Method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention generally relates to a method and device for producing ammonia in the catalytic reaction of synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen, pre-compressed in the corresponding two - or multi-stage compressor. The invention relates in particular to a method of the above-mentioned type with a clean synthesis gas from water and carbon dioxide using an intermediate stage of the compressor. More specifically the present invention relates to a method of the type indicated above in which coming from a particular stage of the compressor, the synthesis gas is collected, cleaned, and cooled to a certain temperature by rinsing essentially anhydrous liquid ammonia, and then served at the relevant stage of the compressor and after compression is collected for later use.

The level of technology

It is known that in recent times a lot of attention paid to the creation of new facilities and the development of new methods for producing ammonia, which should significantly reduce investment and operating costs, primarily related to energy consumption.

It is also known that optimization of the entire process of obtaining ammonia requires, first and foremost, resolve problems that arise when applying Shin the ez-gas into the reactor, characteristics which largely depend on the content of ammonia in the gas which serves in the ammonia Converter, and his purity, in particular the number contained in the gas (consisting of a source of ammonia and recirculating gas) oxide compounds of the type H2O and CO2that even in a small amount significantly reduce the efficiency of the reactor.

The most widely known methods of purification fed to the reactor gas from such "impurities" is based on the leaching and sharp counterflow cooling the synthesis gas recirculating liquid ammonia. However, this method of purification fed to the reactor gas is associated with high operating costs and expenses, accompanied by repeated condensation evaporating the ammonia and requires further heating the purified gas to a certain temperature at which it must be submitted to the reactor.

To reduce power consumption commonly used purification system gas with molecular sieves for use in spite of their high efficiency is associated with extremely high operating costs and require large investments.

Recently has been proposed another method of leaching synthesis gas with liquid ammonia, in accordance with which the flushing gas is performed between the first and vtorostepennymi used for gas compression two-stage compressor increases the pressure of the gas at the inlet of the reactor to 80-150 bar) or between the second and third steps of the three-stage compressor increases the pressure of the gas at the entrance to the reactor up to 150-250 bar). Usually, this stage of the compressor is called the compression stages fresh synthesis gas, which is the last stage of compression, which is called the recirculation step, because it is used not only to compress the fresh gas, but also to compress and feed to the reactor recirculating gases, unreacted section synthesis.

One such purification methods are described in particular in application WO 01/66465, according to which the cleaning gas used disc column, through which the counter is continuously pass the liquid ammonia and compressed in the first degree of the compressor synthesis gas, after purification directly enters the second stage of the same compressor.

For all its undoubted advantages proposed in this application the cleaning method has certain disadvantages. First, the clean synthesis gas wash column is accompanied by a certain loss of gas pressure. It is obvious that the compensation of these losses and increase pressure washed in tray column gas requires a corresponding increase in the capacity of the compressor and additional power consumption. In addition, when cleaning this way the evaporation used for gas washing liquid ammonia vapors which remain in the stream of synthesis gas and inevitably on adut in the reactor, reducing its conversion output. When the reduction of the conversion output of the reactor increases the amount of unreacted substances, which must be separated from the reactor ammonia and again to return to the reactor, thereby increasing the load on the respective unit sections and their energy consumption.

Summary of the invention

The present invention was based on the task to develop a new method of producing ammonia from synthesis gas purification system having certain features, which can eliminate the above disadvantages of the known methods and, in particular, significantly lower compared with them, the amount of energy consumed.

This problem is solved by using the proposed invention, a method of producing ammonia by the catalytic reaction of synthesis gas, compressed in the corresponding multi-stage compressor, each stage of which has an inlet and outlet for synthesis gas, in the exercise of which the synthesis gas is cleaned with liquid ammonia from water and carbon dioxide and which is characterized in that when the clean synthesis gas from water using liquid-gas mixer, which is connected on the one hand with the output of the first or intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the input of the m-stage, located behind the first stage or intermediate stage plot and has a certain length in the axial direction with decreasing cross-section in the mixer in the axial direction in parallel serves stream of synthesis gas, selected from the first, or intermediate, level, and flow of liquid ammonia, produce essentially dewatered synthesis gas from coming out of the mixer a mixture of these streams and send dewatered synthesis gas in step next to the first or intermediate stage.

In a preferred embodiment, prior to submission to the mixer stream of synthesis gas is cooled to a temperature in the range from +8 to -20°C.

These and other features and advantages of the proposed invention a method is described in more detail below do not limit the invention to the example of one of the variants of its possible implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Brief description of drawings

In the accompanying description of the drawings shows:

figure 1 - installation diagram hardware for compression and purification of synthesis gas, intended for the production of ammonia is proposed in the invention method,

figure 2 - schematic enlarged image in cross section of one of the elements shown in figure 1 of the plant designed to produce ammonia offered izaberete the AI method.

The preferred embodiment of the invention

Shown in the drawings and designated by the letter R plant intended to produce ammonia proposed in the invention method has a multi-stage compressor, which is conventionally represented as two adjacent stages 1 and 2, arranged on a common longitudinal axis A. In the preferred (but not limiting the scope of invention) option to compress the synthesis gas is used a two-stage compressor, the first stage which is the stage of compression of the fresh gas and the last recirculation step, in which, in addition to the fresh gas is compressed and unreacted recirculating gases.

The first stage 1 compressor has an input 1A (suction pipe)connected to the pipeline 4 source 3 synthesis gas, and the outlet 1b (discharge pipe)connected to the pipe 6 through the cooler 7 with the first gas-liquid separator 5.

The second step 2 of the compressor has a first terminal 2A is connected by a pipe 9 with the upper part 8A of the second gas-liquid separator 8, and the second input 2b is connected by a pipe 11 through the cooler 12 with the upper part 10A of the third gas-liquid separator 10. The output 2C of the second stage 2 of the compressor is connected by a pipe 14 through the cooler 15 with the upper part 13 and the reactor 13 synthesis of ammonia.

Great for the positive feature of the proposed invention in the plant for producing ammonia, the scheme is shown in figure 1, is the presence of the mixer 16 connected to one side of the pipe 17 to the separator 8, and on the other side of the pipe 18 through the cooler 19 with the upper part 5A of the cage 5.

It should be emphasized that in the present embodiment, with two-stage compressor designed to compress the synthesis gas proposed in the invention, the mixer 16 is located between the first and second stages of the compressor. In addition, the mixer 16 preferably should be located essentially horizontally and parallel to the base installation of R.

Compressed in the first stage 1 compressor synthesis gas passes through the cooler 7 to the separator 5, which is separated from the gas the greater part of the contained water, which is drained from the separator through the pipeline 20.

Dehydrated in the separator, the flow of the synthesis gas is sent to the cooler 19. At the entrance to the cooler 19 to the stream of dewatered synthesis gas at a small flow rate in the circulating piping 21 add (compressed) liquid ammonia, which is taken from the output of the separator 10. The presence of synthesis gas liquid ammonia prevents it from freezing when cooled to a low temperature in the cooler 19.

The number added to the synthesis gas liquid ammonia is chosen so that after cooling, the concentration of ammonia in consisting of ammonia ibody liquid phase ranged from 25 to 50%.

Chilled in the cooler 19 to a temperature in the range from +8 to -20°With the synthesis gas is fed in the axial direction in the mixer 16.

Simultaneously with synthesis gas in the mixer pipeline 21A serves (Inuktitut) (compressed) liquid ammonia, the consumption of which should provide effective flushing gas and the deletion of all remaining water in it. Liquid ammonia is fed into the mixer through the pipeline 21A of the above-mentioned circulating piping 21.

The flow of liquid ammonia pipeline 21A must be submitted to the mixer 16 is coaxially and in parallel with the synthesis gas. Thus the temperature of the synthesis gas is reduced preferably to a temperature lying in the range from -20 to -27°C.

A distinctive feature proposed in the invention of the mixer 16 is the section 16A of a certain length with decreasing cross-section (confuser). In the confuser 16A (mixing zone) stream of liquid ammonia and gaseous reagents are accelerated and mixed together. Proposed in the invention, the mixer is located behind the confuser 16A section 16b of a certain length with a constant cross-section, in which the alignment of speed mixed with each other, the flow of liquid ammonia and gas. For area 16b is the third section 16C of a certain length with increasing cross the first section (diffuser), where speed mixed together streams of liquid ammonia and gas gradually decreases.

The most efficient purification of gaseous reactants occurs when the first section 16A of the mixer is depending on working conditions in length from 0.5 to 1 m While the second section 16b with a constant cross-section should have a length of from 0.6 to 1.0 m

In the most preferred embodiment, shown in figure 2, the flow of liquid ammonia fed into the mixer 16 through a corresponding located inside of the first section 16A of the mixer distribution nozzle 23 which is connected to the pipe 21A. The pipeline 21A, in turn, passes inside United with the front end of the first section 16A of the mixer pipe 18, which in the mixer serves gaseous reagents.

At the end 23a of the nozzle 23 has corresponding holes or slots (not shown in the drawing) of a certain size, forming at the nozzle outlet many having high-speed jets of liquid ammonia.

Located at the entrance to the mixer nozzle 23 you can use the pressure of the liquid ammonia in the circulating piping 21 to be formed in the mixer with a high speed liquid jets, providing effective cleaning and simultaneous compression of the flow of gaseous reactants inside the mixer 16.

We offer the invention accordingly made the mixer allows not only to reduce the pressure loss of the flow of gaseous reactants in the process of washing (cleaning) liquid ammonia, but also increases the pressure of the flow of gaseous reactants, thereby reducing in comparison with conventional methods for producing ammonia consumption energy consumed by the compressor during subsequent compression cleared of "impurities" synthesis gas.

In the separator 8 liquid ammonia and water are separated from the synthesis gas and is discharged into the pipe 22, and extending from the upper part 8A of the separator dewatered synthesis gas at a temperature in the range from -20 to -27°is input 2A of the second stage 2 of the compressor.

The feed to the second stage compressor cooled to such a low temperature gas can significantly reduce the amount of compressor power and therefore to improve its effectiveness.

In addition, the presence at the facility located at the front of the mixer 16 of the cooler 19, significantly reducing the temperature through the synthesis gas, can reduce the number of evaporating in the synthesis gas liquid ammonia and reduce the amount of energy consumed by the compressor to compress the gas and to increase compared to existing reactors conversion output of the synthesis reactor, with all the ensuing advantages.

Compressed to a certain pressure in the second compression stage of the synthesis gas after preheating the heater 15 is served in the reactor 13 synthesis. Taken from the reactor 13 kazooba the ing the mixture, consisting of ammonia and unreacted gases, cooled in cooler 15 and 12, and fed into the separator 10. Separated in the separator from the gas liquid ammonia serves to store in an appropriate container and extending from the upper part 10A of the separator gases return to the second stage 2 of the compressor.

The above preferred embodiment of the invention does not exclude the possibility of making various changes and improvements, while staying within the scope of invention defined by its formula.

1. The method of producing ammonia by the catalytic reaction of synthesis gas, compressed in the corresponding compressor with multiple steps (1,2), each of which has input and output (1a, 2a, 1b, 2b, 2C) for synthesis gas, in the exercise of which the synthesis gas is cleaned with liquid ammonia from water and carbon dioxide, characterized in that the purification of synthesis gas using gas-liquid mixer (16), which is connected on the one hand with the output (1b) of the first stage (1) of the compressor or the output of the intermediate stage of the compressor, on the other hand to the input (2b) of the second stage (2)located behind the first stage or intermediate stage plot and has a certain length with decreasing cross-section in the mixer (16) in the axial direction serves in a co-current stream of synthesis gas is, taken from the first stage (1), or any intermediate stage, and the flow of liquid ammonia, essentially dewatered synthesis gas extracted from coming out of the mixer (16) a mixture of flows and direct dewatered synthesis gas in step (2)next to the first, or intermediate, level (1).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flow of synthesis gas to feed into the mixer (16) is cooled to a temperature in the range from +8 to -20°C.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the synthesis gas is cooled in a stream of liquid ammonia.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the synthesis gas is cooled in the mixer (16) in the coaxial stream of synthesis gas and liquid ammonia.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flow of liquid ammonia fed into the mixer (16) in the form of multiple jets with a high speed.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the flow of liquid ammonia fed into the mixer (16) through the nozzle (23) with lots of holes of the appropriate size.

7. Installation for implementing the method according to one of claims 1 to 6, containing a compressor with multiple steps (1, 2), each of which has input and output (1a, 2a, 1b, 2b, 2C), characterized by the presence of gas-liquid mixer (16), which is connected on the one hand with the output (1b) of the first stage (1) of the compressor or the output of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and with the other hand to the input (2) second stage (2), located behind the first step (1), or intermediate level, and has a section (16A) of a certain length with decreasing cross-section.

8. Installation according to claim 7, characterized by the presence of a gas-liquid separator (8)located between the mixer (16) and the second, or intermediate, step (2) of the compressor.

9. Installation according to claim 8, characterized by the presence of at least one cooling element (19)located between the mixer (16) and the first step (1) of the compressor.

10. Installation according to claim 7, characterized by the presence of the nozzle (23) with holes or slots of the appropriate size connected with one side of the section (16A) of the mixer (16) with decreasing cross-section, and on the opposite side from the pipe (21A), in which in the mixer (16) is liquid ammonia.



 

Same patents:

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30 cl, 5 dwg, 6 tbl, 11 ex

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2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

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20 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

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20 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical reactor and the method for production of hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the power equipment may be used for production of hydrogen both in the stationary plants and on the vehicles. The hydrogen is produced by the hydrolysis (decomposing of water) at its interaction with the granules of the solid reactant (aluminum, silicon, etc.) definitely located inside the chemical reactor. The chemical reactor for production of the hydrogen consists of the cylindrical body with the liquid reactant medium, in which there is the temperature sensor connected with the control unit, and in the upper part of the body there is the union for withdrawal of the gaseous product of the reaction. At that inside of the body the tubular heat exchanger is installed. The tubes of the heat exchanger are arranged at least along two concentric circumferences, spaced from each other and communicate through the collector equipped with the valves for feeding of the heating carrier. Between the tubes of the heat exchanger in the liquid reactant medium there is the annular fire grate, on which the solid reactant granules are placed. The chemical reactor has the vertical spacers inserted between the tubes located on the concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the adjacent tubes. Besides there are the vertical inserts placed between the opposite tubes of the adjacent concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the tubes. At that the indicated spacers and inserts form the zones free from the solid reactant granules, and the valves of the heat carrier feeding are connected through the control unit to the temperature sensors. The method of operation of the chemical reactor for production of hydrogen provides for the liquid reactant feeding in the chemical reactor, withdrawal of the heat and the reaction products from the reaction zone with the help of the heat carrier. Before the liquid reactant feeding into the chemical reactor this reactant is heated up to the temperature ensuring the preset duration of the operational cycle of the reaction, and the heat withdrawal from the chemical reactor with the help of the heat carrier begin at reaching the temperature equal to the temperature of the liquid reactant boiling point with the increase of the heating carrier consumption till the boiling temperature of the liquid reactant will drop to 0.9÷0.8 of the liquid reactant boiling temperature, after that the consumption of the cooling heat-carrier maintain constant till completion of the chemical reaction in the chemical reactor. The inventions allow to increase efficiency of the chemical reactor, to reduce its dimensions and the mass, to improve the fire-explosion safety, to simplify the chemical reactor operation, to reduce its operational costs.

EFFECT: the inventions ensure the increased efficiency of the chemical reactor, the reduced its dimensions and the mass, the improved the fire-explosion safety, the simplified operation of the chemical reactor, the decreased its operational costs.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: separation and cleaning of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed section consists of device for partial condensation of synthesis-gas including the following components: heat exchanger A for cooling the synthesis-gas fed to section, separator B connected with heat exchanger A and intended for separation of synthesis-gas into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and methane, evaporator C for further separation of gas fraction fed from separator B into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide, evaporator D where hydrogen absorbed in liquid and remaining liquid containing mainly carbon monoxide are evaporated; this liquid may be directed to distilling tower; section is also provided with one more evaporator E where hydrogen absorbed in liquid fraction of separator B is removed through evaporation; this liquid contains mainly carbon monoxide and methane; liquid may be directed to distilling tower F for separation of gaseous carbon monoxide and obtaining methane from lower part of column. Section is also provided with unit for washing with nitrogen which includes washing column G for separation of admixtures by action of nitrogen from gas fraction of evaporator C and recovery of admixtures as fuel gas. Nitrogen washing unit adjoins the partial condensation device.

EFFECT: enhanced heat exchange; low cost of process.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

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