Method for ecologically safe refuse disposal
FIELD: mining, particularly safe refuse disposal during deep laying kimberlitic pipe excavation in extreme northern permafrost zone conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing protection dam of overburden and creating water-tight screen of loamy soil; stacking waste and rock mass of different types inside protective dam; dumping rock in layers along with layer slopes and berms creation. Each protective dam layer is formed along finite outline. Water-tight screen is covered with zeolite layer to neutralize poisonous gas. Rock saturated with brine is stacked inside formed bowl in direction from layer periphery towards center thereof. As layer is filled with brine-saturated rock the layer is covered with zeolite layer. Then upper layer is formed in the same order. After all layer dumping termination slopes are treated to impart variable geometry thereto and the slopes are covered with sapropel. Dump has elliptical configuration oriented depending on wind rose.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of aggressive brine-saturated rock dump stacking and storage.
1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to the mining industry and created for environmentally sound storage and saturated aggressive brines waste dumps in the development of deep-seated kimberlite pipes in the permafrost zone of the North.
The level of technology
A known method of forming the blade, including the dumping of rock layers with the formation of slopes and berms tiers (Tumakov P.I., Kovalenko V.S., A. M. Mikhailov, Kalashnikov A.T. Ecology and nature protection in open cast mining. - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University. - 1994, 418 S. - s-155).
The disadvantage of this method is not providing tartarians different types of rock in the process layer dumping of spoil.
There is also known a method of dumping, including the dumping pioneer embankments, forming between them a space for storing different types of rock and the subsequent creation of the perimeter and the surface of the blade anti-filtration layer (USSR Author's certificate No. 1180502, CL IS 41/00. How teleopathy, 1980).
However, this method limited scope, because the method does not solve the problem of safe storage of saturated aggressive brines rocks as flowing from the rocks brines and widelyused which of them poisonous gases emitted into the surrounding natural environment, contaminating it. In addition, with this method of forming the blade of its structural elements and configuration does not allow to fully perform reclamation slope factor of wind erosion.
Closest to the invention is a method of dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden, waterproof screen of loam and storage of waste within the dam (Altaner IM Designing dredging of surface mining: textbook for Universities. - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University, 1994. - s-381).
The disadvantage of this method is the low environmental friendliness due to the presence of harmful substances poisonous gases from saturated brines of rocks in the natural environment, i.e. the blade becomes a constant contaminant of air, water and vegetation cover of the earth surface.
The aim of the invention is to increase the effectiveness of safe storage and content of saturated aggressive brines waste dumps.
This objective is achieved in that according to the method is environmentally safe dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden and water-resistant screen of loam, storage of waste and different types of rock within the dam, the dumping of rock layers with images is of slopes and berms tiers, characterized in that the construction of floodwalls produce at each tier by the end of its path over the waterproof screen occiput layer of zeolites for neutralizing toxic gases, saturated brines breed warehoused formed inside of the bowl in the direction from the periphery of the layer to its centre, as the filling layer RussianAcademy rocks on top of them covered with a layer of zeolite, and then initiate the formation of the upper tier in the same sequence, after filling in all tiers of the slopes of the blade occiput sapropel, with the geometry of the blade in plan form ellipsoidal shape oriented along the wind rose.
In the proposed method, the new features in comparison with the prototype are:
- the formation of a Cup-shaped blade tiers, which initially occiput dam embankment along the contour of tier pressuresteam rocks, and then fill the inner space RussianAcademy rocks;
- to neutralize the poisonous gases emitted from recolonising rocks, covered with a layer of zeolite, and then initiate the formation of the upper tier of the blade;
the use of zeolites in the construction of floodwalls as a protective screen;
- the formation of the ellipsoidal shape of the blade oriented along the wind rose, dumping its slope is in the sapropel.
