Planing cutter

FIELD: working materials by cutting, engraving relief structures.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes stem and cutting part in the form of trihedral truncated pyramid having lateral faces inclined by acute angle relative to lengthwise symmetry axis of stem; small base of said pyramid is apex of cutter. In order to improve efficiency, said truncated pyramid is regular one. Each lateral face of such pyramid is designed for using as front surface depending upon its spatial position relative to cutting direction. Symmetry axis of cutting portion may be matched with lengthwise symmetry axis of stem.

EFFECT: improved design of cutter.

2 cl, 12 dwg

 

The invention relates to the processing of materials by cutting (slicing) mainly on machines with numerical control (CNC) and can be used, for example, for engraving the relief structures drawings on metallographic forms (used in the manufacture of printed products with a high degree of protection against forgery, in particular banknotes), where it is necessary to carry out the cutting process along the trajectories of broken parts and/or areas of small radii mates.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the stated object of the invention is planing cutter, and technological features of its operation, described below.

The prior art method of forming a relief in the functional layer of the product through processing planing. whereby by at least one process of the passage of the cutter carry out the removal of the allowance in the functional layer of the product through the use of a planing cutter. The latter contains the shank and the cutting part made in the form of a triangular pyramid with a cross-section in the shape of an isosceles triangle. Thus, before beginning the treatment (as well as changing the direction of cut on the opposite, in the area of the broken sections of the trajectory R of the marks and in the parts of the cut path matched with a small radius of curvature) carry out the rotation of the cutter around the longitudinal symmetry axis of its shank on the regulated direction of the path of the cutting angle. The rotation of the cutter is performed with the optimization of the spatial position of its front surface relative to the surface of the cutting process of the continuation of the passage. At the same time as the front surface of the cutting part can be used only one facet of the pyramid (EN, No. 2179094, 2002, Fig and 25).

The main disadvantage of the above described construction planing cutter (taking into account the currently used technologies of pattern formation in the functional layer of the product through processing planing on CNC machines) is limited to approximately 25° a reversal of the cutter (without lifting, i.e. the material to be deleted allowance) in the process of planing. The reason is that the cross-section of the cutting part of the cutter of an elongated isosceles triangle. This form of cutter limits the angle of rotation (in the amount of retiring allowance) without lifting the cutter, because the free rear edge cuts into the material allowance, bends and collapses. This leads to the need to raise the cutter above the upper plane of the functional surface, changing the direction of cut, for example, on broken parts cut path.

Due to the fact that the CNC machine speed of rotation of the cutter is much smaller than the velocity of the moving coordinates X, Y, Z, about 50% of the belts when lifting and rotation of the cutter and/or when it is turned directly into the material to be deleted allowance) the machine is idle i.e. decreases the productivity of the production process.

The present invention was based on the task of creating this design planing cutter (with reference to the corresponding special technology of pattern formation in the functional layer of the product through processing planing), which would greatly improve the performance of the process of planing by removing restrictions on the angle of rotation of the cutter during the cutting process without lifting it over the top functional layer of the product.

The problem is solved by the fact that in the planer cutter containing the shank and the cutting part made in the form of a triangular pyramid, according to the invention the cutting part is made in the form of a truncated pyramid, the smaller base of which is the "top" of the cutter, and each of its side faces is at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the shank and functionally may be the front surface, depending on the spatial position of this edge relative to the direction of cut.

Optimally cutting a part to perform in the correct form of a truncated pyramid, the longitudinal axis of symmetry which is aligned with the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the shank.

The invention is illustrated graphics.

Figure 1 - the seat is of the elements of the relief structures in the functional layer of the product.

Figure 2 - General view of the planing cutter with a cutting part in the form of regular truncated pyramid with sides of one of the front surfaces.

Figure 3 is a view As in figure 2.

Figure 4 - a section b-b in figure 3.

5 is a cross-section G-G of figure 2.

6 is a schematic representation of technology in cutting the broken portions of the cut path at the inner corner ϕ less than 90°but not equal to 60°.

7 is a schematic representation of technology in cutting the broken portions of the cut path at the inner corner ϕ60°.

Fig - schematic representation of technology in cutting the broken portions of the cut path at the inner corner ϕ, 90°.

Figure 9 - schematic representation of technology in cutting the broken portions of the cut path at the inner corner ϕ 90°.

Figure 10 - schematic representation of technology in cutting the broken portions of the cut path at the outer corner ϕ 180°.

11 is a schematic representation of technology cutting, changing the direction of cut on the opposite (reverse cutter, the reverse trajectory is indicated with a dash-dotted line).

