Method of determining type of mineral engine oil for automobiles

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises infrared spectroscopy of the sample of oil to be investigated, determining absorption band of the spectrum, finding the information characteristic of oil as a difference between the optical densities of in absorption bands of 1731 cm-1 and 2000 cm-1, and determining type of the oil from the value of the difference.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumption.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of quality control of motor oils, mainly mineral, using optical means, in particular to methods for determining the types of mineral motor oils (winter or summer), and may find application in analytical laboratories.

Viscosity-temperature properties is one of the most important characteristics of motor oils. These characteristics allow to start the engine without preheating and smooth pumping oil pump for lubricating the system depending on the range of ambient temperatures, and transportation. Summer oils provide start the engine at an ambient temperature of 0°C. Winter oils provide a cold start at low temperatures. Seasonal oil regardless of their experience (mileage) should be changed twice a year. The required viscosity-temperature characteristics are obtained by dewaxing base oils and the introduction of the motor oil depressants. Winter and summer motor oils differ in pour point (Fuel, lubricants and technical liquids. The range and application. The Handbook. Iginition, Cymbalista, Saatu and others; Ed. by Vmesnika. Ed. 2nd - M.: Publishing center "Techinformi", 1999 p.132, 142, 147, 151, 154). Given your e is said, in each case, replace the engine oil you need to get reliable information about the type of flooded oil.

The authors goal was to develop a way in a short period of time to determine the type of mineral motor oils for motor vehicles. When viewing patent information, scientific-technical literature revealed the following. About the type of motor oil for automotive vehicles are judged by the values of the freezing temperature, comparing this temperature with the requirements of state Standards.

So there is a method of evaluation type of motor oil for its pour point (GOST 20287 Petroleum products. Methods for the determination of the freezing temperature), at which speed reduces the temperature of the oil until they lose fluidity. This temperature is the freezing temperature of the engine oil. About the type of oil mediated judge, given the magnitude of the freezing temperature. So when the pour point of the engine oil is below minus 30°it is believed that the oil may be used in the winter. The oils used in the summer, freezing temperature is usually regulated as not higher than minus 15°C.

The closest in technical essence and taken for the prototype is the way to determine the type of motor oil on low-temperature properties (the temperature at which turbidity, sativan the I and crystallization), in which cell with butter step is cooled using two thermoelectric modules, measure the current oil temperature and record the temperature of the beginning of turbidity (tp), pour point (tC) and crystallization (tK) change the value of the optical transmittance of the light flux through the sample cell with the sample material (patent No. 21833123, G01N 25/04 from 10.06.2002).

Common disadvantages of these methods is that it is necessary to simulate low-temperature conditions, to spend time on a stepped lower temperatures.

The technical result of the invention is to reduce labor costs by eliminating the operation step of lowering the temperature and cooling process.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of determining the type of mineral motor oils for motor vehicles, including sampling and identification of informative indicator according to the invention are measuring the optical density of the sample absorption bands 1731 cm-1and 2000 cm-1and as an informative indicator use the difference of optical densities on these bands (ΔD=D1731-D2000and if by 0.055<ΔD≤0,340 consider engine oil winter, and when 0,020<ΔD≤0,055 - year-old.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the proposed method of determining the type of mineral is th motor oil for automotive vehicles using IR-spectroscopy, that significantly reduces the analysis time, allows the use of a sample of motor oil without prior preparation.

In practice, to improve low-temperature properties in mineral motor oil injected depressant additive, primarily ACA "D". Additive ACA "D" is a solution in oil of polymers of esters of methacrylic acid and synthetic fatty primary alcohols of the type Alfol fraction12-C18(Fuel, lubricants and technical liquids. The range and application. The Handbook. / Iginition, Cymbalista, Saatu and others; Ed. by Vmesnika. Ed. 2nd - M.: Publishing center "Techinformi", 1999 C).

It is also known that the ether compounds in the infrared spectrum are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in the range 1750-1717 cm-1(Lalami, Infrared spectra of molecules. Translation from English Vmenkov. Edited c.ch.s. Dincharya, Ed. Foreign literature, M. 1957., with 215). Given that additive ACA "D" comprises polymers of esters of methacrylic acid and synthetic fatty primary alcohols, the authors conducted a study of various mineral motor oils with this additive and identified the specific absorption band 1731 cm-1characterizing directly the presence of additives.

