# Method for difference-range-finding location of receiver cartesian co-ordinates

FIELD: submarine, marine terrestrial and close-to-ground navigation, in particular type GPS and GLONASS systems.

SUBSTANCE: at a time instant, that is unknown for the receiver, a signal is synchronously radiated by several radiators with known co-ordinates. The radiated signals are received by the receiver, the signal speed square is measured in the current navigation session, the Cartesian co-ordinates of the receiver are computed according to the moments of reception of the radiated signal and the measured signal speed square.

EFFECT: enhanced precision of location of the signal receiver.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of underwater, marine, terrestrial, and terrestrial navigation, particularly, those using satellite navigation systems GPS and GLONASS.

There is a method of determining the coordinates of the receiver (see Anderson E. the Principles of navigation. - M.: Voenizdat, 1968, s), consisting in the measurement of two or more sequences, the time difference, which find directly on the map, which caused two or more collections of hyperbole in accordance with the difference of time.

The disadvantage of this method is that it applies only in the planar case and thus has low accuracy as graphical method.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method differential-ranging determining the spatial coordinates of the receiver (see Soloviev V.A. satellite navigation System. - M..: Eco-Trends, 2000, p.35-36), including simultaneous emission of a signal at an unknown point in time, multiple beacons-emitters with known coordinates and the subsequent calculation of the coordinates of the receiver on the moments of reception of the signal at a given speed signal. At the same time to improve the accuracy using an excessive number of emitters (e.g., five in the three-dimensional positioning) and iterative least squares Gow is sa-Newton.

The disadvantage of this method is the inevitable presence of systematic errors due to the a priori assignment of the speed signal. Signal in an inhomogeneous medium passes from each of the beacons its curved path, and the physical conditions in each of their own ways. Accordingly, any a priori assignment of the speed signal contains an implicit averaging, based on certain navigation conditions, does not necessarily coincide with the terms of this navigation session. This becomes the source of poorly controlled systematic errors of the method. To improve accuracy for satellite systems impose different atmospheric corrections, however, many researchers note that they sometimes even worsen the results (see Serapinas B.B. Global positioning system. - M.: the IPC Directory, 2002, p.45).

The present invention is to improve the accuracy of positioning of the receiver.

This is achieved in that in the method of determining the Cartesian coordinates of the receiver, which consists in the simultaneous emission of a signal at an unknown point in time, multiple emitters with known coordinates with the subsequent calculation of the coordinates of the receiver on the moments of the reception signal at the time of reception of the signal from the last emitter measure the square of the speed with which they persecuted the time of reception of the signal in the current navigation session.

Measuring the square of the speed signal at the time of reception of the signal in the current navigation session, in fact, define the effective speed of the signal. Possible as flat (typical for marine and land navigation), and three-dimensional (typical for submarine and satellite navigation) implement the method. Let n be the dimension of the space R^{n}in which positioning, n=2, 3. To implement the proposed method requires at least n+2 beacon emitter. Unknown column Cartesian coordinates x∈R^{n}receiver, unknown time τ simultaneous radiation and unknown speed signal are related to the n+2 equations

where a_{j}∈R^{n}- known location of the j-th emitter.

Without limiting the generality of the place

, t_{0}=0,

where- zero column. Then the original system can be written in equivalent form as

where x^{2}=x^{T}x - scalar square (•)^{T}- transpose operation.

Subtracting the first equation (2) from the remaining equations (3), we obtain the subsystem

In the new unknown variables

θ=c^{2}τ, x κ=C^{2}

systems is (2), (3), (4) is equivalent to the system

Let L be the matrix of coefficients of linear (n+1)×(n+1) system of equations (6) relative to column X=(θ,x^{t})^{t}that θ=X_{0}column u consists of a_{j} ^{2}and the column ν consists of (-t_{j} ^{2}), j=1, ...,n+1. Then from (6) X=U+k·V, where U=L^{-1}·u, V=L^{-1}·ν. Denoting p=U_{0}q=V_{0}, R_{i}=U_{i}, Q_{i}=V_{i}, i=1, ..., n, we get

After substituting (8), (9) in (5) we obtain a cubic with respect to the equation

Q^{2}κ^{3}+(2P^{T}Q-q^{2})κ^{2}+(R^{2}-2q)κ-R^{2}=0.