Fig optimal position of the front surface of the cutter relative to the surface of the cutting.

The formation of the functional layer of the product through processing planing using strogannogo cutter claimed design is as follows.

First, it is useful to note that according to the present invention, the term "product" 1, as a rule, means of metallographic form containing complete engraving from a set of grooves and protrusions (relief), programmatically generated by computer graphics (before processing) and providing the required quality of the prints after the practical implementation of this relief in the functional layer 2 articles 1 (1).

Figure 1 is a graphic materials positional marked the cutting surface 3 and the upper surface 4 of the functional layer 2.

It should be noted that the processing technology, practically implemented through the planer cutter 5 of the claimed design, also has its own specific (described below) features associated with structural features of the claimed cutter 5.

Declared planing cutter 5 includes a shank 6 and the cutting part 7 made in the form of three-sided truncated pyramid (mostly correct), the smaller base of which is the "top" 8 cutter 5, and each of its side faces 9, 10, 11 is located at an acute angle α to the longitudinal axis 12 of the symmetry of the shank 6 and is intended for use as a front surface of the cutter 5 (depending on the spatial position of this edge 9, or 10, or 11 classifies the correctly direction V cut).

The longitudinal axis 12 of the symmetry of the shank (in the optimal design of the cutter 5) is aligned with the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the cutting part 7.

The edges of the pyramid, which is functionally side cutting edges 13, overlap in space with the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the cutting part 7 (or axis 12 of the shank, which was adequate) at an acute angle.

The method of forming a relief in the functional layer 2 items 1 through processing planing using a planing cutter claimed design (according to one of the variants) is implemented as follows. By at least one pass of the cutter 5 carry out the removal of the allowance in the functional layer 2 through the use of a planing cutter 5, containing the shank 6 and the cutting part 7. The latter is in the form of a right triangular truncated pyramid. Thus, before beginning treatment, as well as changing the direction of cut on the opposite and in the area of polygonal areas (and areas of small radii mates trajectory 14 of the cutting implement rotation (arrow ω) cutter 5 around the longitudinal axis 12 of the symmetry of the shank 6 on the facing direction of the path 14 of the cutting angle with the optimization of the spatial position of the front surface (i.e. faces 9, or 10, or 11) cutter 5 relative to the part surface 3 of the cutting. If the direction of cut on the opposite and in the area of the broken sections of the trajectory 14 of cutting (as well as in areas with a small fillet radius) as the front surface of the cutter 5 use the line 9, or 10, or 11 of the cutting part 7, which (by the above-mentioned rotation of the cutter 5) must be deployed on the minimum angle to optimize its spatial position relative to the surface 3 of the cutting process to the continuation of this passage.

Optimization of the spatial position of the front surface (i.e. one of the edges 9, 10, 11) cutter 5 on the surface 3 of the cutting is carried out by it (i.e. the front surface) installation at an obtuse angle θ relative to the surface 3 of the cutting, the value of which is less than 120°. Otherwise, the other face will touch (slide) on a processed surface.

Separate serious issue is the process of stroikottage from the cutting zone. Because of the tilt of the front surface (face) of the cutting part of the material allowance will be squeezed out during cutting and will probably lead to the formation of burrs (work hardening) on the surface of the functional layer. However, if the front surface of the cutter will be spatially oriented at an obtuse angle θ to the surface of the cutting, the chip will be in the direction of the designed area.

Before the said rotation of the cutter 5 by an angle exceeding 25°you can raise cutter 5 with securing the release of the "peaks" 8 on the upper surface 4 of the functional layer 2. After that, to ensure the rotation of the cutter 5 on the facing direction of the continuation of the trajectory 14 of the cutting angle (arrow ω) and to carry out its re-cutting the seam allowance of the functional layer 2 on the source depth.

This technology not only provides increased durability of the cutter 5, but also allows an additional sample of the remaining allowance of 15 in the corner zones (inner corners), for example, broken sections of the trajectory 14 of the cutting.

Raising and lowering of the cutter 5 on sloping sites trajectory 14 cutting is permissible to perform with simultaneous notification to him of the chief of cutting movement (arrow V) in the region to be deleted allowance.

This processing method allows for the maximum of an additional sample of the remaining allowance of 15 in the corner zones (inner corners), for example, broken sections of the trajectory 14 of cutting, and in conjunction with the previous provides increased durability of the cutter 5.

