Power-consumer voltage waveform conversion device

FIELD: reducing voltage ripples across power consumers incorporating rectifiers and inverters.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has regulation channel, pulse source, series-connected voltage sensor, AC voltage component computing device, comparison gate, delta-modulator, and four-quadrant converter. Regulation channel has series-connected converter transformer, thyristor bridge, amplifier, and pulse distributor. Converter transformer input is connected to supply mains and pulse source output, to pulse distributor input. Voltage sensor input is connected in parallel with converter transformer primary winding and its output, to input of AC voltage component computing device and to second input of comparison gate; four-quadrant converter output is coupled with converter transformer secondary winding.

EFFECT: enhanced power output and mean time between failures.

1 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to electrical engineering and is intended to reduce the ripple voltage consumers, having in its composition a rectifier-inverter converters, in particular for electric rolling the composition of the AC.

Currently, AC locomotives with zone-phase voltage regulation operate with significant ripple voltage at the pantograph. The operation of the locomotive with the ripple voltage increases disturbing influence on near railway devices transmit and receive electromagnetic signals. When the distortion of the waveform of the voltage at the pantograph there is an unstable operation of the electronic equipment control locomotive and reduced the average time to failure. The essence of the distortion voltage is in the process of switching Converter locomotive. At the beginning of commutation of part of the winding of the traction transformer begins to work in the short circuit mode. This leads to a sharp decrease in the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive. However, the instant stress relief does not occur because of the presence in traction network distributed capacitance there are free of voltage fluctuations. Similar processes take place at the end of commutation, when the short circuit of the transformer windings, result in free postcomputation voltage fluctuations. The processes of switching valves accompanied by the appearance not only of the free oscillations of voltage and current.

Reducing the distortion of the voltage at the pantograph is achieved, for example, using raznoraznog control of the two converters of the locomotive. However, the way raznoraznog control does not solve the problem of radical improvement of the shape of the voltage at the pantograph, which remain high frequency ripple. Residual ripple voltage lead to the reduction of mean time to failure, which, in turn, reduces the stability of the control equipment of a locomotive.

A device for transformation of the form of the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive based on the compensation of the ripple voltage, which is achieved by a method raznoraznog control with constant delay. The device is installed on the locomotive VL 001 [1] and contains two control channel, each of which consists of a Converter transformer, a controllable rectifier, amplifier and pulse distributor, a source of control pulses and the delay block.

Controlled rectifiers connected to the network via the Converter transformers, and their outputs are associated with members is consequently enabled amplifiers and distributors pulses. The source of control pulses connected to the input of the pulse distributor of the first channel and to the input of the delay unit, the output of which is connected to the input of the pulse distributor of the second channel.

The device operates as follows. The control pulses arrive at the controlled rectifier of the first channel directly, and the controlled rectifier of the second channel is through the block fixed delay. The delay unit generates the control pulse of the second controlled rectifier, and the delay in the formation of the control pulses of the first and second controlled rectifiers must be equal to the half-wave high-frequency voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive. In this case, the achieved damping switching voltage fluctuations.

The device provides a shift in the start time and, accordingly, the end of the switching converters of different control channels. This shift is achieved by delaying the control pulses fed to the input of the pulse distributor of one of the control channels, using the delay block. Time-shifted control pulses, amplified by the amplifiers come in a thyristor controlled rectifiers adjacent channels regulation. Delay the opening of the thyristors of one of the control channels can reduce IC is chalk forced voltage and the amplitude of the free oscillations of current and voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive.

Thus, the delay control pulses substantially reduces the amplitude postcomputation voltage fluctuations on the pantograph of the locomotive. In this case, when a location of the locomotive on the line coefficient waveform of the supply voltage approaches the shape factor of the sine wave that increases the stability of the control equipment.

Another advantage of this device is to increase the efficiency of the locomotive. This is due to the fact that the compensation of the ripple voltage at the pantograph causes the reduction of the ripple of the rectified voltage to the traction motors of the locomotive. The reduction of the ripple of the rectified voltage leads to loss reduction and voltage, respectively, to increase the voltage on the motors of an electric locomotive. Increasing the voltage at the motors causes an increase in the power of the locomotive and, accordingly, increase of its efficiency.

