Method and installation for the heterogeneous synthesis of methanol or ammonia

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and the devices for the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds such as methanol or ammonia and to the installation for the method realization. The method includes the catalytic conversion in the pseudo-isothermal conditions of the corresponding gaseous reactants routed through two sequentially located zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction are gated through the immovable mass of the corresponding catalyst, in which the placed side by side mainly box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier medium is gated. At that the gaseous reactants are fed into the first zone of the reaction after the indirect heat-exchange in the second zone of the reaction with the reaction mixture, which is fed into the second zone of reaction from the first zone of the reaction. The installation for the heterogeneous synthesis of synthesis of methanol or ammonia by the catalytic conversion of the gaseous reactants contains the sequentially connected the first and the second zones of the reaction, the corresponding heat exchangers mounted in the first and the second zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction the heat exchanger is dipped in the mass of the catalyst and contains some disposed side-by-side box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier is passing. At that the inlet into the first zone of the reaction communicates with the outlet of the heat exchanger in the second zone of the reaction. The invention allows to produce methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to a method of heterogeneous synthesis of chemical compounds such as methanol and ammonia. The invention relates in particular to a method of heterogeneous synthesis of chemical compounds, which uses two series-connected reaction zone, in which the so-called pseudoterminal conditions in the catalyst bed chemical reactions, the temperature of which is controlled in a narrow range about a predefined optimal values. The present invention relates also to an apparatus for heterogeneous synthesis of chemical compounds in this way.

The level of technology

Industrial receiving chemical compounds, such as methanol and ammonia, requires, as you know, developing ways of heterogeneous synthesis with high conversion output of the reactants and the creation of installations of large capacity that does not require a large investment and consumes relatively little energy. To solve this problem was proposed method for the synthesis of methanol in two series-connected reaction zones operating in pseudoterminal conditions, i.e. with the exhaust emitted during the reaction heat, and the excess heat produced in the second reaction zone, away from her indirect t is prooblem with a stream of fresh and return to the first reaction zone a gaseous reagents.

This method of synthesis of methanol is described in EP-A 0790226. To more accurately maintain the optimum performance and get a cheap methanol proposed in this publication way in the first reaction zone, you must install the tubular heat exchanger is filled with an appropriate catalyst tubes. Via filled with a catalyst tube heat exchanger miss gaseous reagents (N2and WITH), and the outside of the tube is cooled by water flow receiving water steam), used as a working fluid of the heat carrier. Reactor heat exchanger of this type is described, for example, in US 4559207.

The need for the use of such a specific reactor in the first reaction zone in two-stage methanol synthesis is confirmed also in GB-A 2203427.

For all its undoubted advantages described above, the method of synthesis of methanol has one significant and technically significant disadvantage that when industrial production of methanol prevents the development or reduces the completeness of the chemical reaction (conversion output) and limits the performance of the installation concerned.

Indeed, the above-mentioned reactors with a bundle of heat exchange tubes are relatively complicated and require careful maintenance and therefore are not suitable, as follows from EP-A 0790226, the La create installations with a large volume of the reaction zone, with high conversion yield and high performance.

Create installations with a large volume of the reaction zone in the reactor tube bundle is not just associated with very large and really insurmountable difficulties, but so requires large investments that the entire synthesis process with two-stage reaction is economically inefficient.

To address this shortcoming in GB-A 2203427 it was proposed to use a highly effective catalyst, partially increasing the conversion output of the reactor tube bundle and increasing their productivity, has a very high cost.

Thus, the currently known methods, with these or other above drawbacks, does not allow to find a relatively cheap and technically simple and reliable way to create installations with a high conversion yield and high performance.

Summary of the invention

The present invention was used to develop devoid of the above-mentioned disadvantages of the method of heterogeneous synthesis of chemical compounds such as methanol and ammonia, which would be easy to implement at high conversion output at a chemical plant of high productivity and low investment and low consumption the energy.