These new signs eliminate the drawbacks of the existing methods of dumping in the course of deep kimberlite mines and provide the following enhanced positive properties:
- the formation of Cup-shaped form tiers of the blade and storing them in an aggressive recolonising rocks that emit harmful toxic gases, radioactive aerosols, toxic substances, protects the external natural environment from pollution;
- floor recolonising rocks in the bowl with a layer of zeolite allows to neutralize released from brines harmful emissions, thus forming a kind of a layer of the landfill facility for hazardous mining wastes;
- use of the design of embankment dams as a protective screen filled with a layer of zeolite neutralizes harmful emissions when possible seepage through the body of the dam;
- the formation of the ellipsoidal shape of the blade and its orientation in the direction of the prevailing winds, and the dumping of its slopes sapropel allow to minimize the impact of wind erosion on the destruction of the blade and to create better conditions of work.
The whole set of new features, in General, fully guarantees the creation of dump of a new type of Environmentally safe spoil."
The method is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 from the given scheme of filling the first tier of the blade; figure 2 - section a-a; figure 3 - diagram of the formation of the second tier of the blade; figure 4 is a transverse section of the blade in its final form; figure 5 is a plan of the blade, oriented according to the wind rose.
The method is as follows.
The formation of the blade begin with filling floodwalls 1 (1) of the first tier of empty noresolvesearch rocks, creating a protective screen of a layer of loam 2, a layer of zeolites 3 (figure 2) and covering the outer slope of the tier of the blade with a layer of sapropel 4. Thus, the Cup 5 tier dump fill RussianAcademy rocks 6 and cover the top layer of zeolites 7. Then proceed to the formation of floodwalls 8 of the second tier of the blade retaining berm tier 9 (3), after which create a protective screen from the loam 2, zeolites 3 and dumping the slope of sapropel 4 produces laying recolonising rocks 6 in the Cup, the second tier of the blade.
Similar operations are performed in the same sequence on the upper tiers of the blade, forming a pile buried in his body of harmful waste. The final blade shape in the form of an ellipse 10, the long axis of which 11 are oriented in the direction of the wind rose 12, and the whole surface of the blade covered with a layer of sapropel 4 to better perform reclamation works.
A specific example of the method
the technical essence and benefits of the new technical solutions disclosed in the example of forming the stacked blade when developing deep kimberlite pipes in the conditions of existence of corrosive hydrogen sulfide brines in rocks that emit toxic substances, poisonous gases, etc.
Adopted the following initial data for calculations:
|1.||The height of the blade, m||60|
|2.||The height of a tier of blade, m||20|
|3.||The width of the berm layer, m||6|
|4.||The angle of repose tier blade, °||28|
|5.||Type host rock||limestone|
|6.||The fortress of rocks on a scale professional Protodiakonov||6÷8|
|7.||Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines %||15|
|8.||Density brines, t/m3||1,2|
|9.||The capacity of the blade, million m3||50|
|10.||Including recolonising rocks, million m3||30|
1. Determination of the basic parameters of the blade.
Substantiation of the basic parameters of the blade is to establish the parameters of embankment dams, contour of the tiers of the blade, the amount of work is about dumping protective screens slopes tiers, etc.
a). The number of tiers dump - nI,
where N0- the height of the blade, m; hI- the height of a tier of blade, m
b). The angle of slope of the blade - γ,
where a - long projection of the slope on the horizontal plane, m
where α - angle of repose tier blade, °; WI- the width of the berm tier blade, m
in). Length (perimeter) of the floodwalls - Ld, m
where Vd- the volume of construction of floodwalls rock, million m3(Vd=20 million m3); Wd- the width of the floodwalls along the upper elevation, m (Wd=20 m).
g). The area slopes dumps - S0m2
If the length of the floodwalls L, the height of the blade H0and an angle of repose γ the square of the slope of the blade S0is determined by the formula
And the area of the inner surface of the floodwalls Sinm2for the storage of harmful recolonising breeds installed by the formula lateral surface of a truncated cone
d). The volume of a layer warehousing harmful recolonising rocks - Vpim3
where Vpi- about JEM recolonising rocks, stacked in the i-th tier of blade, m3; Spi- the average cross-sectional area of the i-th layer of the blade, m2; hi- the height of the i-th layer of the blade, m (hi=hI).
Respectively for the three-tiered blade Vp1Vp2Vp3there are of expressions:
where Vp- the entire volume of harmful recolonising rocks deposited in the dump, m3(Vp=30 mn m3); R is the average radius of the pit of the blade for storage of harmful species, M.
