Method for ecologically safe refuse disposal

FIELD: mining, particularly safe refuse disposal during deep laying kimberlitic pipe excavation in extreme northern permafrost zone conditions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing protection dam of overburden and creating water-tight screen of loamy soil; stacking waste and rock mass of different types inside protective dam; dumping rock in layers along with layer slopes and berms creation. Each protective dam layer is formed along finite outline. Water-tight screen is covered with zeolite layer to neutralize poisonous gas. Rock saturated with brine is stacked inside formed bowl in direction from layer periphery towards center thereof. As layer is filled with brine-saturated rock the layer is covered with zeolite layer. Then upper layer is formed in the same order. After all layer dumping termination slopes are treated to impart variable geometry thereto and the slopes are covered with sapropel. Dump has elliptical configuration oriented depending on wind rose.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of aggressive brine-saturated rock dump stacking and storage.

1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to the mining industry and created for environmentally sound storage and saturated aggressive brines waste dumps in the development of deep-seated kimberlite pipes in the permafrost zone of the North.

The level of technology

A known method of forming the blade, including the dumping of rock layers with the formation of slopes and berms tiers (Tumakov P.I., Kovalenko V.S., A. M. Mikhailov, Kalashnikov A.T. Ecology and nature protection in open cast mining. - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University. - 1994, 418 S. - s-155).

The disadvantage of this method is not providing tartarians different types of rock in the process layer dumping of spoil.

There is also known a method of dumping, including the dumping pioneer embankments, forming between them a space for storing different types of rock and the subsequent creation of the perimeter and the surface of the blade anti-filtration layer (USSR Author's certificate No. 1180502, CL IS 41/00. How teleopathy, 1980).

However, this method limited scope, because the method does not solve the problem of safe storage of saturated aggressive brines rocks as flowing from the rocks brines and widelyused which of them poisonous gases emitted into the surrounding natural environment, contaminating it. In addition, with this method of forming the blade of its structural elements and configuration does not allow to fully perform reclamation slope factor of wind erosion.

Closest to the invention is a method of dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden, waterproof screen of loam and storage of waste within the dam (Altaner IM Designing dredging of surface mining: textbook for Universities. - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University, 1994. - s-381).

The disadvantage of this method is the low environmental friendliness due to the presence of harmful substances poisonous gases from saturated brines of rocks in the natural environment, i.e. the blade becomes a constant contaminant of air, water and vegetation cover of the earth surface.

The invention

The aim of the invention is to increase the effectiveness of safe storage and content of saturated aggressive brines waste dumps.

This objective is achieved in that according to the method is environmentally safe dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden and water-resistant screen of loam, storage of waste and different types of rock within the dam, the dumping of rock layers with images is of slopes and berms tiers, characterized in that the construction of floodwalls produce at each tier by the end of its path over the waterproof screen occiput layer of zeolites for neutralizing toxic gases, saturated brines breed warehoused formed inside of the bowl in the direction from the periphery of the layer to its centre, as the filling layer RussianAcademy rocks on top of them covered with a layer of zeolite, and then initiate the formation of the upper tier in the same sequence, after filling in all tiers of the slopes of the blade occiput sapropel, with the geometry of the blade in plan form ellipsoidal shape oriented along the wind rose.

In the proposed method, the new features in comparison with the prototype are:

- the formation of a Cup-shaped blade tiers, which initially occiput dam embankment along the contour of tier pressuresteam rocks, and then fill the inner space RussianAcademy rocks;

- to neutralize the poisonous gases emitted from recolonising rocks, covered with a layer of zeolite, and then initiate the formation of the upper tier of the blade;

the use of zeolites in the construction of floodwalls as a protective screen;

- the formation of the ellipsoidal shape of the blade oriented along the wind rose, dumping its slope is in the sapropel.

These new signs eliminate the drawbacks of the existing methods of dumping in the course of deep kimberlite mines and provide the following enhanced positive properties:

- the formation of Cup-shaped form tiers of the blade and storing them in an aggressive recolonising rocks that emit harmful toxic gases, radioactive aerosols, toxic substances, protects the external natural environment from pollution;

- floor recolonising rocks in the bowl with a layer of zeolite allows to neutralize released from brines harmful emissions, thus forming a kind of a layer of the landfill facility for hazardous mining wastes;

- use of the design of embankment dams as a protective screen filled with a layer of zeolite neutralizes harmful emissions when possible seepage through the body of the dam;

- the formation of the ellipsoidal shape of the blade and its orientation in the direction of the prevailing winds, and the dumping of its slopes sapropel allow to minimize the impact of wind erosion on the destruction of the blade and to create better conditions of work.