The above problem is solved by using the proposed invention, a method of heterogeneous synthesis of chemical compounds such as methanol and ammonia by catalytic conversion of the respective gaseous reagents in pseudoterminal conditions in two successive reaction zones, wherein in the first reaction zone the gaseous reactants are passed through a fixed mass of catalyst, in which is immersed located close to each other essentially box-shaped plate heat exchangers, through which pass the working fluid heat carrier.

In contrast to common opinion, it was established that the proposed solution has allowed relatively simple, reliable and cheap way to significantly increase the conversion yield and the performance of the first reaction zone in the above-described process.

Proposed in the present invention solutions allow you to obtain the above-mentioned chemical compounds in large quantities and with high conversion yield of large, high performance chemical plants, is simple to manufacture, consume a relatively small amount of energy and cheap in operation.

In the present invention it is also proposed chemical plant, in which the Oh thanks its relevant structural and functional features you can implement the above method.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the proposed invention a method is described in more detail below on the example of illustrating, but not limiting scope of the invention possible variants of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Brief description of drawings

Attached to the description of the drawings shows:

figure 1 is a General schematic diagram of an installation for implementing one of the options proposed in the invention method and

figure 2 - schematic representation in longitudinal section of one of the reactors of the plant, whose schema is shown in figure 1.

The preferred embodiment of the invention

1 schematically shows the main components identified in the diagram position 1 installation for the production of methanol or ammonia proposed in the present invention method.

Installation 1 contains the first reaction zone 2 and connected with it by consistently second reaction zone 3.

In each of the zones 2, 3 reaction has set in the well casing in a known manner the reaction space 4, which is not shown in the diagram fixed mass of catalyst.

The reaction in zones 2, 3 reaction proceeds in pseudoterminal conditions, which are supported by means of heat exchangers 5 and 6 are immersed in the reaction space 4 catalyst.

The reaction temperature in the reaction space 4 in the first reaction zone 2 is controlled by indirect heat exchange reagents with a working fluid coolant flowing through the heat exchanger 5 in the direction indicated by the arrows. When the temperature control of exothermic reactions, such as reactions for the synthesis of methanol or ammonia as the working fluid of the fluid pumped through the heat exchanger, usually use water. Inside the heat exchanger is heated in water it turns into water vapor or pre-heated to a certain temperature and then used to produce steam in a specially intended for this purpose the steam generators (boilers)located outside the reaction zone and is not shown.

The reaction temperature in the reaction space 4 of the second reaction zone 3 is also controlled by indirect heat exchange with the use as a working fluid of the heat carrier in the heat exchanger 6 of gaseous reactants fed to the first reaction zone 2. For this purpose, the gaseous reactants through the pipe 7 is first passed through located in the second reaction zone 3, the heat exchanger 6 and then served in the reaction space 4 in the first reaction zone 2.

Through the pipe 7 into the heat exchanger 6 serves not only fresh, but also returned to the reaction zone ha is obraznye reagents, in particular, N2and in the synthesis of methanol and H2and N2in the synthesis of ammonia.

The pipe, which is indicated in the diagram position 8 and which connects the outlet of the reaction space 4 in the first reaction zone 2 to the entrance of the reaction space 4 of the second reaction zone, is designed to supply into the reaction space of the second reaction zone from the first zone 2 reaction reaction mixture containing methanol or ammonia and unreacted gaseous reactants.

Obtained in the reactor the reaction mixture, in which the addition of methanol or ammonia also contains some unreacted gaseous reactants are removed from the reaction space 4 of the second reaction zone 3 through the pipe 9.

In normal, not shown in the drawing the parts are shown in figure 1 installation connected with the second reaction zone 3 by a pipe 9, from the obtained reaction mixture into methanol or ammonia, as it contains not entered in the reaction of the gaseous reagents to return back to the first reaction zone 2 through the pipe 7 with fresh gaseous reactants.

