Method for producing monocrystalline silicon chips

FIELD: treatment of silicon mono-crystals grown by Czochralski method, possibly manufacture of mono-crystalline silicon chips- members of solar batteries and integrated circuits.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pseudo-squaring of silicon mono-crystal for further grinding ribs of pseudo-squared ingot; cutting mono-crystals by chips. Ribs are ground alternatively; each rib is ground layer by layer in motion direction of tool and in parallel relative to lengthwise axis of ingot.

EFFECT: improved quality of mono-crystalline silicon chips due to safety of near-contour region of worked zone of ingot, lowered material (silicon) losses at working ingots.

3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the processing of Czochralski grown silicon single crystals and can be used in the manufacture of monocrystalline silicon wafers - solar cells and integrated circuits.

For more efficient use of the space occupied by modules consisting of silicon wafers, the latter usually shape of pseudocedrela figures, in which all sides are equal opposite sides are parallel and adjacent sides are conjugate in an arc.

A known method of manufacturing a semiconductor silicon wafers, which provides for the calibration of the ingot (ingot processing diamond circle to the desired diameter, and then produce pseudocatatonia ingot by cutting four segments of the ingot cutting discs diamond cutting edge. Pseudoquestions the ingot is subjected to the operation of the facing and bevel with the sharp edges of the ingot, followed by cutting of the ingot plates (Nashelsky YA "Technology special materials for electronic engineering", 1993, s-242).

During calibration of the ingot to the specified diameter of the bars give a strictly cylindrical shape. However, the calibration of the original ingot is carried out with a significant (up to 10% by weight of the material) loss of material to be processed.

Partially mentioned disadvantages of the yli eliminated in the method of manufacturing a monocrystalline silicon wafer, in which the calibration of the ingot is carried out after his pseudocatalase (EN 2186887 C2, 10.08.2002).

In this way the operation pseudocatalase carried by longitudinal sectioning of garbus ingot one, two or four diamond disks simultaneously, depending on the type of equipment. Pseudoquestions the ingot is subjected to calibration on the grinding or mechanical machines with rotation pseudocapacitance ingot. This slivovitza to the specified diameter of the only rounded surface pseudocapacitance ingot. Then produce standard operations facing the ingot and chamfering with its sharp edges, followed by cutting of the ingot on a plate.

Although this method can significantly reduce the loss of silicon in the processing of ingots, the quality of the plates and the yield of wafers decreases for the following reasons.

When calibrating rotating kvadratichnogo ingot most of the time the tool is idle, without any contact with calibrated ingot, during idle pass the rotation speed of the diamond tool increases, which leads to the collapsing of the arch in the direction of rotation of the calibrated wedge and can lead to the formation of micro-cracks and chips at the contact of the tool with the feces is broemel pseudoparathyroidism strand.

The main parameter wypracowania ingots when calibrating pseudochazara is a violation of the axial symmetry of the ingot resulting from non-axial exhibition of the ingot relative to the machining tool.

Another negative consequence of the processing of the ingot according to this known method is a significant depth of transversely oriented damaged layer, which results in further to get married when cutting treated ingot on a plate (for example, when cutting diamond disc from the processed single crystal is chipped, extending deep into the plate beyond the minimum tolerance).

The technical result of the proposed method is to improve the quality monocrystalline silicon wafers due to security selection in the array of the treated area of the ingot, the improvement of the yield of the wafer while reducing loss of material (silicon) in the processing of the ingot.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of manufacturing a monocrystalline silicon wafer, providing pseudocatatonia of single crystal silicon with subsequent grinding of the edges pseudocapacitance ingot, cutting single crystals on the plates, grinding ribs carry alternately, the grinding of each of the Rebbe is carried out in layers in the direction of movement of the machining tool parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ingot.

In addition, the grinding of each of the ribs carry a diamond tool, the profile of the working surface which matches the profile of the processed edges.

In addition, the grinding of each of the ribs carry with decreasing step-feed grinding tool.

The proposed method is illustrated by the following drawings, in which figure 1 shows a cross-section of the processed ingot, figure 2 shows a diagram of the grinding operation of one of the ribs pre otkadrirovala ingot, fig.z presents the scheme of measurement of various parameters of roughness of the ingot after it is processed.

The method is as follows.

With the original uncalibrated cylindrical ingot 1 (1) of the single crystal silicon grown by the Czochralski made the operation pseudocatalase by pairwise removal of the four segments 2 ingot parallel to the geometric axis, and then made a grinding ribs pseudocapacitance ingot to a specified size chamfer, removing thus the layer 3. After that produced cutting single crystals on a plate.

Grinding ribs carried out alternately by selecting the ingot on the desktop surface grinding machine has two mounted on the desktop of the prism 4, exhibited to ensure the strict Horiz is stalego provisions of the ingot. Grinding each of the ribs carried out in layers in the direction of processing of the grinding tool 5 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ingot.

Grinding each of the ribs was carried out by diamond obrabatyvaimym grinding tool 5, the profile of the working surface which matches the profile of the processed edges by decreasing the step-feed grinding tool.

The proposed method involves the new build of the technological process of production of semiconductor wafers with high yield plates.

The following is a specific example of implementation of the proposed method.

