Method and device for absorption
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing gas with a portion of the circulating gas-liquid mixture, bringing the mixture produced in a contact with the finally dispersed drops in the first stage and with liquid condensed on the nozzle members in the second stage, pumping the main portion of the gas-liquid mixture through the pipes to the top layer of the liquid, and entraining the remainder portion by means of vortex funnels toward the bottom liquid layer in the third stage. A portion of the mixture is directed to the recirculation, and the remainder portion is forced to contact with the drops of circulating liquid in the fourth stage. The final contact is produced in series in the nozzle chamber of the fifth stage, aeration towers, and bubbling chambers of the sixth stage. The sprinkling chamber of the first stage receives acoustic ultrasonic disperser provided with longitudinal ultrasonic wave ducts. The sprinkling chamber of the fourth stage receives the deflecting shields with a diameter of 30-80 mm made of interconnected cylinders of different diameters. The cylinders have longitudinal cuts from the bottom cylinder to the top cylinder and additional cuts in the cylinders. The members for charging the nozzle chambers in the second and fifth stages are made of balls with a diameter of 20-70 mm provided with six-nine hollows in the spherical surface whose axes intersect at the ball center. The thickness of the walls between the hollows decreases toward the ball center.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to mass transfer methods for extracting the liquid component of the gas mixture and can be used in exchanging equipment of the chemical industry.
In chemical processes for the separation of the phases used in mainly 2 ways of mass transfer between phases gas-liquid.
The first method is based on the effect of counter-current, in accordance with which the liquid absorbent is supplied in the Packed column at the top and flows down through the packing layer and the gas is fed into the lower part of the column and moves upward (book Sherwood So Pigford R. Wilkie PM Massoperedacha. - M.: Chemistry. 1982, s, s).
The second method is based on the effect of increasing the active area of contact of the phases, in accordance with which the gas mixture is dispersed in a liquid bubble columns.
A device for cleaning and absorption of gases (patent SU # 1583148 01D 47/00), which combines two methods of mass transfer - gas and liquid serves in the upper part of the nozzle chamber and after passing through the packing layer part of the gas through pipe direct injection goes directly into the upper layer of the bubble chamber, and the other part engages with the liquid flowing down the wall and merging into pipes inkjet ejection gas (aeration column), descended into the lower layer of the bubble chamber. The combination of methods allows you to increase MIF the EIT contact surface with minimum energy consumption. However, the known solution has the following disadvantages: in the camera raw gas provided for sprinkler irrigation system does not provide fine-dispersed liquid; the device is a breakthrough of unreacted gas in the environment and a significant drop entrainment of the liquid due to rupture of a huge number of gas bubbles.
A device for obtaining the smallest drops of liquid under irrigation using acoustic dispersant longitudinal type (patent SU # 1002124 23R 11/9), made in the form of a waveguide with an exponential law of distribution of cross-sections along its length, which has a low degree of acoustic quality factor and the limited area of ultrasonic treatment that dramatically reduces the scope of its application.
It is also known device reflective umbrella (patent SU # A 02F 3/04), made in the form of the United cylinders of different diameter with longitudinal grooves, providing the fragmentation of liquid drops, however, this device limits the formation of extremely fine liquid droplets and the diversity of trajectories of the drops.
As the boot material in Packed cells, columns, gas absorbers, scrubbers elements are used nozzle: ring process, the Pall, seat Burleigh, Intalox, which today is a developed contact surface, but insufficient retention time of the liquid.
Sufficient contact time is provided in plate columns, where the gas flow moves upward, and the liquid flows from the plate on the plate. Typical disadvantages of column trays are a significant pressure drop in the gas flow and zaklepywanie".
Positive properties of hard charging and disc download - the extended surface and the contact time of the joint elements having the form of polyhedra, with the concave inside surfaces, fluid-filled, creating a wet mode (patent SU # 1214608, 02F 3/02, application No. 3772689, registered in the State register of inventions of the USSR on 1 November 1985). When any styling elements part of the recesses is filled with a liquid that allows you to increase the residence time of the liquid in the packing layer. However, the shape of this boot is not optimal for the creation of the developed surface of the contact.