Figure 2 shows used in the present invention in the installation of the heat exchanger 5, is immersed in the reaction space 4 catalyst and assembled from many individual located next to each other korobka is s, plate heat exchangers through which a working fluid heat carrier.

Shown in figure 2 the first reaction zone 2 represents in detail below pseudoterminal reactor with a cylindrical casing 10 closed at opposite ends respectively of the upper 11 and lower 12 bottoms, inside of which is assembled from separate plate heat exchangers the heat exchanger 5.

On the top plate 12 of the reactor 2 is the pipe 13, through which the reactor is shown in figure 1 the tube 7 serves gaseous reagents, and the nozzles 14, 15, respectively, for supply to the heat exchanger 5 and the removal from it of the working fluid of the heat carrier.

On the bottom plate 11 is connected with shown in figure 1 the pipe 8 pipe 16, through which from the reactor 2 is formed therein the reaction mixture.

In the reaction space 4 inside the housing 10 of the reactor 2 is essentially known open top annular layer 17 of the catalyst with perforated side walls, through which radial and radial-axial direction are gaseous reagents.

The inner side wall layer 17 of the catalyst forms a hole 18, which is the top closed by a cover 19 and is connected by a pipe 20 to the pipe 16, through which from the reactor goes not formed in the reaction mixture.

In the reaction space 4 and, in particular, in the layer 17 of the catalyst is fixed in the usual manner, the heat exchanger 5, is immersed in the mass of the corresponding, not shown in the drawing of the catalyst.

In this embodiment, the heat exchanger 5 has an essentially cylindrical shape and consists of many located next to each other on the same axis concentric (essentially radial) is a flat, box-shaped, plate heat exchangers 21 having the shape of a parallelepiped.

Each one of these separately is not shown in the drawing, the heat exchanger element 21 preferably consists of two adjacent to each other and connected with each other at the outer edge of the soldering metal plates that form located between the inner cavity 21A (shown by dashed lines)through which passes a working fluid heat carrier.

Each heat exchanger element 21 has spaced along its long sides 22 of the distribution pipe 23 and is made in the form of a pipe manifold 24 to the working fluid of the heat carrier. Pipes 23 and 24 is connected to one side with an internal cavity 21A of the heat transfer element is at least one, preferably through multiple Windows or holes (not shown)along one or more forming, and on the other side of the intake and you usname tubes 25 and 26 respectively connected to outside of the heat exchange element 21 circuit, which passes through the working fluid coolant. Tubes 25 and 26 are connected with the respective nozzles 14 and 15.

For the formation in the heat exchanger 6 radial or substantially radial flow of the working fluid of the fluid cavity 21 and the heat transfer elements are preferably divided into a number of smaller cavities, not communicating directly with each other and formed, for example, many welds or cubicles (shown in the drawing by dashed lines)perpendicular to the distribution pipe 23 and is made in the form of a pipe manifold 24 of the heat exchange element 21.

Thanks to this performance is the first reaction zone 2 creates the opportunity to obtain methanol or ammonia proposed in the invention, the manner in which the gaseous reactants are passed through a fixed mass located in the reaction zone of the corresponding catalyst, in which is immersed a lot located next to each other essentially box-shaped, having the form of a plate heat exchanger, through which a working fluid heat carrier.

Proposed in this invention is a relatively simple, reliable, cost-effective and associated with a high consumption of energy way to create a first zone 2 reactions with time the EPAM (volume) of the reaction space.

In other words, plate heat exchangers immersed in the mass of the catalyst, not only are an effective means of indirect heat exchange, but also allow for the optimal way to choose the size of the first reaction zone 2 and significantly improve its conversion output and productivity, as well as the conversion output and performance throughout the installation.

The present invention does not exclude the possibility of introducing in the above option modifications and improvements within the scope of the invention defined by the following claims.

