Raw oil and gas investigation plant
FIELD: oil and gas production, particularly equipment for oil and gas property investigation under reservoir conditions.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises piston container with plug and transfer unit, which moves sample from piston container into measuring press including two piston pumps having equal capacities. One piston pump delivers sample from piston container, another one lowers floating piston in measuring press. Measuring press is provided with floating piston having hollow shaft, ultrasonic linear displacement sensor for oil volume determination and electronic linear displacement sensor for gas volume determination. Circulation piston pump provides unidirectional oil circulation at controllable rate. Viscosimeter has bypass with shutoff valve. Single thermostating shell encloses all components of the plant.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of oil and gas volume and viscosity determination, decreased sample characteristic measurement time under reservoir conditions and, as a result, increased operational efficiency.
The present invention relates to installations for exploration of oil and concerns both the design of individual parts of such plants, and the relationships between them, and can be applied, in particular, to study the properties of oil and gas in situ. The invention can be used in the oil industry, including in the fields, everywhere, developed mode of dissolved gas.
A device for the study of the properties of oil and gas in situ (see Nautilus and Kvinesdal. The study of oil and gas in situ. Aznefteizdat, 1955).
A disadvantage of this device is the use of mercury as a working fluid because of the high toxicity of mercury, as well as the distortion of the results in the study of sulfur crude oil, caused by mercury.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result is setup to study reservoir oil and gas WEPN-2, which includes a piston container with sample block to transfer samples from a piston in the measuring container of the press and circulation pump, upper and lower manifolds, ball viscometer, thermostating system (see Wenamun, Grain, Bvelasco "Experimental study of reservoir oil" GASINCI Moscow, 1960, p.40).
A unit for transfer of the sample and the piston of the container in the measuring of the press and the circulation pump consists of a liquid variable-displacement pump with pressure tank and the intermediate tank.
Measuring press the setup consists of a cylinder, a piston moving inside a cylinder from the Electromechanical actuator, linear fixed scale and rotating the limb associated with the actuator, by means of which produce the volume occupied by the oil in the measuring media.
Circulating pump for mixing the sample in the measuring media with the goal of establishing phase and thermal equilibrium is made in the form of an electromagnetic pump. Circulating electromagnetic pump installation consists of non-magnetic steel, the lid of which has upper and lower fittings. Inside is an iron core with disc injection valve. On the case placed solenoid, which periodically (60 times per minute) serves the DC voltage. The resulting magnetic field is not absorbed by the non-magnetic pump housing and the effect on the iron core-piston, pulling it up. When the voltage is not fed to the solenoid, pulling the magnetic field is removed, and the core-piston forces under its own weight and recoil is returned to the lower position. Under the influence of the intermittent magnetic field and the repelling force of the spring piston acquires a reciprocating motion. When the course up under then is it a vacuum, opens the suction valve, and the oil through the hole in the bottom fitting comes in a pump cylinder. Simultaneously, the piston pushes through the upper fitting previously received portion of oil. Periodically moving up and down, the piston produces the pumping of oil from the lower part of the press in the upper part.
Viscometer installation refers to the type of instruments in which the viscosity of the liquid sample is determined by the time of the rolling ball in the inclined tube filled with the investigated liquid.
Installation WEPN-2 has a number of disadvantages: a unit for transfer of the sample liquid has adjustable pump with manual flow regulating system, which should be coordinated with the performance measurement press and apply the intermediate tank filled with oil, smoothing the pulsating flow of the fluid pump, which leads to pressure surges in the piston container and measuring press; ball viscometer has the disadvantage that any impurities or any narrowing of the orifice tube viscometer lead to "sticking" of the ball, which raises measurement errors; the presence of circulating electromagnetic pump, which has high and unregulated speed of operation of the core-piston causes the oil from the lower part of the press enters the upper part of the progress, when testing the gas filled in the form of a diffuse cloud of oil, which in addition is saturated with gas, which slows down the establishment of equilibrium in the system of oil-gas and reduces the accuracy of the measurements; the design of the measuring media is not possible to determine the volume of gas within the measuring press; separate temperature control of the measuring press and viscometer can lead to divergence of the temperature of the sample in them.
Thus, the main disadvantage of functioning installation WEPN-2 is the need to manually reconcile the liquid feed pump and performance measurement press when transferring samples; the unreliability of the ball viscometer; inefficient operation of the pump; the inability to automate measurement and accordingly their computer display in real time.
Thus, all the listed drawbacks operation WEPN-2 reduce the accuracy of the measured characteristics of the samples in situ.
The subject of the invention is a device for investigation of the properties of oil and gas in situ, which can increase the accuracy of the measured characteristics of the samples in situ.