To increase the efficiency of absorption of substances that have a finite solubility, by using two or more levels Packed and bubble columns (book Sherwood So Pigford R. Wilkie PM Massoperedacha. - M.: Chemistry. 1982), but in this case it is necessary to increase the number of agitators, pump and compressor equipment and therefore energy costs.
The objective of the invention is to increase efficiency is the ultimate solubility of gases in liquids, creating a sustainable balance between outgoing flows of liquids and gases, improving the device performance with minimum energy consumption.
To achieve a technical result features:
- to intensify the process of formation of gas-liquid system and the dissolution of the components of the gas system in fluid at the first stage with an acoustic dispersant, provided with a longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguides, which not only provide a finely dispersed state of the environment, but also increase the kinetic energy of the molecules of the components of the system, which increases the efficiency of their interaction;
- to further dissolution and chemical interaction between the phases, the gas-liquid by repeated circulation of liquid and gas through the nozzle chamber of the second stage with a new form elements boot and bubble chamber of the third stage with straight pipes of the gas supply and pipe inkjet ejection gas;
- to make the end-gas absorption and the completion of the chemical reactions to reach equilibrium by increasing the efficiency of contact of small droplets of the liquid components of the gas mixture in the spray chamber of the fourth degree and Packed in the camera of the fifth stage through the use of new forms of elements boot Mat is Rial and use inkjet ejection bubble chamber the sixth step;
- to improve the process of mass transfer in the spray chamber of the fourth degree to use reflective umbrellas, contributing to the formation of smaller drops of liquid and diversity of trajectories of their movement;
- used as a loading nozzle chambers elements in the form of balls with the recesses in the spherical surface forming a container filled with liquid.
The invention consists in that the way of the absorption of gases, comprising the sequential contact of gas and liquid in the nozzle and bubble chambers, carried out six stages of purification, the source gas and a part of the circulating liquid is mixed in the high-pressure fan, then the gas mixture is fed to the spray chamber of the first stage, which produces its contact with the fine liquid drops, which are formed when the flow of liquid jets acoustic ultrasonic dispersers, then a gas-liquid mixture in a ramjet mode passes through the elements of the loading nozzle chamber of the second stage, where a further diffusion of the gas in the liquid condensed in the tank elements the nozzle and on its surface; then the main part of the gas-liquid mixture is forced through the pipes direct injection into the upper layer of liquid bubble chamber of the third stage, and stalowych involve gas-liquid mixture vortex funnels, formed during the discharge of the condensed liquid in the aeration column, and a gas-liquid mixture enters the lower layer liquid bubble chamber of the third stage, then the gas-liquid mixture that has passed through the liquid bubble chamber of the third stage is divided into two streams; recirculating a portion of the mixture fed into the high-pressure fan, exhaust part is directed into the spray chamber of the fourth stage, where they perform further contact with the circulating liquid, which is sprayed onto the individual drops with reflective umbrellas periodic structure, then the final contact between the phases, the gas-liquid perform consistently in the nozzle chamber of the fifth stage, aeration columns and bubble chamber the sixth stage of purification.
The invention consists in that the device for implementing the method contains the installation is divided into zones of clearing, with overflow pipes, pipes for supplying streams of liquid and gas, VVD, the pump, the installation consists of six cameras; in the spray chamber of the first stage has an acoustic ultrasonic dispersers with longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguides, and in the spray chamber of the fourth stage has reflective umbrellas with a diameter of 30-80 mm, made in the form of the United cylinders varying the diameters (8-80 mm) with longitudinal grooves from the lower cylinder to the upper and the additional grooves in the cylinders, the number of which is determined by the equality of the distances between the grooves in the upper and lower cylinders, and items loading of the Packed chambers of the second and fifth stages made in the form of balls with a diameter of 20-70 mm 6-9 th recesses in the spherical surface, the axes of which converge in the center of the ball, and the thickness of the walls between the grooves is reduced to the center of the ball.