Let κ_{1}that κ_{2}that κ_{3}his roots. From these roots is selected root κ_{*}closest to par. In the end, the desired x is calculated by the formula

x=R+κ_{*}·Q+a_{0}.

Below is MathCAD procedure X(t) processing column t of the moments of the reception signal in the proposed method. Figure 1 shows the model configuration differential-ranging system with parameters close to the satellite radio navigation system. Figure 2 shows a graph of the relationship of the accuracy of the prototype method to the proposed method, depending on the relationship to the accuracy of the speed signal to the precision of the watch receiver.

Glazeware of the proposed method with the known method was used simulation model in MathCAD 11 (see
the following procedure SS). In this model, for an arbitrary configuration 5 beacon emitters and receiver in three-dimensional space compared to the work of well-known methods with the proposed method with the same input data. For specific configuration parameters close to satellite radionavigation system, when five satellites - the vertices of the hexagon, two of them are in the Zenith, the receiver on the Earth's surface, the origin in the center of the Earth (see figure 1 and the original data, the result of the comparison methods were as follows. In real terms that the root mean square error (RMSE) measure the time the GPS receiver is σ_{t}=0.001 µs and standard deviation of the speed of light there σ_{c}- 0.0001 m/µs (see Berliawsky physics course. Volume 1. The H. Kittel, knight, U., Ruderman, M. Mechanics - M.: Nauka, 1975, s-342) the accuracy of the proposed method is superior to the accuracy of this method in the s=6 times according to the results of 100 simulation trials using the procedure SS.

The graph of s=s(γ), where

shown in figure 2. From this graph, it follows that the proposed method is more accurate known method, the more accurate the clock of the receiver with respect to the accuracy of a priori assignment of the speed signal.

To play the MathCAD calculation you want to perform the standard initial installation of the sensor the random number ka, it is necessary to enter in the window menu Tools/Worksheet options/Built-in Variables and activate the Restore Defaults option.

Five beacons in three-dimensional space, the proposed method leads to a simple finite algorithm, whereas the known method requires an iterative algorithm, the precision of which depends on the initial approximation. This quality of the proposed method gives, in addition, higher performance and reliability compared to the prototype.

The method of difference-ranging definition of the Cartesian coordinates of the receiver, which consists in the simultaneous emission of the signal is unknown to the receiver point multiple emitters with known coordinates and receiving radiated signals, the receiver with the subsequent calculation of the coordinates of the receiver, wherein the measure of the square of the velocity signal in the current navigation session, and the Cartesian coordinates of the receiver calculated by the moments of reception of the emitted signals and the measured square of the speed signal.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: radio navigation aids, applicable in digital correlators of receivers of satellite radio navigation system (SPNS) signals, in particular, in digital correlators of receivers of the SPNS GLONASS (Russia) and GPS (USA) signals.

SUBSTANCE: the legitimate signal in the digital correlator is detected by the hardware, which makes it possible to relieve the load of the processor and use its released resources for solution of additional problems. The digital correlator has a commutator of the SPNS signals, processor, digital mixers, digital controllable carrier-frequency oscillator, units of digital demodulators, accumulating units, programmed delay line, control register, digital controllable code generator, reference code generator and a signal detector. The signal detector is made in the form of a square-law detector realizing the algorithm of computation of five points of the Fourier sixteen point discrete transformation with additional zeroes in the interval of one period of the, c/a code with a subsequent computation of the modules of the transformation results and their incoherent summation and comparison with a variable threshold, whose value is set up depending on the noise power and the number of the incoherent readout. The signal detector has a controller, multiplexer, complex mixer, coherent summation unit, module computation unit, incoherent summation unit, noise power estimation unit, signal presence estimation unit and a unit for determination of the frequency-time coordinates of the global maximum.

EFFECT: provided acceleration of the search and detection of signals.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: aviation engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has on-ground automated system for controlling air traffic made in a special way, interrogation unit and re-translator mounted on air vehicles and made in a special manner as well. Autonomous duplication is used for measuring distance between flying vehicles.

