Nanosputnik

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has bed unit mounted on lateral surface and pivotally connected to device casing. Bed unit rotation axis is arranged in parallel to casing end face part. Mechanisms for rotating and fixing the bed unit relative to the casing (optionally of screw-nut type) are mounted on both sides with respect to the axis. The mechanisms provide supporting bed unit surface arrangement at an angle less than 90°. Solar battery board is rigidly mounted on the supporting bed unit surface. Camera for taking Earth surface pictures is mounted in nanosputnik casing end face on the opposite side with respect to nanosputnik units for connecting it to separation system. The camera is arranged in plane passing through longitudinal nanosputnik axis arranged in perpendicular to the solar battery board.

EFFECT: reduced device weight; increased effective solar battery board area.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to spacecraft, namely nano-satellites and space vehicles weighing up to 10 kg, intended to capture the Earth's surface and send images.

One of the main advantages of nanosatellites is that they launch into orbit functioning is associated method using special adapters that are installed on the main satellite. Adaptation nanosatellite to the booster with a fair start is carried out in terms of restrictions on the power capabilities of the booster, and also in terms of restrictions on the area of the payload of the head of the aerodynamic fairing.

On the possibility of installing a nanosatellite in a limited area, a significant role is played by the method of fixing panels solar panels on the body of the nanosatellite. As you know, an effective way of reducing the size of the solar panels when it is placed on the booster is the use of folding solar panel battery. But in this case much more complicated design of the panels, increasing their mass and reduced reliability of the disclosure of the panels. In this regard, for nanosatellites most preferred is the use of the unseen panels solar panels placed on the lateral surfaces of the body JV is tnica.

Known satellite, comprising a housing with a hosted appliances service and target equipment and the solar battery panel, side relative to the housing and rigidly fixed on it (see news journal kosmonavtiki, No. 6, June 1999, p.3, 4).

Structurally, the companion contains the module telescope, located at one end of the satellite and includes a telescope with a mirror system and cover. The lid closes, the mirror system and is a stellar camera. To this end, the satellite is attached to the booster.

Disadvantages layout of the satellite due to the fact that used longitudinal arrangement of the elements of the satellite, in which the longitudinal axis of the satellite is the same as or parallel to the longitudinal axis of the telescope module. This circumstance increases the total length of the satellite, which is a disadvantage.

In addition, under the terms of the adaptation of the satellite to the booster solar panel of the satellite is made of a rectangular-trapezoidal shape. In the upper part of the panel is made tapering and has the form of an isosceles trapezium. Disclaimer purely rectangular panel is dictated by the necessity of placing the bar and the satellite as a whole in the upper conical part of the head of the aerodynamic fairing of the launch vehicle.

The disadvantage is that the odd trapezoidal shape of the upper part of the panel is increased by (5-9)% the length of the solar panels relative to the purely rectangular panel. In addition, the density of the solar cells trapezoidal side panel below the rectangular panel, which further increases the height of the solar panel.

In addition, the longitudinal axis of the telescope is parallel to the solar panel that is not optimal from the point of view of the solar light panel when working star cameras, when the satellite is oriented longitudinal axis on the Earth.

Closest to the claimed nanosponge is a satellite, comprising a housing with target devices and service equipment, at one end of which is mounted the separation system of the satellite, and at the opposite end of the camera to capture the Earth's surface. The camera is positioned so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the mating plane of the satellite. Three solar panels are located around the satellite, with each panel rigidly mounted on the housing and located at an angle to the connecting plane of the satellite, when this angle exceeds 90° (see LLC "Publishing house "re-boot", No. 12, 2005 (32), p.4, 5). This satellite is used as a prototype.

Consider the disadvantages of satellite prototype, due to:

- arrangement of panels solar panels at an angle of more than 90° to the expansion plane of the satellite;

- position the camera to capture the Earth's surface to the top is her part of the satellite;

- the inability to change the angle of the solar panels battery to the connecting plane of the satellite in the preparation of the satellite to the start.

Development of means adapted for the implementation of the associated launch of nanosatellite most appropriate is based on the solution of optimization problem for choosing the design of structural system parameters "adapter+nanophotonic" taking into account existing constraints.