We offer the example of the method. In the method of gas absorption air contaminated with an organic solvent, is mixed with the circulating gas-liquid mixture and VVD (fan pressure), served on the first cleaning step under a pressure of 0.05-0.07 ATM, where they perform the formation of the gas-liquid mixture by contact of contaminated air with melkodispersionnoy liquid and chemical interaction between the components of the mixture. The process intensifies cavitation effects in the acoustically active area of the transducers. Further, the absorption process continues in nozzle chamber of the second stage, in which a part of the gas-liquid mixture is deposited on the surface of the spherical elements available in the form of liquid droplets, followed by their accumulation in the tank elements. Through droplets, the liquid film on the wetted surface (up to 80% of the total area of the nozzle element and through the surface of the liquid in the cavities is Dalneye the diffusion of chemical components in the gas. The combination of elements loading properties of hard charging and disc download, zoom factor nozzles" (decrease in surface area dry nozzle to the cube of its free volume) increases the efficiency of the mass transfer process in comparison with the existing solids special form of 7-10%. The process also intensified due to the increased pressure created VVD. Thus, in the chamber of the second stage are formed two phases - liquid and gas-liquid mixture. Gas-liquid mixture (≈60-80%) due to the excess pressure is supplied through pipe direct injection in the upper part of the liquid bubble chamber III stage. The remaining part of the gas-liquid mixture is drawn aeration columns when draining them in the liquid phase and enters the lower part of the liquid bubble chamber III stage. When the output of the gas-liquid mixture from pipe direct feed from it produces a great amount of bubbles that come into contact with the upper part of the liquid chamber III stage, resulting in an ongoing process of mass transfer in the system of gas-liquid. Aeration column perform the saturation of the liquid components of the gas and the mixing of the entire volume of the chamber III stage that allows to intensify the process of updating the contact surface phases. In the chamber III stage thus formed gas-liquid equilibrium the system. Then facing the gas mixture is divided into two streams: the first with a ratio of approximately (1-3):1 to the original gas enters the high-pressure fan, and the second with a ratio of 1:1 is directed into the chamber IV stage for final processing. The liquid phase chamber III stage is also divided into two streams, one of which the circulation pump is directed into the chamber of the first stage, and the second in the irrigation chamber IV of the stage. The approximate ratio of liquid flow is (2-3):(1-1,5). The estimated ratio of flows of liquids and gases is determined by the value of the permissible residual concentration of the contaminated component and the solubility of gases. Thus, the depleted gas mixture (second thread) and of the circulating fluid (the second stream) is fed to the final stage of purification chambers IV, V, VI. The fluid enters the irrigation system camera IV stage, sprayed with reflective umbrellas and in contact with a gas mixture of the second thread. Next rich gas component of the fluid enters the nozzle chamber V stage, in which there are processes similar to the mass transfer processes occurring in the chamber of the second stage. Then the liquid and gas go through the aeration columns in the camera VI stage, which is the final dissolution of the gas, the completion of the chemical reaction and separation of isenay dispersed phase (gas) from the dispersion medium in the environment. Liquid (solution) is sent for recycling.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 - diagram of the inventive device for implementing the method; figure 2 presents acoustic dispersant; figure 3 presents the incision reflective umbrella 4 is a bottom view; figure 5 is a section item load; 6 is a view of the top element.
The device contains a high-pressure fan (VVD) 1, installation with six cameras 2; module acoustic dispersion 3; circulation pump 4. The suction pipe VVD connected pipeline gas supply 5, and the discharge pipe 6 from GNI to install 2 is connected to the spray chamber 7. The unit also includes the divided nozzle chambers 8, 9 located above divided by a partition bubbling chambers 10 and 11. Nozzle chamber filled with a load of spherical elements 42. Under the grate chamber 8 is collecting pan 13, which has a Central pit with attached pipes inkjet ejection gas (aeration column) 14, the ends of which are omitted in the lower layer of liquid bubbling chamber 10. The pallet is also connected pipes direct gas supply 15, the upper ends of which are raised above the tray, and the lower end is lowered into the top layer of the liquid chamber 10. To the assembled pallet chamber 11 is connected only to the Aer the information of the column 14. The capacity of the camera 10 is connected by a pipe with the suction inlet of the circulating pump 4 and the discharge pipe 16 is connected to the pipe 17 for supplying the liquid to the acoustic dispersers 18 and pipe 19 for supplying fluid to the sprinklers 20 installed in the spray chamber 21. The impeller 18 is also connected by tubes and wires to module 3. System 2 is equipped with a pipe 22 for removal of depleted gas line 23 is connected to the suction pipe extended and connected to the pipe 24 to the spray chamber 21, and the piping of clean gas discharge 25, the supply of the liquid 26 and exhaust solution 27.