EFFECT: widened functional abilities.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio communication.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance with the invention, the device for radio communication provides for getting of first time base (for example, getting of the code time shift) from the signal received from the transmitter on the ground. The predetermined shift based at least on the delay of propagation of received signal is applied to the first time base for obtaining of the second time base. For example, the second time base may be equalized with the time base of the satellite system of position finding (for example, GPS NAVSTAR).

EFFECT: synchronizing signal is generated, with has a time code shift based on the second time base.

6 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: satellite radio navigation, geodesy, communication, applicable for independent instantaneous determination by users of the values of location co-ordinates, velocity vector components of the antenna phase centers of the user equipment, angular orientation in space and bearing.

SUBSTANCE: the method differs from the known one by the fact that the navigational information on the position of the antenna phase centers of ground radio beacons, information for introduction of frequency and time corrections are recorded in storages of the user navigational equipment at its manufacture, that the navigational equipment installed on satellites receives navigational radio signals from two and more ground radio beacons, and the user navigational equipment receives retransmitted signals from two satellites.

EFFECT: high precision of navigational determinations is determined by the use of phase measurements of the range increments according to the carrier frequencies of radio signals retransmitted by satellites.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to navigational technique and may be used at designing complex navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: an integrated satellite inertial-navigational system has a radioset connected through an amplifier with an antenna whose outputs are connected to a computer of the position of navigational satellites and whose inputs are connected with the block of initial installation of the almanac of data about satellites' orbits. The outputs of this computer are connected with the inputs of the block of separation of radio transmitting satellites. The outputs of this block are connected with the first group of inputs of the block of separation of a working constellation of satellites whose outputs are connected with inputs of the block of computation of a user's position. The system has also a meter of projections of absolute angle speed and a meter of projections of the vector of seeming acceleration which are correspondingly connected through a corrector of an angle speed and a corrector of seeming acceleration with the first group of inputs of the computer of navigational parameters whose outputs are connected with the first group of the outputs of the system. The system also includes a computer of initial data which is connected with three groups of inputs correspondingly to the outputs of the meter of projections of absolute angle speed and the meter of projections of a vector of seeming acceleration and to the outputs of a block of integration of information and also to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. At that part of the outputs of the computer of initial data are connected to the inputs of the computer of navigational parameters and all outputs are connected to the first group of the inputs of the block of integration of information whose second group of inputs is connected with the outputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the corrector of seeming acceleration, and the third group of inputs is connected to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. One group of the outputs of the block of integration of information is connected to the second group of the inputs of the block of selection of a working constellation of satellites, the other group of the outputs are directly connected to the second group of the outputs of the system, the third group of the outputs are connected to the inputs of the corrector of seeming acceleration and the fourth group of the outputs are connected with the inputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the second group of the inputs of the computer of initial data.

EFFECT: increases autonomous of the system, expands composition of forming signals, increases accuracy.

4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed repair team warning device contains "n" navigational satellites, dispatcher station consisting of receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit to determine corrections to radio navigational parameter for signals from each navigational satellite, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna and computer of standard values of radio navigational parameters, movable object installed on locomotive and consisting of satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit for determining location of movable object, first receiving antenna, first receiver, first demodulator, matching unit, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, second receiving antenna, second receiver and second demodulator, and warming device consisting of receiving antenna, receiver, demodulator, computing unit for determining distance between movable object, warning device, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver and control unit.

EFFECT: improved safety of track maintenance and repair teams in wide zone of operation.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in receivers of signals of satellite radio navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: the micromodule has a group of elements of the channel of the first frequency conversion signals, group of elements of the first channel of the second frequency conversion of signals, group of elements of signal condition of clock and heterodyne frequencies and a group of elements of the second channel of the second frequency conversion signals.

EFFECT: produced returned micromodule, providing simultaneous conversion of signals of standard accuracy of two systems within frequency ranges.

4 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; determination of aircraft-to-aircraft distance.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft-to-aircraft distance is determined by the following formula: where position of first of first aircraft is defined by azimuth α_{1}, slant range d_{1}, altitude h_{1} and position of second aircraft is determined by azimuth α_{2}, slant range d_{2} and altitude h_{2}. Proposed device includes aircraft azimuth indicators (1,4), flying altitude indicators (2,5), indicator of slant range to aircraft (3,6), adders (7, 14, 15, 19), multiplication units (8-12, 16, 18), cosine calculation unit 913), square root calculation units (17-20) and indicator (21).