If development means of adapting nanosatellite and development of the nanosatellite is carried out at the same time, this optimization problem can be solved. This range of design and construction parameters as adapter and nanosatellite. If nanophotonic is created without adaptation to the specific booster and launch method that in practice the creation of nanosatellites is often the case, the task of adapting nanosatellite to the rocket-carrier can be solved only by optimizing technical solutions adapter that reduces the effectiveness of the group or associated launch of nanosatellite.

In the satellite prototype the angle of the solar panels and batteries to the expansion plane exceeds 90°. In addition, the upper part is the camera to capture the Earth's surface. All this increases the width in the upper part of the satellite and significantly complicates E. what about the placement in group and associated running on the adapter booster, which is a disadvantage. For example, when passing the start nanophotonic, as a rule, is located on the main satellite in the upper part of the conical zone of the payload of the head of the aerodynamic fairing. In this case, this form of the satellite, and the location in the upper part of the camera to capture the Earth's surface complicate the placement of the satellite system.

In this case, the adaptation of the nanosatellite to the booster in part to its placement on the adapter in the zone of the payload of the head fairing can be removed through the use of the adapter with rotating platform (see, for example, patent RF №2252902).

In this case, when the rotary platform nanophotonic set of conditions of accommodation in a specific area of the fairing. Before his Department rotatable platform rotates through an angle which provides shockless separation nanosatellite.

This scheme installation and separation of the satellites used in practice, but it complicates the design of the adapter increases the weight and decreases the reliability of the Department nanosatellite due to the necessity of its unfolding before division.

Adaptation nanosatellite to the booster is not only placing nanosatellite on the booster, but also negotiate and in some cases ensuring that ass the level of mechanical loading on the elements of the nanosatellite.

For satellite-prototype load from the booster at the site of excretion via the adapter, the separation system of the satellite, its design is transferred to the camera button located in the upper part of the satellite.

As the experience of ground-based experimental testing dynamic strength of the satellites in the composition of adapters for group and associated start and systems Department of a dynamic and impulse loads acting on the elements of the satellites are determined by the damping properties of the structure of satellites, adapters and device fixing satellites on the adapter.

In flight in the plane of the junction with the booster function on the three orthogonal axes of the quasi-stationary broadband random vibration. The maximum levels of airborne vibrations occur at the time of launch and during flight in the dense layers of the atmosphere in the transonic regime.

Vibro-impact acceleration in the plane of the junction with the booster occur at start-up and shutdown of the engine speed, the separation steps. Vibro-impact processes are transient decaying vibration. Low-frequency vibrocore occur during startup and shutdown of engines, propulsion stages. High frequency vibrocore caused by the firing of pyrotechnic devices used for the separation steps and reset the head abacate who I am.

Usually when developing adapter for passing (or group) satellite launch the task of reducing the dynamic vibration and shock loads (see, for example, patent no. No. 2248310). This is because the design and the devices launch satellites may not be able to withstand operating loads or booster, or from the systems Department.

In the satellite prototype in the ascent phase of LV Luggage is located in the upper part of the satellite and is the most sensitive to mechanical stress element. In this case, the task of ensuring the required values of the mechanical loads on the camera may be optimally solved only with regard to the selection of the desired damping properties of the structure of the satellite, which requires modifications of design and is a significant drawback of the satellite prototype. In addition, the suspension system adapter additional requirements imposed on account of the damping properties of the structure of the satellite, which complicates the suspension system and is a disadvantage.

For satellites that are used for imaging the Earth's surface, the goal is for maximum illumination of the solar panels and batteries during the shooting.

Estimate the value of the effective area of solar panels for satellites of the prototype during the session shooting poverkhnostyami, when the axis of the camera is directed toward the Earth. Under the effective area of the solar panels will be understood the ratio of the power delivered by the panel at the angular position of the Sun relative to the panel, power panel at maximum illumination panel Sun.

To achieve maximum illumination panels solar panels during the shooting angle of the panel must conform to the corner of the Sun-plane of the orbit. For pre-known time of the ascending node of the orbit of this angle can be determined and the panel on the satellite can be at this angle installed. In this case, the effective area will be maximum for a single orbit, for all other orbits (other time of the ascending node of the orbit) the effective area of the panel will be worse. In this regard, the rigid panel mounting on the body of the satellite prototype is a disadvantage.