Structural diagram of the acoustic disperser 18 module 3 is given in figure 2.
Longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguide 28 through the shaper gauge acoustic feedback 30 is connected to the module, which includes the block of automatic frequency control 31, the ultrasonic generator ultrasonic generator-1-1M 32, inductive sensor acoustic feedback 29, which in turn is connected to a magnetostrictive transducer 33 (PMS-1) of the waveguide 28. The module also includes a container 34 with the pump 35 and the cooling circuit 36.
The case of reflective umbrella 20 (Fig 3, 4) with a diameter of 30-80 mm consists of a cylinder with cut lower conical portion 37, the cylinder 38, 39 and cylinder with spheres of the political part 40. In the case of the umbrella has longitudinal grooves 41, 42, 43. The diameter of the reflective umbrella should be more than 30 mm, because at the smaller diameter of the deterioration in the dispersion of liquid droplets, and at a diameter greater than 80 mm, the liquid is reflected in the form of a film.
Download (5, 6) of the Packed chambers 8, 9 are made of spherical elements 12 with a diameter of 20-70 mm 6-9 th recesses in the spherical surface 44; and the thickness of the walls between the grooves is reduced to the center of the ball. The optimal number of recesses 8, under ideal laying the ball 4, the recesses can be filled with fluid. In addition, the ceramic elements can be manufactured in two halves and the sintering between them. Effective may also be design elements, consisting of 6, 7, 9 holes. Based on the size of the surface area of the items loading in 1 m3download and industrial manufacturing of such items, the optimal diameter of the spherical elements ranges from 20-70 mm
The device for implementing the method works as follows.
the gas is fed through inlet pipe 5 in GNI-1. The pipe 5 is connected a pipe for supplying a gas-liquid mixture 23. Next, the diluted gas mixture by the fan 1 through the pipeline 6 is directed into the spray chamber of the first stage of purification installation 2 and there the circulation pump 4 trubor the water 16 through the adjustment valve on the pipeline 17 is fluid on acoustic dispersers 18. Acoustic dispersion based on the cavitation effect, which allows you to develop greater pressures arising from the collapse of cavitation cavities. The value of the amplitudes of the pressure can reach hundreds of thousands of atmospheres, which provides the dispersion liquid media. Through the use of longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguide coefficient of dispersion is increased in 2 and more times. The main element of the process of acoustic dispersion liquid media is a longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguide 28, made of titanium alloy. To achieve the maximum possible acoustic dispersion liquid, the ratio between the longitudinal and torsional component should be 1:3, this ratio is at an angle of inclination of the channels with respect to the rotation axis of the waveguide 60°. The ratio of the areas of the end faces of the waveguide provides a specified transfer coefficient of the waveguide, which triggers when the input amplitude of 10 μm oscillation speaker system output 15 μm. The waveguide has a resonant frequency of 22 kHz. As a speaker system, on which are fixed the waveguide, used industrial design magnetostrictive transducer PMS-1 (33) attached to the end of the inductive sensor acoustic feedback 2. The sensor 29 at the maximum oscillation amplitude of the acoustic system has a maximum output voltage of about 1 V and sinusoidal changes of the signal proportional to the frequency of the acoustic system. The resonant frequency of the circuit of the acoustic dispersion is 22±0.1 kHz. The signal produced by the sensor 29, is fed to a shaper gauge acoustic feedback 30, which performs digital filtering of the input signal, after which it is amplified and fed to block the automatic frequency control 31, which performs active management tracking system, so that the oscillation amplitude at the output of the ultrasonic generator 32 was the max. The ultrasonic generator ultrasonic generator 1-1 converts electrical energy industrial frequency of 50 Hz to 22 kHz ultrasonic.
In the process of working speakers geometrical dimensions of magnetostrictive material change is his warm-up, so the sound system is equipped with a cooling system, which is represented by the capacitance 34, pump 35, the cooling circuit 36 and pipelines. Items 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36 placed in module 3.