The method of forming a relief in the functional layer of the product through processing planing using a planing cutter claimed design (according to drugaware execution) is similar to the above. The difference consists only in the fact that it is not necessary to rotate the cutter 5 around the axis 12 of the shank 6. However, it can be used only in some special cases. Namely, when the direction change path 14 (in the area of the broken sections) cutting at an angle equal to or close to 60°. At the same time as the front surface of the cutter using the line 9, or 10, or 11 of the cutting part 7, the spatial position (at this time) is optimized with respect to the surface 3 of the cutting process to the continuation of this passage.

In this embodiment, the optimization of the spatial position of the front surface of the cutter 5 on the surface 3 of the cutting is also performed by her (the front surface) installation at an obtuse angle relative to the cutting surface 3, the value of which is less than 120°.

It is obvious that according to the above technologies planing using a planing cutter claimed design significantly increases the productivity of the production process by reducing the time for rotation of the tool. For example, according to known prior art methods (when using cutters known structures), changing the direction of planing on the opposite it is necessary to provide the rotation R is SCA 180° , while according to the invention the cutter enough to turn on an angle in the range from 60°but less than 90°.

Thus, if you make a cutting edge of the cutter in the shape of a truncated triangular pyramid (mostly correct), then all three of its faces will be the same (i.e. almost equivalent to cutting process) and when processing, you will move on to cutting with one face (front surface) on the other.

More technology planing cutter according to the invention disclosed in graphic materials, and further explanation is not required. All diagrams cutting solid triangle marked previous position of the cross-section of the cutting part of the cutter (with a cross-section in the form of an equilateral triangle), and the dotted triangle its subsequent position (i.e. after changing the direction of the cut path).

It is advisable only to describe more fully optimized cutting scheme on 6, 8, 9 and 11.

From these diagrams it follows that in order to eliminate the output of the corresponding edge (cutting edge 13) beyond the nominal trajectory 14 cutting (i.e. unauthorized sampling allowance in the functional layer), and bring the other cutting edge 13 on the corresponding portion of the nominal trajectory 14 cutting, you must ensure the following./p>

In accordance with the scheme of cut 6 in order to combine with the nominal trajectory 14 cutting the corresponding cutting edge 13 faces 10, should the cutter 5 (after rotation) to provide additional movement in the direction of the nominal trajectory 14 cutting or cutting surface 3) in direction of arrow S to the h value.

In accordance with the scheme of cutting pig in order to avoid clipping (when the rotation of the cutter 5) already treated surface 3 of the cutting edge 13 faces 11, you must inform the cutter 5 additional movement in the direction of arrow S by the value of h (before rotation of the cutter 5).

According to cutting scheme in figure 9, in order to avoid clipping (line 11) has already been processed (line 9) of the cutting surface 3 during rotation of the cutter 5, you should tell him (before the turn) further moving in the direction of arrow S1the value of Δ1. In order to combine the respective edge faces 13 9 (after turning cutter 5) with a nominal trajectory 14 cutting, you need the cutter 5 to provide additional movement in the direction of the nominal trajectory 14 cutting the arrow S by the value of h+Δ1.

In accordance with the scheme of cut 11 in order to combine the respective edge faces 13 10 with a nominal trajectory 14 cutting, you need the cutter 5 to report (after rotation) will complement the aspects of the movement of the arrow S by the value of h+Δ 1in the direction of the nominal trajectory 14 cutting (dash-dotted line).

All of the above for more movements, usually performed programmatically.

It is obvious that additional move is necessary to ensure that only in those cases when their values exceed the tolerance to the processing structures of the formed relief, in particular the surface 3 of the cutting.

Thus, patented planing cutter in conjunction with the special methods of forming relief in the functional layer of the products of the specialized structures of the formed pattern can be implemented in various industrial fields. For example, the formation of mechanically relief in the functional layers of metallographic forms (cliche) for gravure printing with sub-micron resolution of the formed structures (printed and gap elements), used primarily in the production of banknotes and other securities (requiring a high degree of protection against forgery), as well as in other fields of technology where it is needed to obtain the functional layer of the product prints the specified sub-micron resolution of its structures with arbitrary configuration.

1. Planing cutter, containing the shank and cutting edge in the form of three-sided truncated pyramid with the side edges located n the d an acute angle to the longitudinal symmetry axis of the shank, smaller base of which is the top of the cutter, wherein the cutting part is made in the form of a right triangular truncated pyramid, each of the side faces of which is the front surface depending on its spatial position relative to the direction of cut.