For example, in one of the preferred variants of the reaction mixture from the first reaction zone 2 through the pipe 8 serves to the second reaction zone 3, is cooled by indirect heat exchange in heat exchanger 27 of the conventional type shown in figure 1 by dashed lines. The presence of such a heat exchanger not only allows the use of heat contained in taken from the first reaction zone of the reaction mixture, for example to produce steam, which can be used in other places (steam) installation, but also to regulate the temperature at the entrance to the second area 3 of the reaction to increase its conversion output.

Alternate the above variant part of the fresh gaseous reactants and/or re-synthesis of the alignment of the reactants can be fed directly into the first reaction zone 2 through the pipe 28 to bypass the second reaction zone 3.

As the heat exchanger 6 can be used a conventional heat exchanger such as heat exchanger with a bundle of pipes or tubular coil, however, it is more preferable to use a heat exchanger assembled from a variety of plate heat exchangers described above and shown in figure 2 type. The use of such a heat exchanger can further increase the conversion yield and the performance of the entire chemical plant.

In another not shown in the drawings embodiment, the first and second zones 2, 3 the reaction is proposed to perform not in the form of two is shown in figure 1 separate reactors, one reactor synthesis.

The temperature in the reaction zones is maintained at the level usual for the synthesis of methanol or ammonia. With regard to the working pressure, the best results can be achieved essentially equal in both zones 2 and 3 of the reaction the pressure in the synthesis of methanol should preferably be from 50 to 100 bar, and the synthesis of ammonia from 50 to 300, preferably from 80 to 150 bar.

1. How heterogeneous synthesis of methanol or ammonia by catalytic conversion in pseudoterminal the terms of the respective gaseous reagents directed through two serially arranged reaction zone, wherein in the first reaction zone gaseous eagency passed through a fixed mass of catalyst, engulfing located side by side essentially box-shaped, plate-type heat exchange elements through which pass the working fluid of the fluid, and gaseous reactants fed to the first reaction zone after indirect heat exchange in the second reaction zone with the reaction mixture, which served in the second reaction zone from the first zone of the reaction.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pressure in the first reaction zone is essentially equal to the pressure in the second reaction zone.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second reaction zone serves the reaction mixture from the first reaction zone after the temperature control at the inlet to the second reaction zone in the process of indirect heat exchange.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the first reaction zone serves the gaseous mixture of reactants consisting of fresh gaseous reactants and gaseous reagents isolated from the reaction mixture obtained in the second reaction zone.

5. Installation for heterogeneous synthesis of methanol or ammonia by catalytic conversion of gaseous reactants containing series-connected first and second reaction zone, the respective heat exchangers installed in the first and second reaction zones, wherein in the first reaction zone, the heat exchanger immersed in the mass of catalyst and contains a bore is only located side by side essentially box-shaped, plate heat exchangers through which the working fluid coolant, and the entrance to the first reaction zone communicates with the outlet of the heat exchanger in the second reaction zone.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of methanol.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to method of production of methanol. The method provides for: mixing of the main stream of the synthesis gas with the circulating gas; partition of the gained mixture into two streams; heating up of one of the streams of the gas mixture up to the starting temperature of the synthesis; the passage of the both streams through the reactor of the methanol synthesis, consisting of four or five adiabatic catalyst layers; at that the heated stream is fed to the inlet of the first layer and the cold stream is divided and fed in the form of the cold by-passes between the layers of the catalyst; refrigeration of the reacted gas; separation of the condensed crude methanol and division of the non-condensed gas stream into the blowdown gas, which is withdrawn from the system, and the gas stream, which is compressed in the compressor and fed to the circulation. At that in the existing by-passes of the last two layers of the catalyst they introduce the additional stream of the synthesis gas, and the total percent of the additional stream of the synthesis gas introduced into existing by-passes of two last catalyst beds is introduced into the existing by-passes of the last two catalyst layers, in respect to the main stream of the synthesis gas varies from 36.3 % at the high activity of the catalyst up to 3.6 % at the lowered activity of the catalyst and the distribution of the additional stream of the synthesis gas between the layers varies from 10 up to 90 %. The method allows the fullest usage of the catalyst activity in its last layers.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the fullest usage of the catalyst activity in its last layers.