On the first stage of cleaning in the chamber 7 is the contact of the gas mixture with small drops of the solution (in the mode of Gazpromavia). This is the period when the absorbance of the more volatile component is clients and starts the chemical reaction of the interaction between the incoming gas and liquid. Next, the gas-liquid mixture under pressure in the straight-through mode moves down through the Packed chamber 8 - II stage of purification. When the movement of the gas-liquid mixture through the spherical elements of the boot 12 in the chamber 8 there growth centers of the liquid phase, as a result of condensation of gas molecules on the surface elements 12 (figure 5, 6) are formed droplets and liquid film, and the recesses 44 (if any styling elements of the proposed design one or two hollows are filled with fluid) fluid accumulates, which then flows to the lower elements. Due to the developed wetted surface elements, the large surface of the liquid in the pits and increased pressure created by VVD, intense diffusion of gas molecules in the liquid and chemical reaction. Then due to excess pressure in the main part of the gas-liquid mixture is forced through pipe direct injection of 15 in the upper part of the liquid bubbling chamber 10 to a depth of 0.5-0.7 m, and the rest involved in the liquid phase merging on shipping pallet 13 in the aeration column 14 due to the occurrence in the upper part of the tubes vortex funnels. When the ratio of the height of the aeration columns above the liquid bubbling chamber 10 to the recessed part of columns 2 m/2 m number of sucked gas is 0.7-0.8 m31 m3liquid is t; and given the pressure VVD number of involved air can reach 0.9 m3/m3. At the exit of the gas mixture from the pipe 15 is formed a large number of gas bubbles, which contributes to the continuation of the process of mass transfer. The formation of gas-liquid emulsion in the aeration columns 14 and exit through the bottom layer of liquid in the bubbling chamber 10 provides efficient mixing of the entire volume of the liquid and intensive renovation of the contact surface phases. Given the volume of liquid 10 provides sufficient time for chemical reactions. The pipe 26 is feeding liquid. During the ascent through the liquid bubble chamber a huge number of gas bubbles occurs drip entrainment of liquid (solution). Next, the gas-liquid mixture with components of the unreacted gas is supplied via line 22 to the piping with control valves 23, 24. On line 23, the mixture is sent to the pipeline gas supply 5. The pipeline 24, the mixture is fed into the spray chamber 21 in the fourth stage of the process. There is a circulating pump 4 through the pipeline 19 is solution of the chamber 10. When applying a liquid on reflective umbrellas 20 (Fig 3, 4) fluid flow strikes the projections 40, 39, 38, 37, separated by slits 41, 42, 43, resulting in a large number of LM drops the bone, having different trajectories. The camera 21 performs the functions of additional Gazpromavia. In the chamber 21, the nozzle chamber 9, aeration columns 14 and bubbling chamber 11 is the separation of the disperse medium in liquid and gas phase, the process is complete finite solubility of the gas component and the completion of a chemical reaction. The purified gas is discharged through pipe 25 into the atmosphere, and the solution is sent through a pipe 27 for recycling.
The use of the proposed method the absorption of gas and a device for its realization will allow to create new types of mass transfer equipment for the chemical industry (gas absorbers, scrubbers, distillation, Packed columns). However due to the intensification of mass transfer processes, the height of the equipment can be reduced 50-80 m to 10-15 m; through the use of low-pressure pumps and GED instead of a high-pressure pumps and compressors, energy costs are reduced by 2-3 times. The efficiency of the absorption process can be adjusted by changing the flow of liquid and gas, which allows you to fully automate the process.