The problem is solved in that in the setup for studying the NWO is of the oil and gas in situ, includes piston container with the sample, provided with the upper valve and the lower valve block transfer samples from the piston in the measuring container of the press, which contains a cylinder with a hole in the upper base of the cylinder to fill its breakdown, the piston moving inside a cylinder pressure sensor, the sensor linear displacement of the piston, a circulation pump, a viscometer, a vacuum pump, a thermostatic system according to the invention on the lower valve piston container with a sample of their outlet installed software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve and the upper valve connected to the valve of the vacuum pump and valve measuring the press, the block transfer samples from the piston of the container includes a vessel with the working fluid, the system of the two piston pumps, each of which is equipped with a pressure sensor, software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve actuator, the unit impulse control, each piston pump and a pressure sensor connected to the inlet of the corresponding software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve, the vessel with the working fluid connected to one of the outputs software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve each pump system, the other is the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve of one of the pumps is connected to the inlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve bottom the valve piston of the container, and the other outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve of another pump connected to the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve lower valve piston of the container and simultaneously connected with a hole in the bottom base of the measuring cylinder of the press; measuring the press is made in the form of a cylinder with a floating piston, equipped with ultrasonic sensor linear, flexible wire communication is tightly withdrawn through the lower base of the cylinder to the outside, and the sealing ring, the sealing piston and forming in the cavity of the cylinder upper and lower chambers, the opening in the upper base of the cylinder is connected to the pressure sensor and the input hole of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve, one outlet of which is connected to the viscometer, and the other outlet is connected with a piston container, a floating piston is connected to the hollow rod, hermetically extracted to the outside through the lower base of the cylinder, where the hollow shaft coaxially connected with the measuring rod through a tee compensator, which is provided with a valve, and the measuring rod with the other end attached to the linear displacement sensor, is accomplished in the form of electronic display; the circulation pump includes a piston pump, the drive unit impulse control, providing unidirectional circulation of oil with adjustable speed, and the cylinder of the piston pump is divided by the piston into two cavities, each of which is equipped with software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve, is connected via the inlet port and one outlet port of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valves connected to the viscometer, the other outlet port of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve is connected through the valve compensator with measuring pressure; viscometer made in the form of block, which includes a capillary tube, differential pressure gauge, software-controlled single pneumatic the valve system of two tees, two programmable multi-position pneumatic valve, and one of the output apertures of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve connected to a differential pressure gauge, and the other outlet port of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve connected to one end of the capillary; the inlet of each of the programmable multi-pneumatica is such valves are connected through a tee to bypass locking software-controlled single pneumatic valve, one of the tees is connected with the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve measuring the press, and the other tee is connected with the circulation pump; thermostating system is designed as a thermostatted vessel, which contains all the elements of the unit.
Such elements of the proposed installation as tees and software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valves themselves are known, but their position providing communication between the elements of the installation is new. The system pumps the same performance for sample feeding of the piston of the container and lowering the floating piston in the measuring media eliminates any pressure surges. Such items measuring press inventive installation as a floating piston, a hollow piston rod, an ultrasonic sensor linear displacement, an electronic indicator linear displacements, also are known. But the new one is a set of essential features of the design: floating piston o-ring, which divides the cylinder into two chambers, the presence of the ultrasonic sensor in the floating piston, the connection of the floating piston with electronic indicator line moves through the measuring into the hollow rod, through the compensator is connected to the circulation system oil. The result is the ability to smoothly switch from pressure equal Plast in both chambers of the measuring press to decrease the pressure in the upper chamber to the saturation pressure, which allows to determine the exact amount of both gas and oil. Use in the inventive installation two piston circulation pump, equipped with a unit impulse control and software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valves connected to the capillary viscometer, fitted tees and bypass with software-controlled single-station pneumatic valve and two software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve is new and allows the plant to operate in two modes: unidirectional continuous circulation of oil in the feed oil with viscosity measurements.
The combination of the listed new essential features of the invention unexpectedly allows you to change modes of operation at any time under any pressure and temperature while maintaining high detection accuracy of the measured parameters.
Features and advantages of the present invention explains the drawing.
The drawing shows the setup diagram for the surveys of oil and gas in situ, explain the principle of operation of the installation.