EFFECT: avoidance of collision of aircraft; enhanced safety of flight due to determination of true aircraft-to-aircraft distance with altitude taken into account.

2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to radio technique means of determination of a direction, location, measuring of distance and speed with using of spaced antennas and measuring of a phase shift or time lag of taking from them signals.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed mode of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter is based on the transmitter's emitting of a tracing signal to the satellite, on receiving of signals of an unknown transmitter and legimite transmitters which coordinates are known, on forming a file of clusters, on selection of the best clusters out of which virtual bases are formed for calculating coordinates of legimite and unknown transmitters according to the coordinates of legimite transmitters and the results of calculation of their coordinates one can calculate mistakes of measuring which are taken into account at calculating the coordinates of the unknown transmitter.

EFFECT: increases accuracy of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter in the system of a satellite communication with a relay station on a geostationary satellite.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to radio technique means of determination of a direction, location, measuring of distance and speed with using of spaced antennas and measuring of a phase shift or time lag of taking from them signals.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed mode of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter is based on the transmitter's emitting of a tracing signal to the satellite, on receiving of signals of an unknown transmitter and legimite transmitters which coordinates are known, on forming a file of clusters, on selection of the best clusters out of which virtual bases are formed for calculating coordinates of legimite and unknown transmitters according to the coordinates of legimite transmitters and the results of calculation of their coordinates one can calculate mistakes of measuring which are taken into account at calculating the coordinates of the unknown transmitter.

EFFECT: increases accuracy of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter in the system of a satellite communication with a relay station on a geostationary satellite.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; determination of aircraft-to-aircraft distance.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft-to-aircraft distance is determined by the following formula: where position of first of first aircraft is defined by azimuth α_{1}, slant range d_{1}, altitude h_{1} and position of second aircraft is determined by azimuth α_{2}, slant range d_{2} and altitude h_{2}. Proposed device includes aircraft azimuth indicators (1,4), flying altitude indicators (2,5), indicator of slant range to aircraft (3,6), adders (7, 14, 15, 19), multiplication units (8-12, 16, 18), cosine calculation unit 913), square root calculation units (17-20) and indicator (21).

EFFECT: avoidance of collision of aircraft; enhanced safety of flight due to determination of true aircraft-to-aircraft distance with altitude taken into account.

2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in receivers of signals of satellite radio navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: the micromodule has a group of elements of the channel of the first frequency conversion signals, group of elements of the first channel of the second frequency conversion of signals, group of elements of signal condition of clock and heterodyne frequencies and a group of elements of the second channel of the second frequency conversion signals.

EFFECT: produced returned micromodule, providing simultaneous conversion of signals of standard accuracy of two systems within frequency ranges.

4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed repair team warning device contains "n" navigational satellites, dispatcher station consisting of receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit to determine corrections to radio navigational parameter for signals from each navigational satellite, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna and computer of standard values of radio navigational parameters, movable object installed on locomotive and consisting of satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit for determining location of movable object, first receiving antenna, first receiver, first demodulator, matching unit, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, second receiving antenna, second receiver and second demodulator, and warming device consisting of receiving antenna, receiver, demodulator, computing unit for determining distance between movable object, warning device, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver and control unit.

EFFECT: improved safety of track maintenance and repair teams in wide zone of operation.