However, adopted in the device constant delay of the pulses is not possible to completely compensate for the development of switching oscillations of current and voltage. This is because the oscillation frequency of the voltage after the start and end of switching is determined by changing the destruction of a locomotive tire traction substation and the parameters of the traction set is. In this regard, the best latency, adopted in the same conditions, is not in other conditions. Adopted in the delay device 8 El. grad. is optimal only when the locomotive is at a distance of about 50 km from the traction substation. At another remove a locomotive from tire traction substation in the curve of the supply voltage present fluctuations due to uncompensated switching voltage. These fluctuations reduce the average time to failure and reduce the stability of the equipment of a locomotive.

Closest to the claimed solution of the essential features and the achieved result is a device for converting the form of the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive based on the compensation of the ripple voltage, which is achieved by a method different-phase control with adjustable angle delay [2]exercising control with adjustable delay, one of the two converters.

Device for control of the two converters consists of two control channels, one channel dimension, the source of pulses and pulse shaper.

In each control channel includes a Converter transformer, thyristor bridge, amplifier and pulse distributor. The measurement channel includes is the transformer voltage, the filter and the device calculate the standard deviation.

In each of the control channels are connected to the inverter transformer, thyristor bridge, amplifier and pulse distributor.

In the measurement channel transformer voltage output connected to the input of the filter and the first input of the calculation of standard deviation, the second input is connected to the output of the filter.

The source of pulses output connected to the input of the pulse distributor of the first channel and the first input of the pulse shaper, the output of which is connected to the input of the pulse distributor of the second channel. The pulse shaper to its second input is connected to the output of the calculation of standard deviation. The inputs of the Converter transformers and voltage transformer connected to the network.

The device operates as follows. The source of pulses generates control pulses through the pulse distributor and amplifier are received at the control electrodes of the thyristors of the thyristor bridge of the first control channel and, thus, define his work. Simultaneously, the control pulses are received at the first input of the shaper pulse, performing a delay control pulses. Using a voltage transformer and fil the RA is allocated signal U 1proportional to the first harmonic of the mains voltage. Thus the phase of this voltage coincides with the natural points of zero crossing of the mains voltage. In this case, the device calculating the standard deviation determines the degree of deviation of the network voltage from its first harmonic. The output signal of the device computing the standard deviation is supplied to the second input of the pulse shaper, setting the angle delay control pulses of the second control channel. The pulse shaper adjusts the angle of delay, providing a minimum value of the standard deviation of the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive.

Thus, the formation of a corner of a delay of the opening of the thyristors largest standard deviation provides the maximum possible approximation curve of the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive to its first harmonic and, accordingly, the most effective compensation postcomputation voltage fluctuations. An enhanced form of the voltage at the pantograph can improve the stability and reliability of the equipment of the locomotive. The use of the device on the locomotive is allowed to increase the average time to failure by 6.8%.

In addition, the compensation of high-frequency voltage fluctuations on tokodi is amnike locomotive leads to increased efficiency of the locomotive. This is due to the fact that the compensation of voltage fluctuations on the current collector causes a reduction of the ripple of the rectified voltage to the traction motors of the locomotive. The reduction of the ripple of the rectified voltage leads to loss reduction and voltage, respectively, to increase the voltage on the motors of an electric locomotive. Increasing the voltage at the motors causes an increase in the power of the locomotive and, accordingly, increase of its efficiency.

However, even the adjustable delay when raznoraznim regulation does not completely eliminate the development of high-frequency voltage fluctuations. This is due to the fact that the compensation of high-frequency voltage is started only his second half-cycle. When this voltage fluctuations generated by the first control channel, remain unchanged. Decaying nature free of voltage fluctuations, as well as the time shift of the high-frequency oscillations of the first and second converters to allow their full compensation, so the pantograph of the locomotive are formed differ in the magnitude of high-frequency harmonics voltage. This difference becomes more noticeable the larger the damping ratio of high-frequency components. Uncompensated, high frequency is passed ripple voltage reduces the average time to failure and reduce the stability of the equipment of a locomotive.