1. The method of absorption of gases, comprising the sequential contact of gas and liquid in the nozzle and bubble chambers, characterized in that the method of absorption of gases for the implementation of the is six stages of purification, the source gas and a part of the circulating liquid is mixed in the high-pressure fan, then the gas mixture is fed to the spray chamber of the first stage, which produces its contact with the fine liquid drops, which are formed when the flow of liquid jets acoustic ultrasonic dispersers, then a gas-liquid mixture in a ramjet mode passes through the elements of the loading nozzle chamber of the second stage, where a further diffusion of the gas in the liquid condensed in the tanks of the elements of the nozzle and on its surface; then the main part of the gas-liquid mixture is forced through the pipes direct injection into the upper layer of liquid bubble chamber of the third step, and the rest gas-liquid mixture involve eddy craters formed during the discharge of the condensed liquid in the aeration column, and a gas-liquid mixture enters the bottom layer of the liquid chamber of the third step; next, the gas-liquid mixture that has passed through the fluid chamber of the third step, is divided into two streams; recirculating a portion of the mixture fed into the high-pressure fan, exhaust part is directed into the spray chamber of the fourth stage, where they perform further contact with the circulating liquid, which is sprayed onto the individual drops with reflective umbrellas per the methodological profile, then the final contact between the phases, the gas-liquid perform consistently in the nozzle chamber of the fifth stage, aeration columns and bubble chamber of the sixth stage.
2. The device for implementing the method according to claim 1, containing the installation is divided into zones of clearing the overflow pipes and pipes for the supply of gas and liquid flows, a high-pressure fan, pump, characterized in that the installation consists of six cameras in the spray chamber of the first stage has an acoustic ultrasonic dispersers, and in the spray chamber of the fourth stage has reflective umbrellas, Packed the camera of the second and fifth stages filled spherical elements in a bubble chamber of the third-speed transmission installed pipe direct injection and aeration columns, while the bubbling chamber sixth stage has aeration column.
3. The device for implementing the method according to claim 2, characterized in that the installation of the applied ultrasonic dispersers with longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic waveguides.
4. The device for implementing the method according to claim 2, characterized in that the reflective umbrellas with a diameter of 30-80 mm is made in the form of the United cylinders of different diameters (8-80 mm) with longitudinal grooves from the lower cylinder to the upper and the additional grooves in the cylinders, if this be the tion between the grooves are equal.
5. The device for implementing the method according to claim 2, characterized in that the elements of the loading of the Packed chambers of the second and fifth stages made in the form of balls with a diameter of 20-70 mm 6-9 recesses in the spherical surface, the axes of which converge in the center of the ball, and the thickness of the walls between the grooves is reduced to the center of the ball.
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.
FIELD: forming of elements for dumped packing used for filling columns for mass- and heat-exchange processes.
SUBSTANCE: axis of symmetry of proposed element lies in way of its length. Ratio of largest size perpendicular to length and defining diameter (D) of element to length (L) ranges from 2.7 to 4.5. Element has polygonal cross section with six sides and many internal partitions forming passages at triangular cross section.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining optimal working parameters.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: production of ceramic elements for packing.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic element (1, 6, 8) for packing is used as limiter for layers; it is made in form of bow-tie and has constant cross section along axis (1) and many through passages (5) which are parallel to direction of length (L). Proposed method consists in extrusion of mixture which contains one or several ceramic-forming components, sectionalizing of extruded mixture for forming sections and burning of sections for forming packing element. Packing is used for filling the columns where mass-transfer and heat-transfer processes are carried out.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; textile industry; food industry; light industry; other industries ; equipment of the wet dust separation.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the equipment of the wet dust separation and may be used in chemical, textile, food, light and other industries for purification of the dusty gases. The packed scrubber contains: the body with the fitting pipes for the dusty gas and the purified gas; the sprinkling device; the support gratings, between which there is the head; and the device for withdrawal of the slime. The head is made in the form of the hollow spheres, on the spherical surface of which there is the cut groove having in the cross-section perpendicular to the screw line the profile of "Berly saddle" or "Itallocks" saddle. The head can be made out of the porous polymeric materials, the glass, the porous rubber, the composite materials, timber, stainless steel, titanium alloys, precious metals. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, and also reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical or physical processes.
SUBSTANCE: catalytic nozzle comprises central cord of the core of the fiber members made of polymeric fiber, e.g. capron, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of individual fiber members by a factor of two. Several fiber members of the nozzle are modified by catalyzers. The ratio of the modified and non-modified fibers is 1:2. The thrown fibers are primarily wound on the central cord, and then the noncorroding metallic cords are wound over the thrown fibers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-producing industry; oil-processing industry; installations for trapping the vapors of the hydrocarbons from the air-vapor mixtures formed at the oil products storing and transfer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the oil-producing industry and oil-processing industry. The installation for the trapping the of the vapors of the hydrocarbons from the air-vapors mixture formed at the oil products storing and transfer contains: the absorbing apparatus, the refrigerating machine, the heat exchangers, the pump, the feeding and withdrawing pipelines of absorbing agent, the air-vapors mixture and the purified air, the means of automation including the valves, the gates, the sensors and the assembly of the automatic control of the installation operation. At that the absorbing apparatus is made in the form of the horizontal disk-shaped heat-exchange apparatus, which is mounted inclined and with the capability of its adjusting concerning the axis in direction of the outlet of the absorbing agent from it, in the capacity of which the diesel fuel is used, and the installation itself is made in compliance with the modular approach. The absorbing apparatus with the pipe ducts of feeding and withdrawal of the air-vapor mixture, the air and the absorbing agent with the mounted on them means of the automation, the pump and the heat exchangers form the contours of the air-vapor mixture and absorption, which are linked among themselves by the internal space of the absorbing apparatus and are located in the separate block-box. The refrigerating machine and the assembly of the automatic control of the installation operation are disposed outside the block-box and are connected to the heat-exchanger disposed on the pipe duct of feeding of absorbing agent, and with the means of automation. The invention allows to increase considerably the completeness of trapping of the hydrocarbons, to increase profitability and to improve the installation ecological compatibility.
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase completeness of trapping of the hydrocarbons, to increase profitability and to improve ecological compatibility of the installation.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: gas treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nonferrous metallurgy, in particular to treating emission gases to remove chlorine and hydrogen chloride in titanium and magnesium production processes. Process comprises feeding gases from below into gas cleaner casing, feeding liquid in the form of lime milk in countercurrent to gas travel, circulation of liquid, and subsequent discharge of the spent solution out of circulation system and withdrawal of gases. Process involves swirling gases and feeding them into plate member of swirler, interaction of liquid with gases to form gas-liquid emulsion, separating gas-liquid emulsion into liquid and gas by way of passing emulsion through a relevant device. Liquid separated in gas-liquid emulsion separator is collected on casing wall wherefrom it flows down into lower part of casing and is then removed therefrom. Separator is periodically receives water to prevent deposits.
EFFECT: prolonged service time of auxiliary equipment and gas collectors, reduced consumption of reagents (calcium hydroxide and oxide) and raw material, and reduced pollution of waste water with alkali reagents.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises transient gas duct provided with a port in its bottom, housing that abuts against the gas duct and receives heat exchanger, fluid distributor, and absorption unit that ended with pockets for collecting saturated absorbent and is provided with distributing chutes. The side walls of the desorption-cooling section are provided with horizontal slots covered from inside with horizontal sloping shutters and abut against the vertical exhaust passages with perforated bottom and exit that is connected with the top section of the transient gas duct.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: chemical industry; petroleum industry; natural gas industry; other industries; production of the nozzles used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to designs of the regular nozzles, which are used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration and also as the mixers of the liquid and gaseous streams as the separators of the phases in the separation devices, as the contact elements in the condensers of mixing, as the sprinklers of the water cooling towers and may find usage practically in all production processes in petroleum, gaseous, chemical and other allied industries. The regular nozzle consists of the corrugated plates gathered in packages installed vertically and in parallel with the inclination of the flutes of the adjacent sheets to the horizon in the opposite sides, contacting by the protruding flutes to each other and forming among themselves the free channels of the complicated geometrical form. The nozzle is supplied with the spacers made in the form of the block of the horizontally laid in the rows in parallel to each another volumetric components. At that the symmetry axes of the components laying in the adjacent in height rows are mutually perpendicular. The ratio of the height of the package consisting of the corrugated sheets to the height of the spacer block lays within the limits of 2-5. The total height of the block of the spacers lays within the limits of 1.0-4.0 equivalent diametersof one component. The equivalent diameter of channels of the corrugated sheets package and the equivalent diameter of the component of the block of the spacer are in the ratio of 0.4-0.8. The components of the block of the spacer represent the solids of revolution, which are made in the form of the multiple-thread helicoids, at that the number of the threads makes 2-4. The components of the spacer block are laid in the rows with the clearance to each other, at that the interval, which separates the symmetry axes of the adjacent components makes 1.7-2.5 diameters of one component. The invention allows to raise intensity of the processes of the heat- and mass-exchange due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased intensity of the heat-exchange and mass-exchange processes due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods and the installations for treatment of the exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of treatment of the exhaust gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, to the treatment of the exhaust gases produced by the industrial installations for the chemical deposition or infiltration of the vapors for the purpose of formation on the substrates of the deposit of the pyrolytic carbon or compaction of the porous substrates by means of the mould made out of the pyrolytic carbon. The exhaust gases containing the hydrocarbons, before passing into the pumping out device (60) are exposed to cleansing by the method of sputtering of the oil of the aromatic type in the cleansing device (30) with the recirculation of the oil. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the exhaust gases are trapped due to the absorption in the oil. The invention allows to ensure the good level of absorption of the resins of the exhaust gases, to eliminate the clogging of the channels, pollution of the environment by these resins and to limit the losses of the head.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the good level of absorption of the resins of the exhaust gases, elimination of the clogging of the channels, pollution of the environment by these resins and limitation of the losses of the head.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: column-type mass exchange apparatus for gas, oil, chemical and allied industries; low-temperature absorption of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus is provided with pipe unions delivery and discharge of gas and liquid, contact plates with passages for phases and packings located on bearing members above plates. Packings are located on bearing members above level on liquid on plates at free volume of(75-96)% and specific surface of (10-250)m2/m3. Adjacent members of packing layers directed towards plate surface are oriented towards liquid drainage. At least two crossing layers of packing are placed above each plate.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic resistance of apparatus due to reduced volume of liquid in packing; reduced gas velocity; reduced drop entrainment.
FIELD: methods of treatment of anaerobically decomposable materials, refuse or waste water; separation of carbon dioxide from other gaseous agents obtained at decomposition of organic materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming of reaction mixture containing anaerobically decomposable organic materials, application of electric potential to it and accumulation of gas. For obtaining of gas at high amount of hydrogen and low amount of methane as compared with gases formed spontaneously from said organic materials, use is made of intermittent generation of electric current at intervals dictated by content of hydrogen and/or methane detected in gas obtained from organic material.
EFFECT: increased productivity in hydrogen; reduction of time required for processing organic materials.
15 cl, 14 dwg, 11 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: simultaneous absorption of selected components of acid gas and topping light fractions of hydrocarbons entrapped by liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of gas flow and liquid flow to first mixer where they are brought in contact in direct flow and are subjected to turbulent mixing; then multi-phase flow from first mixer is directed to second mixer and after second mixer multi-phase flow is divided into gas phase and liquid phase. Second mixer has housing 102 with inlet hole 122 and outlet hole 123. Housing is provided with at least one movable control member 104 mounted hermetically; control member has central chamber for forming part of first wall connected with inlet side of housing and part of second wall connected with outlet side of housing. These parts of walls are provided with through passages 106A and 107B.
EFFECT: enhanced topping of entrapped hydrocarbons; increased absorption capacity by acid gas.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; other industries; spraying heat-mass exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the engineering realization of the heat-mass exchange processes, which take place in the gas-liquid system, such as absorption, chilling, dust-trapping, aeration, and may find application in the chemical industry and its adjacent industries. The body of the apparatus is divided by the partition into the contact and separating zones. Inside the contact zone there are the sprayers and the contact components. The apparatus is supplied with the drum installed in the contact zone with the possibility of rotation. On the drum there are fixed with the possibility of rotation the Т-shaped contact components. The T-shaped contact components are formed by the solid and mesh-type plates. The invention allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, and also to improve the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus, that increases efficiency of the heat-mass exchange process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, the improvement of the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus and the increased efficiency of the heat- mass exchange process.
FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises groups of parallel rectangular plates with corrugated bottom. The ribs of the corrugation are oriented along the flow, and the distance between the plates does not exceed 30 mm. Between the plates, rods or pipes are arranged at an angle 90±15° to the vector of flows. The plates are assembled in groups of parallel plates inclined downstream. The uniform distribution of fluid over the plates when fluid flows from one plate group to another group is provided by means of distributing-overflowing devices.
EFFECT: decreased hydraulic drag.
2 cl, 5 dwg