Method for making parts such as sleeves having through cavity and outer surface with axially variable cross section

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of sleeve type parts.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming semi-finished product at deforming initial blank and calibrating it along outer lateral surface; pressing out cone cavity in semi-finished product by means of punch while providing displacement of excess metal occurred due to volume error of initial blank to end of semi-finished product; during one technological transition performing intermediate deforming of semi-finished product and finally forming part. In order to realize it, semi-finished product is placed in die of die set in such a way that its cone cavity is turned downwards and lower end of semi-finished product is placed with gap relative to bottom of die. With use of deforming punch cavity is pierced in semi-finished product in direction opposite to narrowing direction of cone cavity. Gap between lower end of semi-finished product and bottom of die is filled with material of semi-finished product and cone cavity is opened for forming metal scrap in front of deforming punch. Simultaneously metal scrap is removed and part cavity is calibrated.

EFFECT: lowered energy consumption of process.

10 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in all branches of engineering to obtain a variety of parts like bushings with a through axial internal cavity having an outer surface with a variable cross-section, for example a conical or spherical, varying along the axis of the product or monotonically speed; developed with flange or without it.

Known methods of manufacture of parts like bushings with outer surface of variable cross-section (for example, patent of Russia № 2191088, 2000, and No. 1571874, 1996), carried out in multi-die machines, in which the precision cutting of blanks from a calibrated rod fluctuations in the volume of the workpiece lie within the field of tolerance parameters of the finished product.

Such methods require high-tech cutting that is economically justified, when the mass character of production parts or in the manufacture of specific products, and practically does not apply where such costs are unreasonable.

Known less expensive ways to manufacture parts like bushings stamping, which includes preparation of the original piece cutting of the rod, retrieved from the intermediate product, the intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the product:

a) oblasnoi stamping (A.S. WITH THE CF 1552460, 1996, RF patent 2169632, 2000, 2218230, 2001) - when the fin is displaced excess metal due to error procurement quantity (POS)obtained by cutting, and the technological overlap of metal, put in the total harvest for high-quality filling of the relief matrix;

b) bezoblachnoy stamping - when excess metal is only POS due to inaccurate cutting. In these methods, to ensure the accuracy of manufacturing of parts provides for the expulsion of excess metal in the compensation elements formed in the tool (patent of the Russian Federation 2242323, 2002, 2191654, 2001) or in the product (as the USSR 1803249, 1993; 1819729, 1991; 1433617, 1986), Such methods have a high energy intensity of processes of formation, additional consumption of metal removed in the waste, and rework products, usually by machining.

Of them the closest analogue of the proposed method (prototype) is a method of obtaining speed parts with a through hole for A.S. USSR 1803249, A1, 23.03.1993, UK 21/08, including the preparation of the original piece, obtaining a semi-finished product, intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the product.

In the prototype prefabricated get in the first transition backward extrusion with distribution and direct extrusion in the movable polimetrica source zagotovka and produce the firmware in it with the two ends of the cavities with a diameter greater than the diameter of the hole part, and the training of jumpers constant height. The excess metal is distributed on the upper end face and the outer side surface.

At intermediate deformation of the semifinished product in the second transition produce punching jumpers and direct extrusion with compression holes. The final shape of the product is carried out in a separate (third) transition draught thickening.

The disadvantages of the prototype include the increased consumption of the process due to rigid schemes inverse and direct extrusion and limited way, since the scheme of deformation of the material with the reverse extrusion and distribution in the second transition is not possible to produce, for example, items with well-developed flange and with accurate dimensions in height. Moreover, the adopted scheme of deformation, in which variations of volume goes up into the thickening only at the last transition, leads to the existence of varying wall thickness in parts, which reduces the precision of its manufacture. You need to remove the jumper increases the consumption of the effort and expense of metal. The mid-term deformation of semi-finished and final forming of the product in separate transitions with different schemes strains complicates the process and used the snap, increases the complexity of manufacturing the ed is lia, the cost of it.

The invention solves the problem of creating a simple and economical method for producing a variety of shapes and sizes of parts of a wide distribution with sufficient precision.

The technical result generated by the invention, is expressed in the simplified schematic of deformation, reducing the number of transactions and transitions, reducing the energy intensity of the process.