The whole set of new features, in General, fully guarantees the creation of dump of a new type of Environmentally safe spoil."

The method is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 from the given scheme of filling the first tier of the blade; figure 2 - section a-a; figure 3 - diagram of the formation of the second tier of the blade; figure 4 is a transverse section of the blade in its final form; figure 5 is a plan of the blade, oriented according to the wind rose.

The method is as follows.

The formation of the blade begin with filling floodwalls 1 (1) of the first tier of empty noresolvesearch rocks, creating a protective screen of a layer of loam 2, a layer of zeolites 3 (figure 2) and covering the outer slope of the tier of the blade with a layer of sapropel 4. Thus, the Cup 5 tier dump fill RussianAcademy rocks 6 and cover the top layer of zeolites 7. Then proceed to the formation of floodwalls 8 of the second tier of the blade retaining berm tier 9 (3), after which create a protective screen from the loam 2, zeolites 3 and dumping the slope of sapropel 4 produces laying recolonising rocks 6 in the Cup, the second tier of the blade.

Similar operations are performed in the same sequence on the upper tiers of the blade, forming a pile buried in his body of harmful waste. The final blade shape in the form of an ellipse 10, the long axis of which 11 are oriented in the direction of the wind rose 12, and the whole surface of the blade covered with a layer of sapropel 4 to better perform reclamation works.

A specific example of the method

the technical essence and benefits of the new technical solutions disclosed in the example of forming the stacked blade when developing deep kimberlite pipes in the conditions of existence of corrosive hydrogen sulfide brines in rocks that emit toxic substances, poisonous gases, etc.

Adopted the following initial data for calculations:

Table 1
No.Parameter:Value:
1.The height of the blade, m60
2.The height of a tier of blade, m20
3.The width of the berm layer, m6
4.The angle of repose tier blade, °28
5.Type host rocklimestone
6.The fortress of rocks on a scale professional Protodiakonov6÷8
7.Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines %15
8.Density brines, t/m31,2
9.The capacity of the blade, million m350
10.Including recolonising rocks, million m330

1. Determination of the basic parameters of the blade.

Substantiation of the basic parameters of the blade is to establish the parameters of embankment dams, contour of the tiers of the blade, the amount of work is about dumping protective screens slopes tiers, etc.

a). The number of tiers dump - nI,

where N0- the height of the blade, m; hI- the height of a tier of blade, m

b). The angle of slope of the blade - γ,

where a - long projection of the slope on the horizontal plane, m

a=H0×ctg(α)+2SHI=60×ctg(28°)+2×6=135

where α - angle of repose tier blade, °; WI- the width of the berm tier blade, m

in). Length (perimeter) of the floodwalls - Ld, m

where Vd- the volume of construction of floodwalls rock, million m3(Vd=20 million m3); Wd- the width of the floodwalls along the upper elevation, m (Wd=20 m).

g). The area slopes dumps - S0m2

If the length of the floodwalls L, the height of the blade H0and an angle of repose γ the square of the slope of the blade S0is determined by the formula

And the area of the inner surface of the floodwalls Sinm2for the storage of harmful recolonising breeds installed by the formula lateral surface of a truncated cone

d). The volume of a layer warehousing harmful recolonising rocks - Vpim3

Vpi=Spi×hi,

where Vpi- about JEM recolonising rocks, stacked in the i-th tier of blade, m3; Spi- the average cross-sectional area of the i-th layer of the blade, m2; hi- the height of the i-th layer of the blade, m (hi=hI).

Respectively for the three-tiered blade Vp1Vp2Vp3there are of expressions:

Vp2=π×R2×hI,

Vp3=Vp2+ΔV;

Vp1=Vp2-ΔV;

where Vp- the entire volume of harmful recolonising rocks deposited in the dump, m3(Vp=30 mn m3); R is the average radius of the pit of the blade for storage of harmful species, M.

Vp2=π×20×4002=10048000=10,048 million m3,

Vp3=10.048+6.65=16.7 million m3,

Vp1=10.048-6.65=3.25 million m3.