Vp2=π×20×4002=10048000=10,048 million m3,
Vp3=10.048+6.65=16.7 million m3,
Vp1=10.048-6.65=3.25 million m3.
2. The rationale for the design of the blade with regard to wind erosion
The main condition for selecting the configuration of the blade is the need for engineering solutions during its formation, namely to provide such a slope, which would ensure the adhesion between the blend sapropels (liquid ooze) and adipamide rock dump (<30-35°), and prevent washout of fertilizers precipitation. According to preliminary calculations, in the first year, at the entrance of the grass and kesternich the new plants, will begin to form their root system, which should contribute to strengthening formed of the soil and vegetation and relatively to its rapid growth. Accordingly, sharply decreases in run - up to its complete neutralization) the degree of influence of wind erosion and the formation of dust clouds around the dumps.
The second condition is the height of the tiers of piles not exceeding 20-25 m, as is customary in the calculations, which is necessary for neutralizing the role of cryogenic processes on the surface of the dumps, to create conditions prevent creep of soils and offset them on the mirror defrost in warm time of the year.
The third condition is considered the necessity of taking into account wind erosion, to reduce the force which proposed giving the blade and ellipsoidal forms deployed by the dominant winds, which reduces the area of the "counter"screen, its flow and, accordingly, the amount raised dust in summer and winter. In the recommended new technological solution considering the above slopes tiers dumps formed at angles of 28°and the long axis of the ellipsoidal blade is oriented to the Northwest (figure 5), where winds are prevailing during the year the winds.
3. Rationale the effectiveness of zeolites and sapropels in the design of environmentally friendly blade.>
The use of zeolites due to their extremely high physical-mechanical and adsorptive properties, which allows the direct use them as natural sorbents to absorb cations of heavy metals, toxic gases and petroleum products: since the physico-mechanical properties based on their mechanical strength, porosity and permeability, high humidity and high cation exchange capacity (from 45 to 73 mEq. 100 g of rock);
- Chemical properties predetermine a high degree of selective absorption of cations scheme
what is aimed at creating a buffer mixture in otvaloobrazovanija rocks to absorb the odor of hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons from flooded and bituminous rocks underground aquifers, neutralization processes water migration, chemically hazardous elements in the modern weathering dumps and sorbirovaniya them, because the actual mineral composition and chemical properties of zeolites allow to consider them as newly formed mineral Supplement for reclamation and planting of dumps, which are due to absorbed nutrients (Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, Mo, Ba, P, Ca) form a favorable growth medium for plants (Actual problems mastered what I zeolite deposits of Hangaroo, Yakutsk. 2005).
According to the known characteristics of natural zeolites (true density 2200-2410 kg/m3; bulk density 1680-1940 kg/m3; total porosity 19-31%; abrasion of 0.4-8%; humidity 8-18,5%; adsorption pairs of water a 6.2-8.2%) and experimental data of the adsorption properties of zeolites (for example, for the extraction of petroleum products from aqueous and gaseous media) for sorption of dissolved hydrocarbons in contact with zeolite and water, containing 5.9 mg/l gases, it is necessary only 7 days. The maximum amount of adsorption of zeolite in static conditions is 12×10-3mg/kg Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines (for example, district, peace) is up to 15%. Density brines 1.2 t/m3. The capacity of the blade (when h=60 m, h tier=20 m; the width of the berm tier - 6 m) up to 50 million m3including recolonising breeds up to 30 million m3. Accordingly, for the degassing of rocks and create a buffer adsorption of the mixture, the thickness of the zeolite layer should be at least 0,5-0,75 m
The use of sapropels (liquid silts) in dumping dumps is intended to create favorable conditions for plant growth at the initial stage of formation of native soil mineral layer as purely carbonate composition kimberlycolemusic rocks of early Paleozoic, the high degree of water content due to the highly mineralized RA is Solow underground aquifers is extremely unfavorable to vegetation, and relative stability (fortress) limestone and dolomite determines the duration of their physico-chemical destruction, which accordingly requires additional factors contributing to the formation of modern soils in the dumps.