The problem solved by the invention is the development of devices for the conversion of the form of the voltage of the consumer, providing a maximum magnification power of the locomotive and mean time to failure, as well as improving the sustainability of its work due to the absence of high-frequency voltage fluctuations caused by switching, by the compensation of high-frequency ripple current.

To solve the problem in the known device for control of the two converters containing the control channel, comprising serially connected rectifier transformer, directory bridge, amplifier and pulse distributor, a source of pulses, and the input of the Converter transformer connected to the network, and the output of a source of pulses connected to the input of the pulse distributor channel regulation, added sequentially enabled sensor voltage, the device calculating the variable component of the voltage comparison element, a Delta modulator, four-quadrant Converter, the input voltage detector connected in parallel to the primary winding of the Converter transformer and its output to the input device calculation of the variable component of voltage and to the second input of the comparison element, the output of the four is warrantage Converter is connected with the secondary winding of the Converter transformer.

The significant distinguishing features demonstrates compliance of the proposed solutions the patentability criteria of "novelty".

Thanks to the introduction to the operation of the sensor voltage, the device calculating the variable component of the voltage comparison element, the Delta modulator and four-quadrant Converter and a new interaction elements in the device as a whole increases the maximum power of the locomotive, and the average time to failure and, consequently, increases the stability of the electronic equipment control of a locomotive.

This is because due to the combination of distinctive features in the primary winding of the Converter transformer is formed by high-frequency harmonic current. This harmonic current is directed oppositely free high-frequency current oscillations arising in the primary winding of the Converter transformer during switching. Due to the anti-phase flow of these currents is compensated high-frequency current oscillations in the network. The absence of high-frequency current oscillations leads to the reduction to zero of the high-frequency oscillation voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive and, as a consequence, improve the working conditions of the electronic equipment. This increases the average time to failure and asaeda the stability of the equipment of a locomotive.

Simultaneously, the full compensation of high-frequency voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive leads to the reduction of the ripple of the rectified voltage to the traction motors of the locomotive. Reduce the ripple of the rectified voltage leads to loss reduction and voltage, respectively, to increase the voltage on the motors of an electric locomotive. Increasing the voltage at the engine produces the maximum power increase of the locomotive and, accordingly, increase of its efficiency.

Compensation of high-frequency ripple voltage in the primary winding of the Converter transformer, resulting in a maximum increase capacity and trouble-free operation of the locomotive, logically follows from the existing level of knowledge.

However, the compensation of high-frequency ripple voltage in the primary winding of the Converter transformer due to compensation of high-frequency ripple current, which is achieved by the inclusion in the known device distinctive characteristics that logically follows the current level of technology.

The presence of a new causal link "significant hallmark - new result testifies to the compliance of the proposed solutions to the patentability criterion of "inventive level level is".

Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the device for converting the form of the voltage of the consumer.

Figure 2 presents the shape of the voltage at the collector of the regular locomotive, the resulting mathematical modeling.

Figure 3 presents the form of voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive, equipped with the inventive device. The curve of the voltage obtained as a result of mathematical modeling.

A device for converting the form of the voltage of the consumer contains the control channel is 1, the source pulse 2, the voltage detector 3, the device calculating the variable component of the voltage 4, the comparison element 5, the Delta modulator 6 and four-quadrant Converter 7. The control channel contains connected in series Converter transformer 8, the thyristor bridge 9, amplifier 10 and the pulse distributor 11. The primary winding of the Converter transformer 8 of the control channel is connected to the network. The input of the pulse distributor 11 of the control channel associated with the source output pulses 2. The input of the voltage detector 3 is connected to the primary winding of the Converter transformer 8, and its output is connected to the device calculate the variable component of the voltage 4 and the second input of the comparison element 5. The output of the computing device variable status is engaged voltage 4 connected to the first input of the comparison element 5. The output of the comparison element 5 is connected to the input of the Delta modulator 6, the output of which is connected to the input four-quadrant Converter 7. The output of the four-quadrant Converter 7 is connected to the secondary winding of the Converter transformer 8.