2. The rationale for the design of the blade with regard to wind erosion

The main condition for selecting the configuration of the blade is the need for engineering solutions during its formation, namely to provide such a slope, which would ensure the adhesion between the blend sapropels (liquid ooze) and adipamide rock dump (<30-35°), and prevent washout of fertilizers precipitation. According to preliminary calculations, in the first year, at the entrance of the grass and kesternich the new plants, will begin to form their root system, which should contribute to strengthening formed of the soil and vegetation and relatively to its rapid growth. Accordingly, sharply decreases in run - up to its complete neutralization) the degree of influence of wind erosion and the formation of dust clouds around the dumps.

The second condition is the height of the tiers of piles not exceeding 20-25 m, as is customary in the calculations, which is necessary for neutralizing the role of cryogenic processes on the surface of the dumps, to create conditions prevent creep of soils and offset them on the mirror defrost in warm time of the year.

The third condition is considered the necessity of taking into account wind erosion, to reduce the force which proposed giving the blade and ellipsoidal forms deployed by the dominant winds, which reduces the area of the "counter"screen, its flow and, accordingly, the amount raised dust in summer and winter. In the recommended new technological solution considering the above slopes tiers dumps formed at angles of 28°and the long axis of the ellipsoidal blade is oriented to the Northwest (figure 5), where winds are prevailing during the year the winds.

3. Rationale the effectiveness of zeolites and sapropels in the design of environmentally friendly blade.

The use of zeolites due to their extremely high physical-mechanical and adsorptive properties, which allows the direct use them as natural sorbents to absorb cations of heavy metals, toxic gases and petroleum products: since the physico-mechanical properties based on their mechanical strength, porosity and permeability, high humidity and high cation exchange capacity (from 45 to 73 mEq. 100 g of rock);

- Chemical properties predetermine a high degree of selective absorption of cations scheme

Cs>Rb>K>NH4>Pb>Ag>Ba.Na.Sr>Li>Cd>Ca>Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe>Co>Ni,

what is aimed at creating a buffer mixture in otvaloobrazovanija rocks to absorb the odor of hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons from flooded and bituminous rocks underground aquifers, neutralization processes water migration, chemically hazardous elements in the modern weathering dumps and sorbirovaniya them, because the actual mineral composition and chemical properties of zeolites allow to consider them as newly formed mineral Supplement for reclamation and planting of dumps, which are due to absorbed nutrients (Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, Mo, Ba, P, Ca) form a favorable growth medium for plants (Actual problems mastered what I zeolite deposits of Hangaroo, Yakutsk. 2005).

According to the known characteristics of natural zeolites (true density 2200-2410 kg/m3; bulk density 1680-1940 kg/m3; total porosity 19-31%; abrasion of 0.4-8%; humidity 8-18,5%; adsorption pairs of water a 6.2-8.2%) and experimental data of the adsorption properties of zeolites (for example, for the extraction of petroleum products from aqueous and gaseous media) for sorption of dissolved hydrocarbons in contact with zeolite and water, containing 5.9 mg/l gases, it is necessary only 7 days. The maximum amount of adsorption of zeolite in static conditions is 12×10-3mg/kg Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines (for example, district, peace) is up to 15%. Density brines 1.2 t/m3. The capacity of the blade (when h=60 m, h tier=20 m; the width of the berm tier - 6 m) up to 50 million m3including recolonising breeds up to 30 million m3. Accordingly, for the degassing of rocks and create a buffer adsorption of the mixture, the thickness of the zeolite layer should be at least 0,5-0,75 m

The use of sapropels (liquid silts) in dumping dumps is intended to create favorable conditions for plant growth at the initial stage of formation of native soil mineral layer as purely carbonate composition kimberlycolemusic rocks of early Paleozoic, the high degree of water content due to the highly mineralized RA is Solow underground aquifers is extremely unfavorable to vegetation, and relative stability (fortress) limestone and dolomite determines the duration of their physico-chemical destruction, which accordingly requires additional factors contributing to the formation of modern soils in the dumps.

Sapropels are organic modern sediments of closed water bodies (lakes), formed due to decomposition products, living in them, vegetative, animal organisms and introduced vegetation, saturated dissolved biogenic oxides and elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, P, and others), is widely used in agriculture as fertilizers for depleted, soil and crop improvement (including, to increase the amount of biomass).

The sapropel extraction (liquid sludge), after appropriate training, the potential of the numerous lakes around quarries, peaceful, Successful, Aikhal, around fields nacascolo and top-of Minskogo kimberlite fields.