Installation for research of oil and gas in situ contains the following elements: piston container 1, the separator piston 2, the camera for sample 3 with the upper valve 4 and the chamber for the working fluid 5 from the bottom valve 6 which is connected with multi-position pneumatic valve 7. Block transfer samples from the piston of the container 1 includes a system of two piston pumps 8 and 9 respectively to the actuators 10, 11 and impulse control units 12, 13, pressure pumps 14 and 15, the multi-position pneumatic valves 16 and 17, the vessel with the working fluid 18. The pressure sensor 14 is connected to the inlet 19 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 16 and the pressure sensor 15 is connected to the inlet 20 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 17, the outlet 21 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 16 is connected to the vessel with the working fluid 18 and the outlet 22 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 16 is connected to the vessel with the working fluid 18, the outlet 23 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 16 is connected to the inlet 24 of software-controlled multi-pneumatica is anybody valve 7, and the outlet 25 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 17 is connected with the hole 26 of the lower base 27 of the measuring cylinder press and simultaneously connected with the outlet 28 of the multi-position pneumatic valve 7, a side opening 29 which is connected through the valve 6 to the camera with the working fluid piston 5 of the container with the sample 1.
Measuring press includes a cylinder 30, the upper base 31 with an opening 32 for filling the cylinder breakdown, coupled with the pressure sensor 34 and the inlet 35 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 36, through which the outlet 37 is connected to the viscometer, and through the outlet 38 to the valve 39, which is connected to the piston valve 4 of the container 1 and to the gate 40 of the vacuum pump 41, the lower chamber 42, the floating piston 43, the ultrasonic sensor 44 linear displacements with flexible wired connection 45, the hollow rod 46, the measuring rod 47, the electronic indicator 48 linear the compensator 49, provided with a valve 50 which is connected with the outlets 51 and 52 program-controlled three-position pneumatic valves 53 and 54 of the pump.
The circulation pump includes a piston pump 55, the actuator 56 with the unit impulse control 57, the piston 58, cavity 59 is 60, software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valves 53 and 54, the inlet 61 and 62 which are connected with cavities 59, 60, and output apertures 63 and 64 programmable multi-position pneumatic valves 53, 54 are connected to the viscometer.
The viscometer includes a capillary tube 65, the differential pressure gauge 66, the system of two software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valves 67 and 68, bypass blocking software-controlled single pneumatic valve 69, tees 70 and 71, and output apertures 72 and 73 programmable multi-position pneumatic valves 67 and 68 are closed by the differential pressure gauge 66 and outlet openings 74 and 75 programmable multi-position pneumatic valves 67 and 68 are connected to the ends of the capillary tube 65, the inlet 76, 77 programmable multi-position pneumatic valves 67, 68 are connected with tees 70 and 71 respectively. One of the outputs of the tee 70 through the bypass with software-controlled single pneumatic valve 69 is closed the output of the tee 71, and the second output of the tee 70 is connected with the outlet 37 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 36 measuring the press, and the second output of the tee 71 is connected with the outlet 63 of software-controlled megabasic the traditional pneumatic valve 53 and the outlet 64 of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve 54 of the pump. A single heating and cooling system 78 covers all elements of the installation.
The device operates as follows.
First prepare the measurement press to fill the cylinder of the investigated sample, providing the pump 8 and pump 9 out of phase. Before starting the pumps 8 and 9 hole 21, 25, 29 close, the openings 23, 22, 28 open. At the same time turn the pumps 8 and 9, the pump 8 pumps the working fluid in the chamber 42 of the measuring media, and the pump 9 sucks the working fluid in yourself, then simultaneously stop the plunger pump 8 in the extreme upper position, and the plunger of the pump 9 is in the lowest position. In the stopped state, the hole 21 is opened, and the openings 23 and 22 closed. Leaving holes 28 and 29 of the valve 7 in the same position, when the opening 28 is open, and 29 closed, reversiruyut the pump 8 and get it working fluid from the tank 18, while reversiruyut the pump 9 and inject the working fluid into the chamber 42 of the measuring media. In this mode the operation of the pumps 8 and 9 carry out up until the floating piston 43 measuring media will not rest against the upper base 31, and the pressure in the chamber 42 exceeds the pressure in the piston container 1, to prevent uncontrolled release of the sample at the opening of valve 4, ceasing the operation of the pump 9 in the upper position it plunge is a, and the pump 8 in an intermediate position of its plunger. After that close the openings 25 and 28, while maintaining an excess pressure in the chamber 42.
Open holes 38, 37, 72, 73, 74, 75, 69, 64, 52, 63, 51, the valves 39, 40, 50 and pumped the air with a vacuum pump 41, and then close the valve 40.
To transfer samples from a piston in the measuring container 1 of the press and the circulation pump 8 is used for pumping the working fluid in the chamber 5, and the pump 9 for pumping the working fluid from the lower chamber 42 in equal amounts.
Initially fill the void volume of the measuring press and the circulation pump in the following way. Cover the holes 22, 23 open hole 21 and connecting the pump 8, lowered his head and get into the pump 8, the working fluid from the vessel 18, after which the opening 21 is closed, open holes 23, 29, the valve 6 and the valve 4, and, lifting the plunger pump 8, push the working fluid in the lower chamber of the piston 5 of the container, stop the pump 8, the blind holes 23, 29, open hole 21 and connecting the pump 8, repeat the cycle of injection fluid into the chamber 5 until completely fill the dead volume.
