Method for exhausted pit reclamation

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

 

The invention relates to mining and construction business and can find application in technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the way of restoration of disturbed lands in open field development (1), including separate the excavation, moving, storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, mined-out space and its alignment in the overburden with the subsequent placement of the topsoil. The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer, which, in turn, leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The proposed solution provides cost reduction and cost recovery operations.

This is achieved in that in the method of reclaiming waste quarries, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, career development, the mined-out space, it expressed nivana and placing topsoil, according to the invention after forming a career initially producing device of the pit and drainage ditches along the perimeter of the pit to give the career development of regular geometric forms, with the plateau of the pit to the steepness of slopes less than 30 degrees and the subsequent sealing of the pit method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms, then planned slopes produce sand dumping on which stack membrane screen, made of high density polyethylene with its subsequent filling with a layer of soil with a minimum thickness of 0.5 m, while the bottom of the pit occiput layer of clay, compacted it and plan toward the output well, made of precast concrete rings, and on the bottom of the pit arrange in the direction of the receiving well, the radial drainage layer made of gravel and sand, in addition, on the perimeter of the quarry perform drainage ditch, then fill the pit pressed briquettes from solid construction debris upon completion of installation process on top of the briquettes satisfied with clay screen thickness not less than 0.3 m over which occiput vegetative layer, and then spend the complex of technical measures. Produced reclamation will restore previously disturbed natural landscape and return to the earth and to the state suitable for domestic use.

The method is as follows.

Prior to the reclamation of the quarry is a notch irregular shape. Therefore, in order to use extruded pellets of solid construction waste to bookmark quarries, first arrange the pit in order to give the career development of regular geometric shape and equip the perimeter drainage ditch. The pit vypilivayut. The steepness of the slopes should not exceed 30 degrees. After the storm, pit condense method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms and plan. Planned slopes produce sand filling under membrane screen. Membrane screen is performed by the device geomembranes from high density polyethylene with a thickness up to 1 mm Membrane screen protects it from possible damage by the backfill on top of soil layer thickness not less than 0.5 m On the bottom of the pit arrange a clay base by filling a layer of clay, with subsequent compaction. Clay base is compacted and plan in the direction of the receiving well. Receiving well are made of precast concrete pipes and increasing as the laying of the Foundation pit. On bottom of the pit, toward the output well satisfied with lucev the th layer drainage, made of crushed stone and sand. Drainage system arrange for the possible formation of filtrate in the reclamation process. Protection of the substrate and the pit wall membrane membrane and clay lock eliminates the contact materials bookmarks with groundwater. Around the perimeter of the quarry perform drainage ditch to prevent the ingress of rain and melt water from the surrounding area. Storage of compressed pellets of solid construction waste in the quarry is carried out in several stages, until filling is complete. On top of the briquettes arrange insulating clay screen thickness not less than 0.3 m At the end of the remediation carried out the complex of technical and phyto-reclamation measures aimed at restoration of disturbed lands. For bookmarks quarries in this way you can also use extruded pellets of solid waste. Introduction this technical solution reduces the cost of the reclamation works through the use of construction waste that is constantly forming as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer. Given the fact that is constantly generated construction waste disposed of in landfills for Stroitel the x and household waste, the introduction of this technical solution allows to improve the environmental situation and to restore previously disturbed natural landscape and to return the land in a condition suitable for use.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2109427, CL. AV 19/02, 1998

Method of reclaiming waste quarries, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, career development, the mined-out space, alignment and stacking of the soil layer, characterized in that after forming a career initially producing device of the pit and drainage ditches along the perimeter of the pit to give the career development of regular geometric forms with gaining the pit wall to the steepness of the slope is not more than 30° and the subsequent sealing of the pit method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms, then planned slopes produce sand dumping on which stack membrane screen, made of high density polyethylene with its subsequent filling with a layer of soil with a minimum thickness of 0.5 m, while the bottom of the pit occiput layer of clay, compacted it and plan toward the output well, made of precast concrete rings, and the bottom of the pit Ostriv the Ute in the direction of the receiving well of the radial drainage layer, made of crushed stone and sand, in addition, on the perimeter of the quarry perform drainage ditch, then fill the pit pressed briquettes from solid construction debris upon completion of installation process on top of the briquettes satisfied with clay screen thickness not less than 0.3 m, over which occiput vegetative layer and carry out farming activities.



 

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EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

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FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

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FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

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FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.

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FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

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FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.

EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.

EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

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