Sapropels are organic modern sediments of closed water bodies (lakes), formed due to decomposition products, living in them, vegetative, animal organisms and introduced vegetation, saturated dissolved biogenic oxides and elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, P, and others), is widely used in agriculture as fertilizers for depleted, soil and crop improvement (including, to increase the amount of biomass).
The sapropel extraction (liquid sludge), after appropriate training, the potential of the numerous lakes around quarries, peaceful, Successful, Aikhal, around fields nacascolo and top-of Minskogo kimberlite fields.
High degree of moisture (before yield) sapropelic muds determines the possibility of their spreading over the surface of the dumps, fill miglionico space and the formation of a solid organic-mineral layer with a capacity of up to 5-10 cm
Thus, compliance with the proposed engineering solutions allows you to:
- due to the zeolite supplements and creation of a buffer mixture to ensure acuautla terms of absorption of toxic gases, adsorption of chemical substances and reduction of the role of processes of water migration and scattering around dumps, which increases the degree of their environmental sustainability;
- due to the dumping of sapropel (liquid sludge) creates an artificial basis of organo-mineral layer, contributing to the rapid formation of a modern soil cover on the surface of the dumps. Thereby significantly reduce time and costs on long-term reclamation of dumps;
- expected "solid greening grass of the surface of the piles already in the first year and its full restoration in 2-3 years. The ecological importance of quick landscaping obvious, reinforced purely psychological factor - the elimination of "dead lunar landscapes";
design change height, number and shape of the tiers of old and new tips will allow you to create original and personal view of the landscape around each field (city). This achieves the effect environmentally friendly modern urban planning;
- ability to use different height dumps for snow slides, jumps and mountain-ski slopes in spring and winter as seasonal recreational areas for the local population.
A positive effect is seen in the solution of social, cultural and Wellness activities at the expense of local resources is impressive.
4. Techno-economic and environmental benefits of the new technical solutions.
Improving the efficiency of secure warehousing, content rich, aggressive brines rocks on the dumps, to create favorable conditions for plant growth (reclamation works) is:
1. Isolation breeds in the body of the blade when a layer stocking.
2. Neutralization of harmful secretions aggressive breeds by filling them zeolites.
3. By giving the blade in terms of ellipsoidal form, expanded on the "rose of the winds", the geometry of the slopes of the lowest tiers best corners, which together provide a high resistance to wind erosion.
4. The floor slopes dumps the sapropel (liquid ooze) to form their own soil mineral layer for plant growth.
The payment procedure is as follows:
a). Determining the cost of sapropel Vcthe filling of the slope of the blade thickness Δhcm:
Vc=S0+Δhc=442600×0.075=33200=33,2 thousand m3
b). Calculation of the volume of zeolites VCto neutralize the poisonous toxic gases by dumping recolonising breeds thick ΔhCm:
VC=ΔhC×(Sin+4×π×R2)=0.625×(361.6+4×π×4002)=1482000=1482,0 thousand m3
in). Consumption is Politov, attributable to neutralize the poisonous secretions of 1 m3recolonising rocks, - ΔVC,
g). According to expert assessments on existing dumps reduction in dust clouds in the destruction of slopes stockpiles wind erosion and yield soils with slopes is only 5÷10%. The introduction of new technical solutions will be almost completely eliminated dust cloud around dumps and harmful gas emissions from stored recolonising rocks. Will significantly improve the ecological situation in the regions of mining operations.
The results of the calculations are summarized in table 2.