1 tbl, 11 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved process of producing methanol from synthesis gas and can be used at methanol production plants. Process comprises mixing synthesis gas with circulation gas, heating obtained gas mixture to starting synthesis temperature, passing heated gas mixture through additionally installed preliminary adiabatic reactor, wherein partial methanol synthesis takes place and temperature rises. Stream is then passes additionally installed recuperating heat exchanger, wherein resulting reaction mixture is cooled to starting reaction temperature in first catalyst bed of the principal methanol synthesis reactor comprising several adiabatic catalyst bed. Reacted gas is cooled to isolate condensed crude methanol, while non-condensed gas stream is divided into two streams: return stream and purging stream. Return while non-condensed gas stream is compressed in circulation compressor and then is sent to be mixed with synthesis gas. Volume ratio of preliminary adiabatic reactor bed to the first bed of principal reactor lies within a range of 35 to 150%.

EFFECT: increased yield of methanol and reduced power consumption.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of hydrogen and a methanol.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the industrial hydrogen and methanol from the converted gas consisting mainly of CO2, H2. The method of production of hydrogen and methanol from the converted gas containing carbon oxides and hydrogen includes the synthesis of methanol. For execution of the methanol synthesis feed the converted gas with the volumetric ratio of H2-CO2/CO+CO2, equal to 2.03-5.4, which is conducted in the reactor system including the flow reactor or the cascade of the floe reactors and / or the reactor with the recycle of the gas mixture with production of methanol, the unreacted gas and the blow-down gas. At that the mixture of the unreacted and converted gases is fed for purification from carbon carbon dioxide with its extraction and batch feeding of the carbon dioxide into the converted gas delivered for the synthesis of methanol. The blow-down gases are subjected to the fine purification from the impurities with production of hydrogen. The invention allows to upgrade the method due to maximum usage of the carbon dioxide.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the method of production of hydrogen and a methanol due to maximum usage of the carbon dioxide.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis and chemical engineering .

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of producing liquid oxygenates, including methanol, C2-C4-alcohols, formaldehyde, lower organic acids, or mixtures thereof, and to installation for implementation the process. Process comprises successively supplying natural gas from complex gas preparation plant to a series of "gas-gas" heat exchangers and into annular space of at least one tubular reaction zone of reactor, wherein natural gas is heated to temperature of the beginning of reaction, whereupon heated gas is passed to the entry of the tubular reaction zone mixer, into which compressed air or oxygen is also injected to provide gas-phase oxidation in reaction zone of reactor. Resulting reaction mixture is discharged from reactor into a series of "gas-liquid" and "gas-gas" heat exchangers, wherein reaction mixture is cooled to ambient temperature and sent to separator, wherefrom liquid phase is passed through lower carboxylic acid recovery vessel to the system of rectification columns to isolate the rest of mixture components, whereas leaving gas is recycled to complex gas preparation plant. More specifically, oxidation is carried out within temperature range 240 to 450°C and pressure from 2 to 10 MPa at residence time of reaction mixture in reactor 2-6 sec and oxidant concentration 2 to 15 wt %. In reactor having mixers hollow and at least one tubular reaction zones, required temperature is maintained constant throughout all length of tubular reaction zone and at entries for compressed air or oxygen in mixers of each of tubular reaction zones and hollow reaction zone. Liquid oxygenate production plant is composed of aforesaid complex gas preparation plant, a series of "gas-gas" heat exchanger to heat natural gas, reactor, a series of "gas-liquid" and "gas-gas" heat exchangers to cool reaction mixture obtained in reactor, gas-liquid separator, lower carboxylic acid recovery vessel, and system of rectification columns to isolate the rest of products.