After filling the dead volume measurement press and the circulation pump and achievements in the it reservoir pressure to produce a set of predetermined volume of the sample in the measuring press. DL is this, when the plunger pump 8 pushes the working fluid in the lower chamber 5 includes a pump 9, closing the outlet 22 of the valve 17 and the opening 25, and the lower plunger pump 9 with the same speed with which raise the plunger 8. When the plunger pump 8 extreme upper position the pumps 8 and 9 stop. The hole 23 is closed, the hole 21 is opened, close the hole 25, the open hole 22 include pumps 8 and 9 and, lifting the plunger of the pump 9, push the working fluid in the vessel 18. At the same time using the pump 8, pumped it working fluid from the vessel 18.
When the plunger pump 8 extreme lower position, and the plunger of the pump 9 extreme upper position the pumps 8 and 9 stop. Blind holes 21 open hole 23 and 29, close the hole 22, open hole 25 and connecting the pumps 8 and 9 repeat the cycle of injection fluid into the chamber 5 and pumping the working fluid from the chamber 42. When this occurs the flow of the sample from the chamber 3 to the upper chamber 33 while maintaining reservoir pressure.
The volume of oil in the upper chamber 33 is determined according to the indications of the electronic indicator 48 linear displacements. The operation of the pumps 8 and 9 continue until, until you pump the required volume of oil in the upper chamber 33. After injection into the upper chamber 33 is required to study the volume of the sample close the valve 39 and the hole 38. Then include the circulation pump. Start the circulation pump is produced in the following order.
Holes 52, 63, 74 and 75 is closed. The actuator 56 with the unit impulse control 57 include such a way that the piston 58 is moved upward, while the sample from the cavity 60 is served in the upper chamber 33. At the same time through the hollow piston rod 46 and the previously open valve 50 and the hole 51 is filled breakdown cavity 59. When the piston 58 to the upper position, the actuator 56 unit impulse control 57 stop, open holes 52 and 63, blind holes 51 and 64 and reversiruyut actuator 56 unit impulse control 57, while the sample from the cavity 59 is served in the upper chamber 33 and the cavity 60 is filled break through the hollow piston rod 46.
When the direction of circulation of the sample through the measuring of the press remains unchanged.
To determine the saturation pressure pump 9 when continuously operating circulation pump pumping the working fluid in the chamber 42 until, while in the upper chamber 33 will not start the gas from the oil that will be noticeable to slow the rate of pressure drop. The saturation pressure will correspond to the inflection point on the graph according to changes in the magnitude of the pressure of the volume of oil received in real-time readings of the pressure sensor 34 and the electronic indicator 48 linear displacement the deposits.
To establish the relationship between pressure and dissolved in the oil and gas pressure in the chamber 42 slowly reduced to a pressure that is less than the saturation pressure, reaching in every moment equilibrium system oil - gas in the upper chamber 33. This ultrasonic sensor 44 linear fixed distance from the upper horizontal plane of the piston 43 to the boundary between gas and oil, which allows to determine the amount of oil and gas volume is calculated as the dierence between the total volume of the upper chamber 33 defined by the electronic display 48 linear displacement, and volume of oil determined using ultrasonic sensor 44 linear movements.
Thus, the use of the claimed measuring press increases the accuracy of measurements of the volumes of oil and gas and additionally allows to obtain a continuous graphical dependence of pressure on volume for oil and gas.
For measuring the viscosity of the sample constitutive valve 69 is closed. The speed of movement of the piston 58 is brought into line with the capacity of the capillary 65 and pressure range, the measured differential pressure gauge 66. On the basis that the linear movement of the piston 58 is directly proportional to the number of pulses supplied with unit impulse control 57, automatically the key calculate the volume of liquid, pumped through the capillary, and a differential pressure gauge 66 commonly used to measure the differential pressure. Since the movement of the piston 58 in measuring the press serves the same volume of sample from the cavity 60, which is taken away from him into the cavity 59, the pressure pulsations at the ends of the capillary viscometer when the circulation pump does not occur, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of the viscosity measurement.
While the dynamic viscosity of the oil at a given temperature the temperature and pressure specified in measuring the press, are calculated according to the formula described
where η - dynamic oil viscosity, PA·C;
Q is the volumetric rate, m3/s;
d - diameter of the capillary channel, m;
Δp is the pressure loss over the length of the capillary, PA;
L is the channel length of the capillary, m
If necessary, the kinematic viscosity of oil at a temperature of temperature and pressure specified in the measuring media, calculated by the formula
where ν is the kinematic viscosity of oil, m2/s;
ρ is the density of the sample, kg/m3.