These drawbacks of the satellite prototype reduce the performance characteristics of both the satellite and the means of adapting to the booster when implementing the associated start due to the following:

- increase the weight of the adapter and reducing the reliability of the satellite separation due to the introduction of the adapter associated Sputnik turntable; weight turntable for a companion with a mass of 10 kg 4-5 kg;

- the expansion of the mass construction of the satellite to ensure the specified parameters rigidity to ensure an acceptable level of mechanical loading camera to capture the Earth's surface in the ascent phase;

- increase the mass of the system damping adapter to reduce the mechanical loads on the camera.

- reduce the effective area of the solar panel at the launch of a satellite into orbit with parameters different from the original orbit, which was designed by the satellite.

The purpose of the claimed nanosatellite is to reduce the weight of the structure nanosatellite and means of adaptation to the booster with a fair start by increasing the density of the layout nanosatellite, improving the design and layout of the scheme and refusal turntable adapter, improving the reliability of separation due to failure on the rotary platform, as well as an increase in the effective area of the solar panel for a specified range of orbits.

This objective is achieved in that on the side of the case has lodgement, pivotally coupled to the housing nanosatellite, and the axis of rotation of lodgement is parallel to the bottom of the casing, and on either side of the axis of rotation on the body determined the mechanisms of rotation and fixation of the cradle relative to the housing in the form of, for example, emphasises type "screw-nut"connecting the chassis to the cradle between the nodes of rotation and fixation of lodgement selected from the condition where the support surface relative to the front-end part is orpus at an angle less than 90 degrees, this solar panel is rigidly connected to the support surface of the bed, and the camera is mounted inside the housing nanosatellite on the end part on the side opposite to the connection nodes nanosatellite with the separation system, and lies in the plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the nanosatellite and perpendicular to the solar panel and the optical part of the camera is oriented in the direction from the working surface of the solar panel with solar cells.

The claimed nanophotonic illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

- 1, 2 - General view of the nanosatellite;

- figure 3 - General view of the nanosatellite without solar panels;

- figure 4 - arrangement of nanosatellite as part of the main satellite at a fair start;

- figure 5 - location in orbit nanosatellite to survey the Earth's surface.

Nanophotonic includes a housing 1, which is connected with the card 2, which is the front part of the nanosatellite, which includes the nodes of its connection with the separation system (not shown).

On the housing 1 is mounted target and service equipment, namely: block electromagnetic devices 3, 4 camera to capture the Earth's surface, the transmitter 5 with an antenna to transmit images of the Earth's surface to the Earth, the onboard control system 6, and other apparatus (drawing does not show is on).

On the housing 1 is mounted to the cradle 7 is fixed by a hinge 8 nodes. The axis of rotation of lodgement is parallel to the bottom of the casing. On the lodgement 7 mounted solar panel 9, the magnetometers 10 and sun sensor 11. The rotation of lodgement 7 relative to the housing 1 and its fixation is provided by a screw mechanism 12 of the type a screw-nut mounted in the bracket 13 of the housing 1 and the bracket 14 lodgement and similar screw mechanism 15. Structurally, the housing 1 to the cradle 7 is designed so that the screw mechanisms 12, 15 provide rotation and fixation of the cradle relative to the support surface of the Board 2 (relative to the front part of the building) at an angle less than 90 degrees. This arrangement of the solar panel 9 provides a high density layout just nanosatellite in the area of payload head payload fairing of the launch vehicle.

To provide communication with nanostation there are flexible band antenna 16.

Camera 4 to capture the Earth's surface is mounted on the Board 2 on the side opposite nodes connection with the separation system, with its longitudinal axis parallel to the supporting surface of the Board 2 and lies in the plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the nanosatellite and perpendicular to the solar panel 9. Optical part of the camera is oriented in the upravlenii from the working surface of the solar panel battery 9 cells.

When passing the start nanophotonic is installed on the main satellite 17, which is fixed on the ascent phase of the frame payload 18 booster. Companion core 17 and the associated nanophotonic in the ascent phase are placed under the head aerodynamic fairing the fairing not shown) in the area of payload 19. In the above example, the installation area of the nanosatellite is limited to the conical part of the zone of payload 19 and rod 20 gravitational device main satellite 17. In this regard, the lower camera position on nanosponge allows you to take full advantage of the installation area. In addition, releases the cornering panel 9 solar panels relative to the housing 1 nanosatellite.