All major brands of domestic mineral motor weight is l for automotive vehicles is: M-8V, M-8V2M-G, M-HK, M-DM - winter; M-z/10V - season (may also be used in winter); M-G, M-HK, M-V, M-DN, M-DM years (Fuel, lubricants and technical liquids. The range and application. The Handbook. / Iginition, Cymbalista, Saatu and others; Ed. by Vmesnika. Ed. 2nd - M.: Publishing center "Techinformi", 1999 with 143, 146, 149, 156). A distinctive feature of winter motor oil is a higher level than in summer oils, content depresing additives ACA "D". In the summer the oil content of 0.5 wt.%, in winter more than 0.5 to 5.0 wt.% Therefore, depending on the amount of additives ACA "D", we can talk about the type of motor oil.

Determining a specific absorption band for PSE "D", the authors have developed a method of determining the type of mineral motor oils for automotive vehicles.

The method is as follows.

Select a sample of motor oil M-DM in an amount of 0.1 ml, measuring its optical density at the absorption band 1731 cm-1(D1731=0,139) and 2000 cm-1(D2000=0,043), then determine the informative indicator ΔD, equal to the difference of optical densities on these bands (ΔD=D1731-D2000=0,139-0,043=0,096), then determine in what range gets retrieved value ΔD: 0,020<ΔD≤0,055 or by 0.055<ΔD≤0,340 and in this case the t conclusion about the type of motor oil. Values ΔD the sample were in the range 0,055<ΔD≤0,340, so this oil is winter.

To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method and the relevance of distinguishing features were taken of different brands of mineral motor oils (see table a column 1). Researched by the claimed method for Fourier transform infrared spectrometer AF-1 with a resolution of 2 cm-1and the wavelength range from 4000 to 450 cm-1in the cell of KCl thickness of 100 μm at a temperature of 20±2°With sample. The results are shown in the table.

Case when ΔD more than 0,340 means that the content of additives ACA "D" is higher than 5.0 wt.% However, the probability of such cases is small due to the fact that the addition of such amount of the additive is not economically profitable. The results showed that the values ΔD in the range to 0.055÷0,340 inherent in the winter of mineral motor oils, and in the range 0,020÷0,055 - year-old. Thus the border to 0.055<ΔD≤0,340 interval accepted for winter kinds of oils that characterizes the content of the additive ACA "D" in a mixture of hydrocarbon bases from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, and border 0,020<ΔD≤0,055 interval accepted for summer kinds of oils that characterizes the content of the additive ACA "D" in a mixture of hydrocarbon bases 0 and 0.5 wt.% respectively.

Table

Determination of the type of motor oil by the claimed method
Brand oil*The concentration of ACA "D", wt.%The proposed methodGOST 20287
D1731D2000ΔDOilPour point, °Oil
M-DM1,20,1390,0430,096winter-36winter
M-GK1,00,1260,0410,085winter-35winter
M-z/10V5,00,3830,0450,338winter-36winter
M-W0,50,1050,0510,054summer-29summer
M-DM0of 0.0660,0460,02summer-18summer
* - was investigated oils with known content of additives

The results confirm that Appl is subject method can be used to evaluate the type of mineral motor oils for motor vehicles, and the values obtained with its help, are consistent with the values obtained by determining the low-temperature properties according to GOST 20287. The inventive method is easy to implement, in addition, its use does not require prior sample preparation.

Thus, the use of the invention will allow us to determine the type of mineral motor oils with minimal effort.

The way to determine the type of mineral motor oils for motor vehicles, including sampling and identification of informative indicator, wherein measuring the optical density of the sample absorption bands 1731 cm-1and 2000 cm-1and as an informative indicator use the difference of optical densities on these bands (ΔD=D1731-D2000)

and by 0.055<ΔD≤0,340 consider engine oil and winter,

and when 0,020<ΔD≤0,055 - year-old.



 

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