The expected improvement in environmentally safe dumping
|№№ P/p||Indices||Current technology||Featured technology|
|1.||Increasing areas fully restored lands, thousand m2||-||TP 442.6|
|2.||Consumption of sapropel on the landfilling of the slope of the blade, thousand m3||-||33,2|
|3.||The area of the inner side over the spine of floodwalls, thousand m2||-||361,6|
|4.||Saturation kimberlycolemusic rocks brines %||15,0||15,0|
|5.||Consumption of zeolites to neutralize the harmful discharge, thousand m3||-||1482,0|
|6.||Specific consumption of zeolites attributable to neutralize the harmful discharge from 1 m3recolonising breeds, m3/m3||-||0,05|
|7.||Reduction of dust clouds around dumps, %||5÷10||95÷100|
|8.||The reduction of harmful gas emissions from dumps, %||-||95÷100|
|9.||The improvement of the ecological situation in the region||-||2÷2,5|
The method is environmentally safe dumping, including the construction of floodwalls of overburden and water-resistant screen of loam, storage of waste and different types of rock within the dam, the dumping of rock layers with the formation of slopes and berms layers, characterized in that the construction of floodwalls produce at each tier by the end of its path over the water screen is on occiput layer of zeolites for neutralization of toxic gases, rich brines breed warehoused formed inside of the bowl in the direction from the periphery of the layer to its centre, as the filling layer RussianAcademy rocks on top of them covered with a layer of zeolite, then proceed to the formation of the upper tier in the same sequence, after dumping all tiers of profile geometry of the slopes give the unstable slope for filling the sapropel, and the configuration of the blade form an ellipsoidal shape oriented along the wind rose.
FIELD: mining, particularly opened development of horizontal and gently sloping mineral deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting next to last overburden bench; providing explosion to shift rock to goaf during above cutting operation; forming road over shifted rock; performing transportation of rock cut from next to last bench; transporting rock remaining after explosion out of ore body outline along with rock bench slope cleaning and ore body roof cleaning; removing remaining cone with bulldozer; digging-out pit along contact line between ore and shifted rock; mining mineral and transporting thereof along temporary ore-transportation road formed over shifted rock pile.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development, increased discharge coefficient, decreased distance of next to last bench and mineral rock transportation.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during open combined excavation of bed deposits with two coal formations with alternating extraction of formations and parting and technology of stripping operations based on transporting and non-transporting excavation system.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, at predetermined sections usable for processing parting in accordance to transport-less dragline technology, special dumping vessels are created and moved for required value towards excavated space, meant later for excavation of parting rocks into them. Volumes and amount of these vessels is determined depending on mining conditions and parameters of stripping equipment. Therefore, a part of volumes of transport stripping is redistributed to non-transport stripping.
EFFECT: lower costs of stripping operations and less harmful blowouts into atmosphere from vehicle transport.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, in particular, technology for extracting mineral resource deposits, possible use for extracting ores of balance and over-balance resources during extraction of mineral resources.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparing the massif, supplying reagents, draining solutions, sedimentation of useful components. Ore sections of useful components are detected in massif beyond limits of pit contour above the level of depression cone. These massif portions in pit sides are subjected to explosive crushing, well is drilled to upper area of each prepared ore section, and then lixiviation solutions with reagents are fed into the well. Solutions, self-flowing downwards along ore section, lixiviate metal and then enter common flow of underground waters, formed by depression cone. Sedimentation of metal is performed in the pit on geo-chemical barrier, in place of common exit of subterranean waters.
EFFECT: ensured fullness of extraction and high efficiency when completing a formation in accordance to open method.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use mainly during extraction of argillaceous placers by open method.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical shrinkage of mass and extraction of sands using digging-transporting equipment. Shrinkage of mass is performed with creation of crowns, and extraction of sands is performed by cutting off aforementioned crowns.
EFFECT: increased recovery of useful components from argillaceous sands of mass, containing large pieces.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mining of mineral deposits in the case of limited vertical ore bodies, for instance kimberlite pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming pit sides having inclinations less than minimal possible ones to provide pit side stability; preparing rock for further excavation by drilling-and-blasting operations; transporting ore and overburden via main incline by wheeled vehicle; forming transfer point plate at the second stage; excavating up to design depth along with forming pit sides having maximal possible inclinations, which provide pit side stability; cutting main incline from transfer point plate, wherein inclination thereof is increased in longitudinal direction; cutting ore pillars of the first stage; forming pit side having high ledges; forming lower ledge along ore body outline; forming temporary incline in one pit part; transporting ore and overburden to transfer point plate by means of caterpillar vehicle; forming temporary incline to provide pit cutting to design depth and cutting ore pillars under temporary incline.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit excavation due to reduced overburden volume within the bounds of deep limited pits.