EFFECT: enabled implementation of the process directly near gas and gas condensate deposits, increased conversion of methane per one passage through reactor, and increased yield of oxygenates due to improved design of plant.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to copper-containing catalysts for low-temperature synthesis of methanol in fluidized bed at high pressure and provides catalyst, whose preparation involves impregnation and which contains oxides of copper, zinc, chromium, magnesium, aluminum, boron, and barium and has following molar ratio: CuO:ZnO:Cr2O3, MgO:Al2O3:B2O3:BaO = 1:(0.7-1.1):(0.086-0.157):(0.05-0.15):(0.125-0.2):(0.018-0.029):(0.04-0.075).

EFFECT: increased mechanical strength and wear resistance of catalyst.

1 tbl

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to copper-containing catalysts for low-temperature synthesis of methanol in fluidized bed at low pressure and provides a wear-resistant catalyst, whose preparation involves impregnation and which contains oxides of copper, zinc, chromium, magnesium, aluminum, and boron and has following molar ratio: CuO:ZnO:Cr2O3, MgO:Al2O3:B2O3 = 1:0.3:(0.15-0.2):(0.1-0.025):(0.25-0.3):(0.08-0.1).

EFFECT: increased mechanical strength and wear resistance of catalyst.

1 tbl

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to copper-containing catalysts for low-temperature synthesis of methanol in fluidized bed at median pressure and provides catalyst, whose preparation involves impregnation and which contains oxides of copper, zinc, chromium, magnesium, aluminum, boron, and barium and has following molar ratio: CuO:ZnO:Cr2O3, MgO:Al2O3:B2O3:BaO = 1:0.3:(0.014-0.038):(0.047-0.119):(0.05-0.1):(0.007-0.014):(0.0292-0.054).

EFFECT: increased mechanical strength and wear resistance of catalyst.

1 tbl

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved process of producing methanol from purge gas produced in basic methanol or ammonia synthesis. Process comprises dispensing compressed carbon dioxide into basic synthesis purge gas, heating resultant gas mixture to starting synthesis temperature, passing thus heated gas through methanol synthesis catalyst, cooling reacted gas, recovering condensed crude methanol, and separating non-condensed gas stream into return stream and purge stream, the former being designed for mixing with basic synthesis purge gas stream and passed to one or two circulation jet compressors. Circulation is effected by energy provide either by (i) pressure of basic synthesis purge gas, which is supplied to jet compressor and further dispensed into compressed carbon dioxide stream, or by (ii) pressure of compressed carbon dioxide, which is dispensed into jet compressor and then introduced into basic synthesis purge gas stream, or by (iii) pressure of basic synthesis purge gas and pressure of indicated compressed carbon dioxide, both being supplied to one or two jet compressors. Ammonia or methanol production purge gas is successfully used for production of methanol without utilizing additional hydrogen-containing streams.

EFFECT: reduced methanol production cost.