Thus, the use of the claimed apparatus to study the properties of oil and gas in situ increases the accuracy of determining the volumes of oil and gas, and oil viscosity.
An additional advantage claimed of the Britania is to reduce the time of measurement of characteristics of samples in situ, in conjunction with the improved accuracy of the measurements increases the efficiency of the industrial application of the proposed installation.
Setting to study the properties of oil and gas in situ, comprising a piston container with the sample, provided with the upper valve and the lower valve block transfer samples from the piston in the measuring container of the press, which contains a cylinder with a hole in the upper base of the cylinder to fill its breakdown, the piston moving inside a cylinder pressure sensor, the sensor linear displacement of the piston, a circulation pump, a viscometer, a vacuum pump, a thermostatic system, characterized in that the lower valve piston container with a sample of their outlet installed software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve and the upper valve connected with the valve of the vacuum pump and valve measuring the press, the block transfer samples from the piston of the container includes a vessel with the working fluid, the system of the two piston pumps, each of which is equipped with a pressure sensor, software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve actuator, the unit impulse control, each piston pump and a pressure sensor connected to the inlet of the corresponding software-controlled INR is oppositional pneumatic valve, the vessel with the working fluid is connected with the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve of each pump, the other outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve of one of the pumps is connected to the inlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve lower valve piston of the container, and the other outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve of another pump connected to the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve lower valve piston of the container, and simultaneously connected with a hole in the bottom base of the measuring cylinder of the press; measuring the press is made in the form of a cylinder with a floating piston, equipped with ultrasonic sensor linear, flexible wired connection is tightly withdrawn through the lower base of the cylinder to the outside, and the sealing ring, the sealing piston, forming in the cavity of the cylinder upper and lower chambers, the opening in the upper base of the cylinder is connected to the pressure sensor and the inlet of the software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve, one outlet of which is connected to the viscometer, aother outlet is connected with a piston container, a floating piston is connected to the hollow rod, hermetically extracted to the outside through the lower base of the cylinder, where the hollow shaft coaxially connected with the measuring rod through a tee compensator, which is provided with a valve, and the measuring rod with the other end attached to the linear displacement sensor, made in the form of electronic display; a circulation pump includes a piston pump, the drive unit impulse control, providing unidirectional circulation of oil with adjustable speed, and the pump cylinder divided by a piston into two cavities, each of which is equipped with software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve, is connected via the inlet port and one outlet port of each of programmable multi-position pneumatic valves connected to the viscometer, the other outlet port of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve is connected through the valve compensator with measuring pressure; viscometer made in the form of block, which includes a capillary tube, differential pressure gauge, software-controlled single pneumatic valve system of two tees, two programmable multi-position pneumatic valve, and one of the output apertures of each of the programme is multi-managed multi-position pneumatic valve connected to a differential pressure gauge, and the other outlet port of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve connected to one end of the capillary; the inlet of each of the programmable multi-position pneumatic valve is connected through a tee to bypass locking software-controlled single pneumatic valve, and one of the tees is connected with the outlet of software-controlled multi-position pneumatic valve measuring the press, and the other tee is connected with the circulation pump; thermostating system is designed as a thermostatted vessel.
FIELD: electronic engineering, in particular, methods for manufacturing powerful electro-vacuum devices.
SUBSTANCE: method includes excitation of gases being analyzed due to impulse energetic influence on electrodes. Duration of impulse energetic influence is selected to be less than time of flight of any one of gases being analyzed towards manometer transformer, but more than minimal excitation time of any one of gases being analyzed. As manometer transformer, magnetic electro-discharge pump built into electro-vacuum device is used. In process of measurement, stepped curve of pump current growth is measured, number of steps k on the curve is determined. Using features of current growth, ascending series of all values tn is determined - for time which passed since the moment of impulse energetic influence up to the middle of growth front of n step, where n=1,...,k. On basis of this information, mass number is determined for gases which escape into the volume of electro-vacuum device, as well as alternation of their partial pressures.
EFFECT: simplified method for measuring partial pressures of gases in a powerful electro-vacuum device, possible examination of processes, occurring in its vacuum space.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: analyzing or investigating of materials.
SUBSTANCE: press comprises cylinder filled with the sample of oil to be investigated. The top base of the cylinder is provided with a charging opening connected to the pressure gage and inlet of the multi-position air-operated valve. The cylinder receives the floating piston with the sealing ring that separates the cylinder into the top and the bottom chambers. The piston movements inside the cylinder to determine the volume of oil is recorded by an ultrasonic pickup of linear movements. The piston is connected with the hollow rod that passes outside through the bottom base of the cylinder and is connected with the measuring rod and compensator through the T-pipe. The other end of the measuring rod is connected with the electronic pickup of linear movements. The bottom chamber of the cylinder is connected with the hydraulic pump controlled by the pulse block.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: analytical tool-making industry, in particular, analytical devices meant for detecting micro-concentrations of substances, possible use for detecting steams of explosives on documents, for example, passports, tickets, etc.