High degree of moisture (before yield) sapropelic muds determines the possibility of their spreading over the surface of the dumps, fill miglionico space and the formation of a solid organic-mineral layer with a capacity of up to 5-10 cm

Thus, compliance with the proposed engineering solutions allows you to:

- due to the zeolite supplements and creation of a buffer mixture to ensure acuautla terms of absorption of toxic gases, adsorption of chemical substances and reduction of the role of processes of water migration and scattering around dumps, which increases the degree of their environmental sustainability;

- due to the dumping of sapropel (liquid sludge) creates an artificial basis of organo-mineral layer, contributing to the rapid formation of a modern soil cover on the surface of the dumps. Thereby significantly reduce time and costs on long-term reclamation of dumps;

- expected "solid greening grass of the surface of the piles already in the first year and its full restoration in 2-3 years. The ecological importance of quick landscaping obvious, reinforced purely psychological factor - the elimination of "dead lunar landscapes";

design change height, number and shape of the tiers of old and new tips will allow you to create original and personal view of the landscape around each field (city). This achieves the effect environmentally friendly modern urban planning;

- ability to use different height dumps for snow slides, jumps and mountain-ski slopes in spring and winter as seasonal recreational areas for the local population.

A positive effect is seen in the solution of social, cultural and Wellness activities at the expense of local resources is impressive.

4. Techno-economic and environmental benefits of the new technical solutions.

Improving the efficiency of secure warehousing, content rich, aggressive brines rocks on the dumps, to create favorable conditions for plant growth (reclamation works) is:

1. Isolation breeds in the body of the blade when a layer stocking.

2. Neutralization of harmful secretions aggressive breeds by filling them zeolites.

3. By giving the blade in terms of ellipsoidal form, expanded on the "rose of the winds", the geometry of the slopes of the lowest tiers best corners, which together provide a high resistance to wind erosion.

4. The floor slopes dumps the sapropel (liquid ooze) to form their own soil mineral layer for plant growth.

The payment procedure is as follows:

a). Determining the cost of sapropel Vcthe filling of the slope of the blade thickness Δhcm:

Vc=S0+Δhc=442600×0.075=33200=33,2 thousand m3

b). Calculation of the volume of zeolites VCto neutralize the poisonous toxic gases by dumping recolonising breeds thick ΔhCm:

VC=ΔhC×(Sin+4×π×R2)=0.625×(361.6+4×π×4002)=1482000=1482,0 thousand m3

in). Consumption is Politov, attributable to neutralize the poisonous secretions of 1 m3recolonising rocks, - ΔVC,

g). According to expert assessments on existing dumps reduction in dust clouds in the destruction of slopes stockpiles wind erosion and yield soils with slopes is only 5÷10%. The introduction of new technical solutions will be almost completely eliminated dust cloud around dumps and harmful gas emissions from stored recolonising rocks. Will significantly improve the ecological situation in the regions of mining operations.

The results of the calculations are summarized in table 2.

Table 2

The expected improvement in environmentally safe dumping
№№ P/pIndicesCurrent technologyFeatured technology
1.Increasing areas fully restored lands, thousand m2-TP 442.6
2.Consumption of sapropel on the landfilling of the slope of the blade, thousand m3-33,2
3.The area of the inner side over the spine of floodwalls, thousand m2-361,6
4.Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines %15,015,0
5.Consumption of zeolites to neutralize the harmful discharge, thousand m3-1482,0
6.Specific consumption of zeolites attributable to neutralize the harmful discharge from 1 m3recolonising breeds, m3/m3-0,05
7.Reduction of dust clouds around dumps, %5÷1095÷100
8.The reduction of harmful gas emissions from dumps, %-95÷100
9.The improvement of the ecological situation in the region-2÷2,5

The method is environmentally safe dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden and water-resistant screen of loam, storage of waste and different types of rock within the dam, the dumping of rock layers with the formation of slopes and berms layers, characterized in that the construction of floodwalls produce at each tier by the end of its path over the water screen is on occiput layer of zeolites for neutralization of toxic gases, rich brines breed warehoused formed inside of the bowl in the direction from the periphery of the layer to its centre, as the filling layer RussianAcademy rocks on top of them covered with a layer of zeolite, then proceed to the formation of the upper tier in the same sequence, after dumping all tiers of profile geometry of the slopes give the unstable slope for filling the sapropel, and the configuration of the blade form an ellipsoidal shape oriented along the wind rose.



 

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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