4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a new method for preparing methanol and other aliphatic alcohols by gas-phase interaction of hydrocarbon gases with water vapor under effect of ultraviolet radiation. Methanol and other aliphatic alcohols are prepared by direct hydroxylation of hydrocarbon gas or mixture of hydrocarbon gases with water vapor. For this aim hydrocarbon gas and vapor or mixture of gases and vapor are fed into reactor wherein the reaction mass is subjected for effect of ultraviolet radiation in wavelength range 240-450 nm at temperature lower vapor formation point. The end product is isolated from vapor-gaseous mixture by condensation and unreacted gas or mixture of gases removed from the reaction zone is purified from the end product by bubbling through water layer and recovered into reactor by adding the parent gaseous component in the amount equal to consumed one. The process is carried out for a single stage and can be realized under atmosphere pressure. Invention can be used in chemical, petroleum chemical, petroleum processing and petroleum and gas extracting industry.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; production of synthesis gas, methanol and acetic acid on its base.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the methods of production of synthesis gas, production of methanol and acetic acid on its base. The method of upgrading of the existing installation for production of methanol or methanol/ ammonia provides for simultaneous use of the installation also for production of acetic acid or its derivatives. The existing installation contains a reformer, to which a natural gas or other hydrocarbon and a steam (water), from which a synthesis gas is formed. All the volume of the synthesis gas or its part is processed for separation of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The separated carbon dioxide is fed into an existing circuit of synthesis of methanol for production of methanol or is returned to the inlet of the reformer to increase the share of carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas. The whole volume of the remained synthesis gas and carbon, which has not been fed into the separator of dioxide, may be transformed into methanol in the existing circuit of a synthesis of methanol together with carbon dioxide from the separator and-or carbon dioxide delivered from an external source, and hydrogen from the separator. Then the separated carbon monoxide is subjected to reactions with methanol for production of acetic acid or an intermediate compound of acetic acid according to the routine technology. A part of the acetic acid comes into reaction with oxygen and ethylene with formation of monomer of vinyl acetate. With the help of the new installation for air separation nitrogen is produced for production of additional amount of ammonia by the upgraded initial installation for production of ammonia, where the separated hydrogen interacts with nitrogen with the help of the routine technology. As the finished product contains acetic acid then they in addition install the device for production of a monomer of vinyl acetate using reaction of a part of the acetic acid with ethylene and oxygen. With the purpose of production of the oxygen necessary for production of a monomer of vinyl acetate they additionally install a device for separation of air. At that the amount of nitrogen produced by the device of separation of air corresponds to nitrogen demand for production of additional amount of ammonia. The upgraded installation ensures increased production of additional amount of ammonia as compared with the initial installation for production of methanol. The invention also provides for a method of production of hydrogen and a product chosen from a group consisting of acetic acid, acetic anhydride, methyl formate, methyl acetate and their combinations, from hydrocarbon through methanol and carbon monoxide. For this purpose execute catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon with steam in presence of a relatively small amount of carbon dioxide with formation of the synthesis gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, in which synthesis gas is characterized by magnitude of the molar ratio R = ((H2-CO2)/(CO+CO2)) from 2.0 up to 2.9. The reaction mixture contains carbon monoxide, water -up to 20 mass %, a dissolvent and a catalytic system containing at least one halogenated promoter and at least one rhodium compound, iridium compound or their combination. The technical result provides, that reconstruction of operating installations increases their productivity and expands assortment of produced industrial products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that reconstruction of operating installations increases their productivity and expands assortment of produced industrial products.

44 cl, 3 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.

EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.

12 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases. The method of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia from the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen provides, that the natural gas together with the oxygen-enriched gas containing at least 70 % of oxygen is subjected to the autothermal reforming at temperature from 900 up to 1200°C and the pressure from 40 up to 100 bar at the presence of the catalyzer of cracking, producing the unstripped synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state 55-75 vol.% of H2, 15-30 vol.% of C and 5-30 vol.% CO2. At that the volumetric ratio of H2: CO makes from 1.6 : 1 up to 4 : 1. The unstripped synthesis gas is removed from the furnace of the autothermal reforming, cooled and subjected to the catalytic conversion producing the converted synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state at least 55 vol.% of H2 and no more than 8 vol.% of CO. The converted synthesis gas is subjected to the multistage treatment for extraction ofCO2, CO and CH4. At that they realize the contact of the synthesis gas with the liquid nitrogen and using at least one stage of the absorption treatment produce the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is routed to the catalytic synthesizing of ammonia. At that at least a part of the synthesized ammonia may be transformed into carbamide by interaction with carbon dioxide. The realization of the method allows to solve the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures solution of the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