A device for converting the form of the voltage of the consumer is implemented on the basis of the main locomotive VL. Converter transformer 8 is a traction transformer ONDCE-10000/25-82 NF 2 locomotive VL. Thyristor bridge 9 is a fully managed baseplates thyristor Converter VIP WHL. The device calculate the variable component of the voltage 4 is performed according to the description of the patent specification [3]. Four-quadrant Converter 7 is executed on the basis of IGBT-transistors 300 FS R 12 KF4. The comparison element 5 and Delta-modulator 6 are implemented in software in PIC 16F877 controller.

The device operates as follows. The source of pulses 2 generates control pulses through the pulse distributor 11 and the amplifier 10 receives at the control electrodes of the thyristors of the thyristor bridge 9. AC voltage is supplied to the thyristor bridge 9 from the secondary winding of the Converter transformer 8. Thyristor bridge 9 performs the rectification of the alternating voltage, adjustable constant voltage is compared with the output of the thyristor bridge 9 is supplied to the motors of the locomotive (not shown). Voltage sensor 3 controls the shape of the voltage on the primary winding of the Converter transformer 8 (the pantograph of the locomotive), the device calculating the variable component of the voltage 4 release from his first harmonic component, which coincides with the natural moments of transition voltage through zero. The comparison element 5 calculates the difference between the current value of the voltage at the pantograph and its first harmonic, the result at the output of the comparison element 5 is formed by a signal proportional to the high-frequency ripple voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive. This signal is converted Delta modulator 6, is fed to the input four-quadrant Converter 7, which generates in the secondary winding of the Converter transformer 8 high-frequency harmonic current that is proportional to the high-frequency ripple voltage on the current collector. High-frequency harmonic current is passed to the primary winding of the Converter transformer 8, where she antiphase is free of high-frequency current oscillations that occur during switching. Thus, the generated device current harmonics lead to compensation of the free oscillations of the current and, accordingly, the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive. This creates conditions that PR is not going development process of the free oscillations of current and voltage in the primary winding of the Converter transformer (current collector) of the locomotive. Compensation of high-frequency ripple voltage in the primary winding of the Converter transformer leads to the maximum increase capacity and trouble-free operation of a locomotive.

From the comparative analysis figure 2 and 3 it follows that the use of the claimed device can significantly improve the shape of the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive (figure 3) compared with the standard electric locomotive (figure 2). In figure 3 there are no high-frequency ripple voltage caused by the process of commutation in the Converter of the locomotive. Due to this, the voltage at the pantograph of the locomotive takes a sinusoidal form.

Use the device on a regular locomotive VL showed that the average time to failure increased by 12.3%compared to the prototype of the increase in this ratio was 1.8 times. The increase in power compared with the standard electric locomotive was 4.8%.

Sources of information

1. Hummelink and other Tests of locomotive VL with ratnofsky running rectifier-inverter converters. Journal VNIIZHT, 1986, No. 4.

2. A.S. No. 2148290. Device for control of the two converters. Hummelink. Publ. in BI No. 12, 2000, MCI 7, 02J 3/02, 3/24.

3. A.S. No. 2118038. The driver clock. Hummelink and Cry. Publ. in BI No. 23, 1998, MCI 6, NM 1/08.

the device for control of the two converters, containing the control channel, comprising serially connected rectifier transformer, thyristor bridge, amplifier and pulse distributor, a source of pulses, and the input of the Converter transformer connected to the network, and the output of a source of pulses connected to the input of the pulse distributor channel regulation, characterized in that it additionally introduced sequentially enabled sensor voltage, the device calculating the variable component of the voltage comparison element, a Delta modulator, four-quadrant Converter, the input voltage detector connected in parallel to the primary winding of the Converter transformer and its output to the input of the calculation of the variable component of voltage and the second input of the comparison element, the output of the four-quadrant Converter is connected with the secondary winding of the Converter transformer.



 

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