one size 10 by means of acoustic radiators smoothly distributed over surface of acoustic chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of entrapping fine gold.