3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stepping rock up to design outline with leading in the first stage pit edge; transporting ore along main decline to plant and stacking overburden in dump; excavating connection entry between the first stage pit and the second stage pit so that the entry is opened in previously excavated the first stage pit; cutting the second stage pit; transporting ore and overburden from the second order pit via connection entry; depositing overburden from the second order pit in the first stage pit goaf after termination of the first stage pit excavation. Before ore and overburden transportation from second order pit via connection entry overburden excavated from the second order pit is accumulated in outer dump. Overburden from the second order pit is conveyed to day surface along temporary decline system. When the second pit side reaches designed outermost outline temporary declines are killed.
EFFECT: reduced costs of deposit development and decreased hazardous action of mining operations on environment.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of coal, ore and non-ore deposits by open method.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, geological structure of massif is analyzed, position of potential sliding surface is detected, physical and mechanical properties of rocks are determined. Along profile parallel to edge of shelf in its middle portion, frequency of alternation of impulses of natural electromagnetic radiation is measured. On intervals where this frequency exceeds level of background radiation more than 2 times, interval-wise measurement of relation of strength level of signal electric field at two working frequencies is performed. By means of computed logarithmic dependence, depth of location of potential sliding surface is determined. With consideration of change of this depth, structure of massif, technological parameters and physical-mechanical properties of rocks, values of stability reserve coefficients are calculated on basis of ratio of momentums of holding and moving forces within limits of detected dangerous portion. Probability of landslide development is evaluated on basis of minimal values of stability reserve coefficients.
EFFECT: increased precision when predicting stability of quarry sides.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use in deep quarries extracted with utilization of motor and conveyor transport.
SUBSTANCE: method includes transportation of rock mass from excavation faces by dump trucks and loading it through mobile crusher plant, mounted at temporarily shut down section of quarry, and transit ribbon conveyor, located in the mine on end side of quarry, onto ribbon conveyor lift, positioned in mines on end side of quarry. After update of quarry with positioning of mobile crusher plant at temporarily shut down section of quarry side, transit conveyor is disassembled, crusher block from mobile crusher plant is moved and mounted above end section of conveyor lift, in semi-trench driven preliminarily to subjacent safety bench a bunker is assembled with plate feeder for loading crusher block, while block of rocks formed below previous locations of mobile crusher plant and dump truck unload points is extracted with transportation and loading of exploded rock mass from dump trucks and rotary platform of main ramp through bunker with feeder and through crusher block from mobile crusher plant.
EFFECT: no need for moving crusher plant and for additional motor transport unit between crusher plant and conveyor lift.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in opencast mining of hard rocks.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in multirow drilling of the block to be blasted by holes of a permanent diameter, charging of the holes by explosive, connection of the explosive charges by a blasting network and short-delay blasting of them. The quantity of the energy of the charges in the lower part of odd rows is increased, for example, by drilling of parallel drawn together holes, whose charges are not similar is height, or by expansion of the holes in this part. The net of arrangement of charges of the even and odd rows is also increased. The order of blasting is provided by laying of the blasting network, each charge of the even order is blasted after weakening the mass broken by it by blasting of the increased charges of the previous odd row. In this case the quantity of the energy of an elementary charge of holes of each row approaches the quantity of the energy required for blasting destruction of the mass broken by them, thus providing the preset degree of crushing and enhancing of the blast efficiency.
EFFECT: enhanced yield of rock mass from one running meter of the hole, reduced consumption of explosive for breaking due to rational placement of the explosive in the mass.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly open cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loading tanks at lower horizon during tank unloading at upper horizon and lowering empty tanks from upper horizon during loaded tank lifting from lower horizon; providing additional sites for tank loading at lower horizon and corresponding additional sites for tank unloading at upper horizon; laying cable in zigzag manner so that the cable passes along loading and unloading sites and creates pulling branches; connecting tank with aerostat to each pulling branch. Tanks located at upper and lower horizons are fastened to next nearest branch so that distances between loading and unloading sited along the branches are equal one to another. Device for above method realization is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased capacity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg