Rail vehicle brake shoe

FIELD: railway transport; brakes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton with U-shaped projection in central part and compositive friction member and one hard insert. Hard insert is arranged in central part of shoe, being welded to metal skeleton. Hard insert is made of high strength or malleable cast iron. Ratio of area of working surface of hard insert to total area of shoe working surface if from 4% to 20%.

EFFECT: provision of cleaning and polishing action of hard insert onto wheel without impairment of operation of brake shoes at braking.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to brake devices, namely to the brake pads for rail vehicles.

The famous cast iron brake pads, including with a metal frame, manufactured from grey iron and phosphorus according to GOST 1205-73 "Pads cast-iron brake for cars and tenders Railways. Design and basic dimensions".

These pads have a positive impact on the surface of the rolling wheel, but they have low and unstable coefficient of friction with speed changes cause significant wear on the surface of the wheels during operation provide low braking performance, and therefore require more effort tensioning linkage during braking, do not provide silent and smooth braking of a train, have a lot of weight (16 kg), high-wear, high cost.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential characteristic "brake pad".

The famous cast-iron brake pad on the RF patent №2040361 (B22D 19/02, 1995). The pad consists of a metal frame (back), located on the outside surface, and body pads, on the working surface of which there are alternating along the length of the pad areas of gray, white and half-Chu is UNOV. The ends of the pads are made of gray cast iron, and areas of white cast iron are located inside the areas of the half-iron.

Known pads have a high wear resistance, but not enough to reduce damage to the wheelset, they also have a shorter lifetime.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential features "brake pad", "metal frame" and "insert (plots)".

Known brake Shoe for railway rolling stock according to the patent of Russian Federation №2025352 (VN 1/00, 1994). The pad is made in the form of arcuate casting in the form of a beam of rectangular cross-section. In the body of the beam from the side of the working surface of the fixed insert. Insert made from a material with a higher abrasion than the material of the beam.

This pad provides better braking performance, but the design of the pads complex that reduces its reliability.

Famous train brake pad on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1643266 (VN 1/00, 1991), containing the arcuate casting in the form of a beam with rectangular cross-section and fixed inside the cylindrical insert of a material which is more abrasive than the material of the beam with a certain ratio of the area Tr is the growing (working) surface of the inserts to the area of friction (working) surface of the pad.

However, these pads also have a complex structure and low reliability.

Known composite brake block containing friction element and metal (steel) frame. (Baserev. Production of brake pads made of composite materials for railway carriages, Moscow, Chemistry, 1982, page 9-14, 70, 71).

The metal frame consists of one part - the main strip, and sometimes of two parts: the main strip and welded thereto on the inner side of the reinforced plate. The main strip of the frame has an outer curvilinear path around the perimeter of the finished block and in the center of the U-shaped or semi-circular contour, forming a Central boss. The Central boss of the frame is provided with holes for the pin. On the main plate of the frame are also two side lugs that serve as guides for the checks. The Central boss is used to fasten the brake pads in the brake Shoe by means of checks, and the guides (side boss) to simplify the installation checks.

Amplification plate is used to provide additional rigidity to the frame and improve the reliability of mounting frame with a friction element.

Amplification plate with openings for welding to the main strip, and flowing friction mixture in forming to improve the attachment with fricti the authorized element.

On the main strip can also be cut holes and/or half holes with bending nevirapine part of the holes inside the pads from getting spikes to flow into the holes of the friction mass in forming and improving the fastening of the friction element.

Brake composite block in the cross section of the working layer of the pad may have a transverse open internal groove located in its Central part and lateral bevels on both ends along the length of the block.

Brake composite block, compared to cast iron, has received significantly more and more widespread, as they have a higher coefficient of friction, less clicking and durability, several times higher service life, less weight, cost, and provide quiet and smooth braking of the train.

However, during the operation of composite brake blocks can occur separate defects, including thermal cracks on the surface of the rolling wheels, the wear of the rolling surface of the wheels, reducing braking efficiency of the brake pads in contact with water in the friction zone (rain, snow), and in the presence of coal or peat dust and leaves on the surface of the rail.

The essential features composite brake pad friction element, a metal frame in the form of a "curved main section the band with a U-shaped or semicircular boss, with openings for the pin and the side lugs (guides for cheques)", and "reinforcement plate welded to the inner side of the main bands are shared with the essential features of the claimed invention.

The closest analogue of the claimed pads is "Brake pad railway vehicle" under the application №2005133046/22(037001) from 26.10.2005 (the Decision to grant a patent for utility model from 16.01.2006).

Consider brake pad contains metal steel frame, composite friction element and a solid insert of cast iron. The metal frame consists of one part - the main strip and has a U-shaped protrusion forming a Central boss. On both sides of the U-shaped protrusion, the inner side of the main strip it is welded across the width of the pad solid insert of cast iron, represents in longitudinal section of the pad trapezoidal shape.