SUBSTANCE: device for controlling traces of explosives on documents contains heated desorber for mounting steam carrier, air pump and detector of analyzed steams of explosives, while desorber is made in form of document receiver, which consists of central chamber, wherein document being studied is positioned, and divided from it by air gaps by two side chambers with electric heaters mounted in them, while inputs of side chambers are connected to output of air pump, connected by input to atmosphere, and outputs of side chambers are connected through air gaps of central chamber to input of detector of analyzed steams.
EFFECT: accelerated detection of steams of explosives absorbed on documents while providing for safety of document.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: analysis of content of solution.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used for determination of mutual solvability of fluid and compressed gas. Solution is fed from piezometer along pipeline to flask and throttling process id performed by means of special gadget to reach atmospheric pressure, at which pressure the compressed gas loses its solvability and extracts from solution while other components are left in liquid or hard phase. Throttling unit is mounted in front of entrance of flask intended for solution. Flask is made of elastic and vapor-penetrable material. Volume of extracted gas is carried out due to measurement of volume of thermostatic fluid in flask, forced out of thermostat provided with overflow un it used for supplying solution into flask. Masses of solution components, left in flask in liquid or solid phase, are measured during time of τ when components change to vapor phase due to passing through walls of flask into environment. Content of solution component is determined by building graph and selecting linear part on it, which part is described by relation of m2+3 - m/m2+3=β+α*τ, where m2+3 is initial mass of components mixture, left in liquid or solid phase; m is mass of component mixture of solution, which components are left in liquid or solid phase at moment time of τ; α is relative speed of transition to vapor phase, defined as tangent of angle of inclination φ of linear part to axis τ; β=m3/m2+3 is mass portion of more volatile component of solution, where m is mass of more volatile component, which is defined as part of straight line cut out of axis m2+3 - m/m2+3, when linear part of graph is extrapolated to it on base of dependence of m3=β*m2+3. Mass of volatile component m2 is found from relation of m2= m2+3- m3.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved truth of results.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating, mixing, aerating and degassing of lubricant in the device for investigating the lubricants. The aerating of the lubricants is provided by their flowing through the opening of alternative cross-section where pressure drop is generated. The degassing is provided by the use of the degassing unit where, under the action of centrifugal forces, the dissolved gas is removed from the lubricant. The processes are controlled by video surveying of generation, change of sizes, shape, and concentration of gas bubbles in the lubricant as well as by readings of temperature and pressure gauges. The device comprises oil tank for temperature control with mechanical mixer, heater, and temperature gauge and pipeline with valve. The device is additionally provided with pump, throttling valve, and degassing unit. The safety valve, pump, and throttling valve are connected in series through pipeline sections. The pipeline sections provided with throttling valve and degassing unit are made of a heat-resistant transparent material and provided with temperature and pressure gauges and digital video cameras connected with the computer.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used in systems for survey, transportation and preparation of oil. Continuous and simultaneous measurement of volumetric discharge Q1 and Q2 is performed in two points standing apart along flow travel in pipeline; the measurements are carried out by means of two flowmeters. Behind the first point Q1, the local hydrodynamic disturbance is generated in flow by means of expansion of cross-section of flow. Second measurement is carried out at expanded part of flow. Availability of gas is judged from excess in setting relatively current values Q1 and Q2, which value is specified in controller to which controller the both flowmeters are connected. Device for realization of the method is made in form of insertion n the pipeline.
EFFECT: improved reliability of measurement.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automated determination of solution concentrations, in particular from measured boiling temperature, and can be used in natural gas fields and in underground gas holders on gas absorption drying installations, wherein aqueous solution of di- or triethylene glycol is used as absorbent. Concentration of aqueous glycol solution comprises measurement of boiling point and vapor phase pressure over boiling solution. Sought concentration is calculated from following relationships: (1) Cg=Mg*Xg*100/(Mg+Xg+Mw*(1-Xg)), where Xg=(10Zw(T)-P)/(10Zw(T)-10Zg(T); (2) Zw(T)=8.006-1691/(230+T); (3) Xg(T)=9.270-3035/(230+T) for diethylene glycol; (4) Xg(T)=8.54-2927.5/(230+T) for triethylene glycol; where Zw(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated water vapor pressure, Zg(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated glycol vapor pressure, Mw=18 kg/kmole (molecular mass of water), Mg is molecular mass of glycol, Mg=106 kg/kmole for diethylene glycol, Mg=150.17 kg/kmole for triethylene glycol, T is boiling temperature of glycol solution, °C, P is pressure of vapor phase over boiling solution, kg/cm2.
EFFECT: increased determination accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes upper mold-half and lower metallic mold-half. Upper flask is filled with sand and it has cavity for pouring melt metal and heat-insulation ring. Lower mold-half has base, sleeve and heat insulation cylinder. Sample of sand is placed into said cylinder and it is fixed by means of net. There is cavity between net and lid; said cavity is communicated with atmosphere through opening of lid and duct in which sampler is mounted. Other opening of lid is communicated with carrier-gas source through gas flow rate pickup. Gases are generated in sample by action of temperature of cast metal and they are filtered into cavity between net and lid where said gases are mixed with carrier gas. Flow rate of carrier gas is registered by means of pickup calibrated according to flow rate of selected carrier gas. Formed gas mixture is directed to sampler and in atmosphere. Mass speed of toxic gas separation is calculated on base of flow rate of carrier gas and concentration of toxic gas contained in samples of gas mixture. It is possible to use samples of different diameter.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining parameters of gas separation out of poured casting mold.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring in given sequence of appropriate parameters with following calculation of determined characteristics on basis of certain relation. Device for determining characteristics for sublimation of liquid oil products contains sublimation retort with dimensions, allowing to place 5-15 ml of analyzed probe therein, device for heating retort in its lower portion with constant and adjusted heating intensiveness, two inertia-less temperature sensors providing for continuous measurement of true value of temperature of sample in steam couple, device for continuous pressure measurement in stem phase of sample during sublimation, which includes pressure sensor as well as capillary and receiving and signals processing sensors, sent by temperature sensors and pressure sensor.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher speed of operation.
2 cl, 4 ex, 10 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: water supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at farms, household plots, water supply of cottages and farm settlements. Proposed station is made in form of container in which control system and variable-capacity frequency-controlled submersible electric pump are mounted. Pumping station includes deferrizator, water softener, bactericidal set, lighting unit and light. Microclimate control unit connected with heater and fan and intake-and-distributing device. Coarse filter is installed on supply pipeline. Fine filter and pressure transmitter connected with input of control system are installed on outlet branch pipe of pressure pipeline. Control system contains frequency converter and it is connected by output with electric pump, and by input, with intake-and-distributing device whose outputs are connected with inputs of heating and ventilating unit, microclimate control and lighting unit and also with bactericidal set, water softener, water deferrizator and coarse and fine filters. Invention provides possibility of lifting water from well by frequency-controlled submersible electric pump of variable capacity, provide straight-flow water supply, conform water supply with consumption, provide conformity of lifted water characteristics to requirements of State Standard and protect electric pump from emergencies.
EFFECT: improved operation reliability.
FIELD: hydraulic units used for positive-displacement hydraulic drives of open and closed hydraulic systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic unit includes hydraulic motors mounted on reduction gear housing. Gears mounted on shafts of hydraulic machines are kinematically linked with central gear of drive shaft located in reduction gear housing. Drive shaft is mounted in two bearings which are located in reduction gear housing on either side from central gear. First bearing is mounted on side of surface of reduction gear through which drive shaft passes and second bearing is mounted on opposite side of central gear. Reduction gear housing is provided with breather mounted in such way that its outlet hole is located between second bearing and outer surface of reduction gear housing. Axial and radial passages made in drive shaft under second bearing are used for communication of interior of reduction gear housing in area of gears with cavity of reduction gear on side of second bearing where reflector is mounted. Reflecting surface of this reflector is located between outlet hole of breather and second bearing.
EFFECT: avoidance of oil leakage from reduction gear housing through breather.
FIELD: oil-and-gas producing industry; equipment for oil and gas wells.
SUBSTANCE: proposed unit is used for performing jobs inside pipes with the use of gas of safety composition generated by unit or associated gas from external source, as well as for reduction of bottom-hole pressure for intensification of fluid flow. Used as inert gas sources are exhaust gases from two internal combustion engines: chassis engine and compressor engine which are cleaned and mixed in gas booster pump at required ratio and are delivered to well. Safe composition of mixture is obtained by regulating amount of oxygen in exhaust by means of membrane washers fitted in exhaust branch pipes of each engine; accuracy of proportioning of each component is ensured by availability of individual hydraulic drive in each pump.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities; enhanced ecological safety.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; oil producing industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in pumping units designed for transfer of viscous liquids. Method of control is implemented by device with translationally moving pairs of pistons of drive cylinders rigidly coupled with corresponding working members of delivery cylinders. Piston spaces are alternately coupled with delivery main line of main pressure source and with drain main line. Pistons are returned into initial position owing to constant hydraulic coupling of rood spaces. Accelerated return of piston into initial position is provided by hydraulic coupling of rod spaces with delivery main line of additional pressure source, and when piston reaches initial position, additional pressure source is connected with piston space of hydraulic cylinder whose piston is in initial position, and preliminary loading is provided till piston reaches final position executing working stroke. Then piston space of preliminarily loaded piston is disconnected from delivery main line of additional pressure source and is connected to delivery line of main pressure source.
EFFECT: reduced nonuniformity of pressure in pump main line owing to successive operation of translationally moving pistons.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: water supply systems; pumping stations for temporary delivery of water and sprinkling.
SUBSTANCE: proposed pumping station is provided with drive motor with pump and control system mounted on common frame, delivery and pressure pipe lines, two additional pumps, four control valves and inlet and outlet pressure sensors. Inlet of first additional pump is connected with outlet of first control valve and supply pipe line; outlet of first pump is connected with inlet of fourth control valve and outlet of third control valve; inlet of second additional pump is connected with outlet of second control valve and inlet of third control valve; outlet of second additional pump is connected with outlet of fourth control valve and delivery pipe line. Outlet pressure sensor is mounted in delivery main and its outlet is connected with control system having five outputs: four of them are connected to control valves and fifth output of control system is connected with drive motor. Provision is made for check of pipe lines for condition and availability of water in source.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel; low cost of servicing.
FIELD: oil producing industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is designed for use at production of hydrocarbons for delivering process liquids, gases and multiple-phase media and at secondary and tertiary methods of increasing of oil recovery of oil bearing beds, and completion of oil and gas wells, etc. Proposed plant includes positive displacement pump, for instance, plunger pump, consisting of one or several sections with compression chamber, drive, manifold including feed pump communicating with service liquid tank, pipeline to deliver gas into booster chambers and exhaust piping communicating with compression chambers and with consumer. Proposed plant contains liquid separating unit installed in exhaust piping between compression chambers of pump and consumer. Said unit consists of high-pressure separator, restrictor and device to discharge liquid connected to each other and installed in tandem. Device to discharge liquid communicates with gas supply line to booster chambers and, through separate adjustable restrictor, with service liquid tank. High-pressure separator of said unit is three-step, and restrictor is multistep. Liquid discharge device is made in form of hollow cylinder with free piston and reel-type discharge spool locked in open and closed positions and interacting with free piston.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of installations for pumping off liquid mediums.
SUBSTANCE: the installation is intended mainly for emergency pumping off different including hot liquids from flooded-down underground communications, cellarages, wells, etc. with the help of a pump-stimulator located on the surface and a hydraulic drive pump located underground in a flooded space bound among themselves through a tank-separator by means of hoses of the high and low pressure basically located one inside another. The hydraulic link of the pump-stimulator high-pressure hose is exercised through a loop section, in the upper part of which there is a normally open valve for connection with the aerosphere. The tank-separator is supplied with a tool for link of its upper part with the aerosphere. The low pressure hose is connected with a tank-separator in its upper part through is tangentially the located channel. The pump stimulator inlet is located in lower part of the tank-separator. The pump stimulator is located below the upper part of the loop section and below than the low pressure hose of the tangential channel. The invention ensures reliable operation of the installation even in the case of ingress of great volumes of air into the pumping-off hydraulic drive pump, a quick putting the installation into operation, operation of the pump-stimulator without cavitation even under the high temperatures of the pumping-off liquids, simplified control of the pumping-off installation in different conditions of operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reliable operation of the installation, its quick putting into operation, cavitation-free operation of the pump-stimulator at high temperatures, simplified control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry, particularly obtaining fluid samples or testing fluids in pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pipeline, body made as connection pipe with hollow shaft and cock. Hollow shaft is fixedly connected to pipeline in air-tight manner and is made as connection pipe with beveled end and radial orifices facing liquid flow made in shaft side opposite to that provided with beveled end. Pipeline has restriction located downstream of the shaft. Another end of connection pipe is air-tightly connected to pipeline downstream of the restriction and located in decreased pressure zone. Connection pipe section defined by cock and the second end is provided with cylindrical case with piston, which may slide in axial direction with respect to the case. The case has discharge connection pipe arranged from cock side. The piston comprises valve providing liquid flow from the cock side. The cock is made as a cylinder with electromagnet and shaft air-tightly installed in the cylinder and sliding with respect to the cylinder in axial direction by means of electromagnet. Cylinder has outlet connection pipe and is communicated with discharge connection pipe. Both connection pipes are closed with shaft. The shaft has two annular grooves. The first groove may communicate connection pipe with cylinder to seal the connection pipe as shaft moves inside the cylinder. The second groove may communicate outlet and discharge connection pipes as shaft slides inside the cylinder.
EFFECT: increased sample taking quality.