Example

Processing took the original uncalibrated cylindrical ingot 1 (1) of the single crystal silicon grown by the Czochralski diameter from 153 to 156 mm in its length component 390 mm Weight of the ingot was 16815,

Was the layout of the axes at the ends of the ingot using x-ray diffraction.

The ingot was installed on a horizontal milling machine type RG, through two diamond discs with outer cutting edge (type 1A1R 400×3.4×5×76 diamond - 100%, 63/50 on a bunch M2-01), diluted at a distance of 125 mm, carried out the operation pseudocatalase by pairwise removal of the four segments 2 ingot parallel the preliminary geometric axis of the ingot with the formation of pseudoparallelism.

After checking otkadrirovala ingot in accordance with the established requirements (pseudocedrela and its deviation from nominal along its length, the angle between the sides of pseudocedrela and its deviation from the nominal length) ingot was installed on the desktop surface grinding machine with compound-table horizontal spindle type DF two mounted on the desktop of the prism 4, exhibited to ensure the strict horizontal position of the ingot.

It is installed on the desktop machine, the bar was bringing the grinding tool 5 - flat diamond circle with outer cutting edge, the geometry of which corresponds to the geometry of the chamfer machined edges of the ingot. Included rotation of the grinding wheel and vertical flow down in the direction of the ingot, as well as the longitudinal feed of the work table of the machine together with the installed in the prisms 4 of the ingot and the refrigerant flow in the treatment area.

The machine is in automatic mode produced wyszlifowane figure chamfer 3 on one edge in the movement profile of the diamond tool relative to otkadrirovala ingot in a longitudinal direction parallel to the geometric axis of symmetry pseudocapacitance ingot.

Periodically the standard measuring tools and templates exercised control government is a major geometry chamfer machined edge the template was evaluated the correctness of the form of an arc chamfer, the caliper was measured bevel width l (chord, see figure 1). When approaching the size of the chord created chamfer to the specified (29.4 mm), to reduce the depth of the damaged layer and reducing the surface roughness of the chamfer, reduced step-feed grinding diamond tool from 40 μm/min to 10 μm/min and after 5-10 passes were off.

After completing curly chamfer on one edge of pseudopapilledema it was re-installed on the prisms 4 to perform a chamfer on the next edge, and so up until all four edges have been processed.

After processing all of the ribs was inspected obtained after the operation of grinding the treated ingot, which was determined by the chord length of each of the ribs and its variation along the length of the ingot.

Loss of silicon during processing was 0.05 kg/kg of processed material, which is 3% lower compared to losses of silicon for the same ingot processed by the method selected as the most similar analogue.

In addition, improved surface quality of the treated ingot was secured selection of array of the treated area of the ingot.

Criteria roughness was Ra=0.62 μm; Rt=6,56 μm; Rz=5.76 μm, which is 20% lower compared with the same showing the firs for the method, selected as the closest analogue, where Ra, Rt, Rz - criteria surface roughness, determined in accordance with the requirements of GOST 2789-73 as follows:

The indices Y and h are the values measured. They show the deviation of bumps and hollows roughness, respectively, relative to the average line of the surface of the ingot and the imaginary line of the deepest basin (see figure 2) at a certain length l. The exponent n is a quantitative metric measurements.

The table shows the qualitative indicators ingots processed by the proposed method.

No. ingotChord length 1 mmChord length 2 mmThe chord length of the 3 mmChord length 4 mm
maxminmaxminmaxminmaxmin
130.630.330.630.230.530.230.630.1
229.629.529.629.6/td> 29.6629.529.829.8
329.6529.629.729.729.3529.3529.629.6
429.9529.9529.729.730.030.029.729.7
530.229.830.330.330.329.930.330.2
629.829.630.329.730.029.830.129.9
73029.429.729.529.829.629.729.4
829.429.329.829.529.729.530.029.7

The table shows that the difference in size of the chord between the minimum and maximum indices decreased compared with the method selected as the most similar analogue, which indicates the improvement of quality and precision.

The invention will improve the quality monocrystalline credit is niewyk plates and the yield of wafers by reducing losses of silicon during processing of the ingot due to the new technological order processing, in which instead of the calibration operation of the ingot by processing it in rotation on the grinding or mechanical machines perform alternate processing of the edges of the ingot, which is carried out layer by grinding each of the edges in the direction of movement of the working tool parallel to the axis of the ingot.

Moreover, the procedure of processing operations of the ingot will allow in many cases, when you want to use it to get plates of irregular shape, which will be taken into account at the stage of processing of the individual edges of the ingot by applying a grinding tool with a given geometry of the working surface. While the profile of the working surface of the ribs may be different.

1. A method of manufacturing a monocrystalline silicon wafer, providing pseudocatatonia of single crystal silicon with subsequent grinding of the edges pseudocapacitance ingot, cutting single crystals on the plates, characterized in that the grinding ribs carry alternately, the grinding of each of the ribs carry in layers in the direction of movement of the machining tool parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ingot.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the grinding of each of the ribs carry a diamond tool, the profile of the working surface of which is soo which corresponds to the specified profile machined edges.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the grinding of each of the ribs carry with decreasing step-feed grinding tool.



 

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1 tbl

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