Pad on the closest analogue ensures the preservation of the rolling surface of the wheel, and therefore, an increased service life of the wheels while maintaining high durability pads, and provides stability and braking performance under normal and severe operating conditions.

Pad on the closest analogue has some shortcomings. As materials of making a solid insert is used grey or phosphorous cast iron, of which are made of cast iron brake pads that provide insufficient cleansing action on the wheel and do not provide the necessary polishing effect on the wheel to eliminate thermal cracks and sliders.

This is because grey and phosphorous cast iron have insufficient ductility, tensile strength, Flexural strength. In the ebb gray iron graphite always has a plate shape. Plate form of graphite reduces the tensile strength cast iron (Metallurgy and technology of metals". Textbook for high schools. Solntsev P., Veselov, VA, Demyanovich VP and others, Moscow, metallurgy, 1988, str-140).

In addition, the ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad.

The essential features most similar analogue "metal frame with a U-shaped ledge in the Central part", "composite friction element" and "solid insert, located in the Central part of the pad and welded to the metal frame are shared with the essential features of the claimed invention.

The challenge which seeks inventive brake pad, is the provision of cleaning and polishing impacts of solid inserts on the wheel without affecting the operation of the brake pads directly imposed on the structure.

The task decides brake pad of a rail vehicle, comprising a metal frame with U-shaped ledge in the Central part of the composite friction element and a solid insert of ductile or malleable iron, located in the Central part of the pad and welded to the metal frame, and the ratio of the area of the working surface of the insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad is selected in the range from 4 to 20%.

Rigid insert located inside of the composite friction element is designed to remove any foreign matter from the surface of the wheel, smoothing out minor defects on the surface of the wheel (thermal cracks and sliders) and improve the condition of the rolling surface of the wheel.

To fulfill its purpose solid insert that is inside a composite friction element should have a higher mechanical properties than grey and phosphorous cast iron. In addition, it is desirable that the material of the insert contained inclusions of graphite, due to the lubricating action which kept the surface of the rolling wheel. (Metallurgy, physical metallurgy and structural materials" Basetime, Ahistorical, Thinkuknow. Moscow, Higher school, 1971, str, 276).

Requirements Tr is the requirements to meet the cast iron, which have higher strength and ductility than phosphide and grey cast irons. This high-strength cast iron with spheroidal graphite and malleable cast iron flocculent graphite structure.

The composition of ductile irons in addition to C, Mn, Si, Fe also includes small amounts of Cr, Ni, Cu and other elements that improve the polishing effect upon contact with the wheel.

Malleable cast iron along with high strength has a higher viscosity compared with high-strength cast iron and provides increased reliability in conditions of shock and vibration loads that have the brake pads.

The ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the brake pads defined on the basis of structural and technological considerations as well as physical-mechanical and friction properties of properties of composite friction element and the insert of ductile or malleable iron, and is from 4 to 20%.

In this respect also takes into account the technological requirement for additional reduction of the area of the working surface of a solid insert in connection with the necessity of leaving free a gap between the solid insert and the mold, the width of the insert on both sides, and the depth of insertion. Data gaps are filled composite friction the element in its formation.

Solid insert in the working part of the pad may have a vertical section along the length of the insert, trapezoidal, rectangular or another shape, and the width of the insert may have a form similar to the form of the composite friction element, but with a smaller size because of leaving gaps in the formation.

Solid insert can be welded either to the main strip of metal frame with a U-shaped ledge or to the amplifying plate metal frame.

The essential features of the inventive brake pads insert made of ductile or malleable iron and the ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad is from 4 to 20%are distinctive from the essential features of the closest analogue.

The technology of producing includes the following steps:

- manufacturing (cast) cast iron insert;

- manufacturing (stamping) metal frame;

the Assembly of the insert with frame and its welding to the frame;

- fabrication of polymeric compositions;

- laying in the mold frame with welded insert and hinge polymeric composition;

- molding pads in the mold under pressure and subsequent vulcanization.

The drawing shows a brake pad train Tr is Sportage means, where

1 - metal frame,

2 - U-shaped ledge

3 - hole pin for fastening pads in the brake node

4 - composite friction element,

5 - cast iron insert,

6 - place welding of the insert and frame.

The execution of the brake pads with a hard insert of ductile or malleable iron with respect to the working area of the solid insert to the total working area of the pad in the range from 4 to 20% it is possible to provide a cleaning and polishing the exposed cast iron inserts on the wheel without compromising braking performance and, as a result, significantly increase the life of the wheels.

Brake pad of a rail vehicle, comprising a metal frame with U-shaped ledge in the Central part of the composite friction element and one solid box, located in the Central part of the pad and welded to the metal frame, wherein the rigid insert is made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad is from 4 to 20%.



 

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