6 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to navigational technique and may be used at designing complex navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: an integrated satellite inertial-navigational system has a radioset connected through an amplifier with an antenna whose outputs are connected to a computer of the position of navigational satellites and whose inputs are connected with the block of initial installation of the almanac of data about satellites' orbits. The outputs of this computer are connected with the inputs of the block of separation of radio transmitting satellites. The outputs of this block are connected with the first group of inputs of the block of separation of a working constellation of satellites whose outputs are connected with inputs of the block of computation of a user's position. The system has also a meter of projections of absolute angle speed and a meter of projections of the vector of seeming acceleration which are correspondingly connected through a corrector of an angle speed and a corrector of seeming acceleration with the first group of inputs of the computer of navigational parameters whose outputs are connected with the first group of the outputs of the system. The system also includes a computer of initial data which is connected with three groups of inputs correspondingly to the outputs of the meter of projections of absolute angle speed and the meter of projections of a vector of seeming acceleration and to the outputs of a block of integration of information and also to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. At that part of the outputs of the computer of initial data are connected to the inputs of the computer of navigational parameters and all outputs are connected to the first group of the inputs of the block of integration of information whose second group of inputs is connected with the outputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the corrector of seeming acceleration, and the third group of inputs is connected to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. One group of the outputs of the block of integration of information is connected to the second group of the inputs of the block of selection of a working constellation of satellites, the other group of the outputs are directly connected to the second group of the outputs of the system, the third group of the outputs are connected to the inputs of the corrector of seeming acceleration and the fourth group of the outputs are connected with the inputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the second group of the inputs of the computer of initial data.

EFFECT: increases autonomous of the system, expands composition of forming signals, increases accuracy.

4 dwg

FIELD: satellite radio navigation, geodesy, communication, applicable for independent instantaneous determination by users of the values of location co-ordinates, velocity vector components of the antenna phase centers of the user equipment, angular orientation in space and bearing.

SUBSTANCE: the method differs from the known one by the fact that the navigational information on the position of the antenna phase centers of ground radio beacons, information for introduction of frequency and time corrections are recorded in storages of the user navigational equipment at its manufacture, that the navigational equipment installed on satellites receives navigational radio signals from two and more ground radio beacons, and the user navigational equipment receives retransmitted signals from two satellites.

EFFECT: high precision of navigational determinations is determined by the use of phase measurements of the range increments according to the carrier frequencies of radio signals retransmitted by satellites.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: radio communication.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance with the invention, the device for radio communication provides for getting of first time base (for example, getting of the code time shift) from the signal received from the transmitter on the ground. The predetermined shift based at least on the delay of propagation of received signal is applied to the first time base for obtaining of the second time base. For example, the second time base may be equalized with the time base of the satellite system of position finding (for example, GPS NAVSTAR).

EFFECT: synchronizing signal is generated, with has a time code shift based on the second time base.

6 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: aviation engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has on-ground automated system for controlling air traffic made in a special way, interrogation unit and re-translator mounted on air vehicles and made in a special manner as well. Autonomous duplication is used for measuring distance between flying vehicles.

EFFECT: widened functional abilities.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio navigation aids, applicable in digital correlators of receivers of satellite radio navigation system (SPNS) signals, in particular, in digital correlators of receivers of the SPNS GLONASS (Russia) and GPS (USA) signals.

SUBSTANCE: the legitimate signal in the digital correlator is detected by the hardware, which makes it possible to relieve the load of the processor and use its released resources for solution of additional problems. The digital correlator has a commutator of the SPNS signals, processor, digital mixers, digital controllable carrier-frequency oscillator, units of digital demodulators, accumulating units, programmed delay line, control register, digital controllable code generator, reference code generator and a signal detector. The signal detector is made in the form of a square-law detector realizing the algorithm of computation of five points of the Fourier sixteen point discrete transformation with additional zeroes in the interval of one period of the, c/a code with a subsequent computation of the modules of the transformation results and their incoherent summation and comparison with a variable threshold, whose value is set up depending on the noise power and the number of the incoherent readout. The signal detector has a controller, multiplexer, complex mixer, coherent summation unit, module computation unit, incoherent summation unit, noise power estimation unit, signal presence estimation unit and a unit for determination of the frequency-time coordinates of the global maximum.

EFFECT: provided acceleration of the search and detection of signals.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: submarine, marine terrestrial and close-to-ground navigation, in particular type GPS and GLONASS systems.

SUBSTANCE: at a time instant, that is unknown for the receiver, a signal is synchronously radiated by several radiators with known co-ordinates. The radiated signals are received by the receiver, the signal speed square is measured in the current navigation session, the Cartesian co-ordinates of the receiver are computed according to the moments of reception of the radiated signal and the measured signal speed square.

EFFECT: enhanced precision of location of the signal receiver.

2 dwg