8 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst includes, as catalytically active metal, ruthenium deposited on magnesium oxide having specific surface area at least 40 m2/g, while concentration of ruthenium ranges between 3 and 20 wt % and content of promoter between 0.2 and 0.5 mole per 1 mole ruthenium, said promoter being selected from alkali metals, alkali-earth metals, lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. Regeneration of catalytic components from catalyst comprises following steps: (i) washing-out of promoters from catalyst thereby forming promoter-depleted catalyst and obtaining solution enriched with dissolved promoter hydroxides; (ii) dissolution of magnesium oxide from promoter-depleted catalyst in acidic solvent wherein ruthenium is insoluble and thereby obtaining residual ruthenium metal in solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound; and (iii) regeneration of residual ruthenium metal from solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound via liquid-solids separation to form indicated solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound and ruthenium metal.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.

6 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises passing nitrogen and hydrogen-containing synthesis gas stream through three stacked catalyst beds, wherein catalyst is based on iron with magnetite as principal constituent, which is reduced during the process until catalytically active form of alpha-iron is produced. Above-mentioned synthesis gas stream is obtained by combining stream directly supplied onto first catalyst bed with another stream, which is preheated via indirect heat exchange with products exiting first and second catalyst beds, whereupon product is recovered. Method is characterized by that gas under treatment is passed through middle catalyst bed at volume flow rate between 0.65 and 2.00 value of volume flow rate, at which gas under treatment is passed through upper catalyst bed, volume ratio of middle catalyst bed to upper catalyst bed lying preferably between 0.5 and 1.5.

EFFECT: increased yield of product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of synthesis of ammonia, in particular to improvement of the process of cleanout synthesis of the gas added into the catalytic reactor for substitution of the reacted synthesis gas. The method of synthesis of ammonia provides for compression of the synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen in a many-stage centrifugal compressor. On the first stage of this compressor the synthesis gas is compressed up to the pressure making from approximately 800 up to 900 pounds per a square inch - (56-63)·105 Pa, withdraw from this stage and cool, and also dehydrate by a contact to a liquid ammonia in a dehydrator. Then the cooled and dehydrated synthesis gas is fed back in the compressor and bring it on the second stage. The installation for realization of this process contains a centrifugal compressor supplied with the synthesis gas outlet, that connects the synthesis gas discharge outlet from the first stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas inlet in the dehydrator, and also an intermediate inlet of the synthesis gas connecting by a hydraulic link the inlet of the second stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas discharge (outlet) from the dehydrator. Due to the intermediate cooling and a dehydration the compressor rate is lowered, and due to favorable effect of the dehydrator on the last two stages of the compressor a significant saving of the consumed power is also achieved. The additional saving of the consumed power is possible due to decreased need of chill in the closed contour of the synthesis process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a significant saving of the consumed power for the synthesis process in the installation.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides ammonia synthesis catalyst containing ruthenium as active ingredient supported by boron nitride and/or silicon nitride. Catalyst can be promoted by one ore more metals selected from alkali, alkali-earth metal, or rare-earth metals. Ammonia synthesis process in presence of claimed catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: increased temperature resistance of catalyst under industrial ammonia synthesis conditions.

4 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases the mean-pressure steam used for the process of steam reforming and/or for the compressor drives is subjected to humidification by injection of the process condensate or feed water, and the obtained humidified steam is overheated by the heat of the flue gas in a unit of the heat-using equipment of the reforming tube furnace.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the amount of generated steam and reduced of the amount of generated steam and reduced consumption of feed water; provided additional cleaning of the process condensate and recovering of gases dissolved in it in the process of steam humidification in the mass transfer device.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases, saturation of the hydrocarbon gas after desulfurization and/or process air fed to the secondary reforming is effected due to the use of the flue gas of a tube furnace at a temperature of 160 to 580C, preferably within 220 to 480C, by means of water recirculation.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the total amount of generated steam, reduced consumption of feed water, and recovered gases dissolved in the process condensate.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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