Installation nanosatellite using the adapter 21 mounted in the upper part of the main satellite.

Installation nanosatellite using the separation system 22, which provides the orientation of the nanosatellite in the direction of his office. In this case, the angle between the longitudinal axis of the nanosatellite and the longitudinal axis of the main satellite should provide a shockless separation nanosatellite. The implementation of solar panels 9 swivel allows you to optimize the installation nanosatellite based on bezopasnosti its separation and the effective area of the solar b is tarei for a particular run.

Nanophotonic on the separation system is oriented so that the solar panel 9 battery was located near areas payload 19. This arrangement provides the greatest angle of inclination of the nanosatellite from the rod 20 gravitational device main companion.

Adaptation nanosatellite to the main satellite at the stage of its development includes the following main activities:

- define the areas of Assembly nanosatellite and boundary conditions;

- determination of the angle unstressed Department of nanosatellite (αfrom(vfrom)for a given speed of separation (this angle can be changed by varying the efforts pushers systems division) and the received size of the panel 9 solar panels (xd,p);

- determination of the angle of inclination of the panels 9 to ensure bumpless Department of nanosatellite (αfrom(vfrom)and place it in the installation area (βb, m);

- determination of the dependence of the tilt angle of the panel 9 of the solar battery from the effective area of solar cells for specific and anticipated orbital parameters start ((βEP(zOrb);

- finding design parameters nanosatellite based on the solution of the task of minimization of the total mass of nanosatellite and means of adaptation (in this case, the system branches) when the exhaust gas is anteneh area of installation

MΣ((αfrom(vfrom, (xp,p), (βb, m), (βEP(zOrb)=MΣmin

Introduction in the process of optimizing the weight more towards the satellite prototype variables (βb, m), (βEP(zOrb), a lower camera position on the body can reduce the total weight of the nanosatellite and means of adaptation, which is an advantage of the claimed nanosatellite.

Excretion nanosatellite into orbit operation and a typical sequence diagram of such a nanosatellite on a sun synchronous orbit as follows.

In the ascent phase when passing the start nanophotonic installed according to figure 4 on the main satellite 17. Dynamic vibration and shock loads on nanophotonic from booster transmitted via companion core 17, the adapter 21 and the separation system 22. In this case nanosatellite 1 practically does not affect the data transfer load on the camera 4 nanosatellite, which is the most sensitive element. This reduces the weight of the body due to the exclusion of additional requirements on stiffness.

During insertion of the main satellite 17 into orbit together with nanostation is separated, after which separates the nanosatellite from the main satellite and the transition to on-Board power.

PEFC is this system of orientation and stabilization connects the magnetometers 10 and the electromagnetic device 3 and produces an initial calming nanosatellite and its orientation in the magnetic field of the Earth. After calming system orientation and stabilization waiting for the coming of the Sun on any of the photodiodes or the current panel 9 solar panels, includes a sun sensor 11, the control engine-flywheel (not shown) and directs the panel 9 solar panels in the Sun. In the shadow of the sun sensor and control engines-flywheels off and resets the accumulated momentum.

Then bookmark on Board real time and initial conditions ballistic software and the Ground command system orientation and stabilization means in the normal operation mode.

Upon exiting from the shadow of the Earth nanophotonic includes control engines-flywheels and switches from solar orientation, simultaneously controlling the angle of elevation of the Sun in the orbital coordinate system.

When exceeding this angle specified nanophotonic moves in orbital orientation, includes camera and starts shooting the Earth's surface. After lowering the Sun at the same angle is again the translation nanosatellite mode solar orientation and it accumulates energy before entering into the shadows.

The claimed nanophotonic compared to the prototype provides:

- weight body design nanosatellite due to the position of the camera to capture the Earth's surface in the lower part on 16-17% increase the density of the layout;

for nanosatellite weight of 10 kg mass, adapter for passing start by increasing the density of the layout nanosatellite by the location of the camera to capture the Earth's surface in the lower part of the body and use the rotary solar panel battery adapter weight is reduced by 4-5 kg due to refusal turntable adapter to accommodate nanosatellite in the restricted area of the fairing;

- improving the reliability Department with a fair run at the expense of refusal turntable adapter;

- an increase in the effective area of the solar panel for a specified range of orbits.