2. The cutter according to claim 1, characterized in that the axis of symmetry of the cutting part is aligned with the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the shank.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: micro- and(or) nano-technology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of removing allowance in central zone of working during rough pass and then finishing surfaces of lateral faces of shaped fragments of pattern along the whole depth of rough working pass. It is realized at using only one lateral edge of cutter to be rotated around its lengthwise axis in curvilinear and broken portions of its cutting path while providing optimal three-dimension position of front surface of cutter relative to cutting surface. Rough passes are performed by means of cutter while using in first pass simultaneously two lateral cutting edges and then using only one of said cutting edges turned to formed lateral face of shaped fragment of pattern. In order to enhance accuracy and quality of working by providing possibility of removing allowance in zones of pattern with broken cutting path during process of removing allowance remained after rough working at finishing, in zones of internal angles of broken portion of cutting path and in zone of portions with small joining radius cutter is lifted for providing outlet of its working part onto upper plane of functional layer of article. Then cutter is turned by angle normalized by cutting path going-on line and it is again fed-in to allowance portion remained after lifting cutter by initial depth. Cutter is lifted and descended while simultaneously imparting to it main cutting motion into zone of removed allowance. Planing cutter includes stem and working part restricted by flat front surface with lateral cutting edges and profiled back surface with lead angle equal to zero for forming end portion of working part. Cross section of working portion is in the form of axially symmetrical figure. Generatrices of back surface are inclined by the same angles relative to axis of cutter stem. End portion of working part is flat one and it is the form of oval-half whose plane is spatially inclined by acute angle relative to front surface. Rib formed by crossing of end portion and front surface serves functionally as third cutting edge; it is oriented by angle 90° relative to lengthwise axis of cutter.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and quality of planing by such cutter.

7 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

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EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

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1 tbl

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EFFECT: increased strength of steel, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: micro- and(or) nano-technology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of removing allowance in central zone of working during rough pass and then finishing surfaces of lateral faces of shaped fragments of pattern along the whole depth of rough working pass. It is realized at using only one lateral edge of cutter to be rotated around its lengthwise axis in curvilinear and broken portions of its cutting path while providing optimal three-dimension position of front surface of cutter relative to cutting surface. Rough passes are performed by means of cutter while using in first pass simultaneously two lateral cutting edges and then using only one of said cutting edges turned to formed lateral face of shaped fragment of pattern. In order to enhance accuracy and quality of working by providing possibility of removing allowance in zones of pattern with broken cutting path during process of removing allowance remained after rough working at finishing, in zones of internal angles of broken portion of cutting path and in zone of portions with small joining radius cutter is lifted for providing outlet of its working part onto upper plane of functional layer of article. Then cutter is turned by angle normalized by cutting path going-on line and it is again fed-in to allowance portion remained after lifting cutter by initial depth. Cutter is lifted and descended while simultaneously imparting to it main cutting motion into zone of removed allowance. Planing cutter includes stem and working part restricted by flat front surface with lateral cutting edges and profiled back surface with lead angle equal to zero for forming end portion of working part. Cross section of working portion is in the form of axially symmetrical figure. Generatrices of back surface are inclined by the same angles relative to axis of cutter stem. End portion of working part is flat one and it is the form of oval-half whose plane is spatially inclined by acute angle relative to front surface. Rib formed by crossing of end portion and front surface serves functionally as third cutting edge; it is oriented by angle 90° relative to lengthwise axis of cutter.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and quality of planing by such cutter.

7 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes active portion and stem. Cutter apex is arranged in its axis belonging to front surface. Main and trailing back faces are equally inclined relative to cutter axis and they cross front surface by positive back angles relative to main and trailing cutting edges having their own angles in plan view. Trailing back surfaces form second pair of surfaces inclined by the same angles relative to cutter axis. Inclination angles of main and trailing back surfaces relative to cutter axis is determined by value of back angle of main cutting edge. Trailing back surfaces are inclined by less angles relative to cutter axis. Active portion of cutter has at least with two chamfers equally inclined relative to cutter axis.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

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Knife head // 2179093
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FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes active portion and stem. Cutter apex is arranged in its axis belonging to front surface. Main and trailing back faces are equally inclined relative to cutter axis and they cross front surface by positive back angles relative to main and trailing cutting edges having their own angles in plan view. Trailing back surfaces form second pair of surfaces inclined by the same angles relative to cutter axis. Inclination angles of main and trailing back surfaces relative to cutter axis is determined by value of back angle of main cutting edge. Trailing back surfaces are inclined by less angles relative to cutter axis. Active portion of cutter has at least with two chamfers equally inclined relative to cutter axis.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

5 cl, 19 dwg

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