Nanophotonic, comprising a housing located on the target devices and office equipment, located on the bottom of the casing joints nanosatellite with a separation system that is installed in the housing of the camera to capture the Earth's surface, the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the bottom of the casing, and a solar panel mounted on the side surface of the housing at an angle to the end part thereof, characterized in that on the side of the case has lodgement, pivotally coupled to the housing nanosatellite so that the axis of rotation of lodgement is parallel to the bottom of the casing, and on either side of the axis of rotation on the body established mechanisms the s rotation and fixation of the cradle relative to the housing, for example, type "screw-nut"connecting the chassis to the cradle between them, and the mechanisms of rotation and fixation provide the location of the support surface of the cradle relative to the bottom of the casing at an angle lower than 90°, solar panel rigidly mounted on this supporting surface of the bed, and the camera mounted inside the housing nanosatellite on the end part on the side opposite to the connection nodes nanosatellite with the separation system, and lies in the plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the nanosatellite and perpendicular to the solar panel, while the optical part of the camera is oriented in the direction from the working the surface of the solar panel with solar cells.



 

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: satellites of small mass and methods of mounting them on carriers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed mini-satellite has body in form of parallelepiped, solar battery panels secured on its side plates and units for connection with separation system which are located on one of side plates and on end plate. Each panel is made in form of tip and root parts articulated together. Root parts of panel are articulated on side plate of mini-satellite body where connection units are mounted. Mechanical locks mounted on opposite side plate are used for interconnecting the tip parts of panels and for connecting them with body. Articulation units are provided with drives for turning of parts. Articulation units are located above mechanical locks relative to plate on which these locks are mounted. Novelty of invention consists in reduction of area of end part of mini-satellite by 35%, reduction of its height in center of cross section by 23%, reduction of mass by 6-7% and increase of density of arrangement by 17-18%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased number of mini-satellites carried on adapter.

7 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft inter-planetary flights with the aid of cruise jet engines, mainly electrical rocket engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes injection of spacecraft into heliocentric trajectory at distance of spacecraft from Sun followed by its approach to Sun. Active motion of spacecraft is realized in part of this trajectory behind Earth's orbit during operation of jet engines. Then, spacecraft returns to Earth at velocity increment and increases its heliocentric velocity in the course of gravitational maneuver near Earth. After spacecraft has crossed Earth's orbit in section of its approach to Sun and before entry into Earth's gravisphere, spacecraft is accelerated by repeated switching-on of cruise jet engines. At the moment of fly-by over Earth when gravitational maneuver is performed, angular motion of Earth and spacecraft relative to Sun are equalized. During fly-by over Earth, spacecraft is subjected to its gravitational field changing the vector of spacecraft heliocentric velocity, thus ensuring further acceleration of spacecraft and forming inter-planetary trajectory of flight to target.

EFFECT: reduction of time required for organization of gravitational maneuver in Earth's gravity field at injection of spacecraft into required inter-planetary trajectory.

2 dwg

FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.

EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: global satellite information systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system and method of organization of communication with the aid of this system includes injection of satellites into inclined elliptical orbits ensuring simplified tracking of satellites by means of ground tracking stations. Satellite orbits form pair of repeated routes (130, 140) embracing the earth's globe in projection on ground surface. Satellites are activated on each of these routes only on active arcs located considerably higher or lower relative to equator, thus emulating some essential characteristics of geostationary satellites. Parameters of satellite orbits are so set that final points of active arcs of two routes coincide; point at which active arc terminates in one route coincides with point where active arc starts on other route. Satellites placed on such active arcs are accepted by ground station located in satellite servicing zone as satellites slowly moving in one direction at rather large elevation angle. Their trajectory in celestial sphere has shape of closed teardrop line.

EFFECT: increased capacity of global satellite communication system with no interference in operation of geostationary satellites; simplifies procedure of tracking satellites.

39 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: illumination of separate sections of planet surface at night.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in illuminating the night surface of planet by sunlight. One section is formed as circle and other sections are formed as circular rings of large diameter. All sections are lighted-up by rays scanning at rate no less than several revolutions per second setting-up these sections in order of increase of their diameters. Largest circular ring whose outer diameter is equal to size of surface being illuminated is set-up last.

EFFECT: increased area of illuminated sections at one and the same sizes of solar reflectors.

1 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.

EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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