To achieve the technical result in the method of manufacturing of parts like bushings having a through cavity and the outer surface of the variable along the axis of the section, including preparation of the original piece, obtaining a semi-finished product, intermediate deformation of the semifinished product and the final shape of the product

according to the invention

obtaining a semi-finished product is carried out by deforming the original piece and further calibration of the outer side surface to match the parameters of the finished parts, semi-finished product to its intermediate deformation from one of the ends of the squeeze punch conical cavity with a base diameter equal to the diameter of the through cavity of the finished piece at this end to or greater than his, and height, which is determined from the condition that the volume of the conical cavity is not less than the volume of metal, sostavlyajushie what about the error of the volume of the original piece in relation to the volume of the finished part, these extrusion produced ensuring the displacement of the excess metal, due to the uncertainty of the volume of the original piece, at the end of the semi-finished product, intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping details carried out in one process transition deforming punch in the matrix stamp, in which prefabricated set conical cavity down to the location of its lower end with a gap relative to the bottom of the matrix, these deforming punch in the direction opposite to the direction of narrowing conical cavity, produce the firmware in the material of the cavity, with the cavity parameters of the finished piece, and a height equal to the difference between the height of the finished parts and the height of the conical cavity, the filling material of the semi-finished product the gap between the bottom face of the semifinished product and the bottom of the matrix, opening conical cavity with getting before deforming punch otters and then delete the mentioned otters by moving it into the conical cavity of the semi-finished product and the calibration cavity details.

Additional differences, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in the fact that:

at intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the workpiece using the tool to ensure the omogenia side of the outer surface of the prefabricated wall matrix, which is used as a work relief matrix, tapering in the direction of firmware, and/or use a notch or abrasive coating on the walls of the matrix;

at intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the parts use a pointed deforming punch with a diameter equal to the diameter of the cavity of the finished parts;

during extrusion conical cavity use a pointed punch.

In private implementations of the invention features are that:

extrusion conical cavity is carried out upon receipt of the semi-finished product, while squeezing provide a closed firmware, which lead from the lower end of the material;

extrusion conical cavity carried out during the preparation of the original piece,

extrusion conical cavity is carried out from the top end of the original piece.

Of deformation forces in the proposed form of extrusion is lower than with other types of extrusion, because there is no comprehensive scheme of compression of the metal, and they depend only on the height of the "tube" before deforming punch, but not to the degree firmware as, for example, in case of backward extrusion. Reaching a maximum value at the depth of penetration of the punch is set to 1.2 to 0.8 d punch, given the performance communications efforts are falling sharply. Reduced effort - reduces the load on the equipment, you can use the equipment of lesser capacity for effort and work.

A significant reduction efforts deformation of reach for the separate account for the height of the counter forming the internal cavity parts, which is especially important for large size items (as in option on Fig extrusion conical cavity is conducted with minimum effort); and uniform axisymmetric displacement of excess metal due to POS, in the end face of the semi-finished product without the need of spending extra effort.

In addition, facilitates the operation of the tool, allowing a minimal effort to form a cavity in detail, including a great height.

Small efforts deformation can significantly reduce the energy intensity of the process, to simplify the design effort deformation (without reverse and radial extrusion) and thus combine in a single stamp and to simultaneously control the operation of one deforming punch operations intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final forming of the product, which in the prototype, as in most analogues, have to spend separately, and to remove restrictions on the shape and dimensions of parts and to simplify the snap.

Obtain a semi-product pairs with the investment destinations, closest to the parameters of the finished product and its placement in the matrix with a work relief identical to the semi-finished product, and/or additional technical means. for braking the outer side surface of the prefabricated walls of the matrix contributes to the qualitative formation details and obtain its exact parameters that do not require additional refinement.

This removed the dependence of the relief matrix from deformation conditions, and it is only depending on the parameters of the manufactured product.

Wipe excess metal first end of the semi-finished product, and then in otter before deforming punch at the end of the formation of internal cavities that hold the counter narrowing conical cavity, makes little effort to bring this excess in the open cavity, whence he removed approval outside of the product.

Counter extrusion cavities pointed punches avoids the stage of the formation of bridges between them and, consequently, a rapid rise in force when the end of the firmware.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 presents the initial blank;

figure 2-4 presents a diagram of the manufacturing method proposed details type conical sleeve developed with flange (example extrusion conical Palast is at the lower end upon receipt of the product);

figure 5-7 - same for items without flange;

on Fig - example extrusion conical cavity from the upper end of the original piece;

figure 9 - diagram of the receiving material (from the workpiece by Fig) to the left - the beginning of the process, the right - end process;

figure 10 - diagram of the finished product with a stepped outer surface (the left for a given volume, the right amount POS);

figure 11 - diagram of the calibration cavity and removal of otters;

To manufacture the part type bushing with inner diameter of the through axial cavity ded.and the height h from the rod of circular cross section measuring sharply separate the source of the workpiece 1 with a predetermined volume with the upper end face 2 and the bottom end 3.

Depending on the plastic properties of the metal product, its configuration and parameters of the method carried out as with the heating of the workpiece and/or semi-finished products, and "iron".

The blank 1 is subjected to deformation, for example rebuff, and then calibrated (figure 2) to obtain a semi-finished product 4, one end face and the outer side surface 5 which correspond to the parameters of the finished product. With the bottom end face 3 a pointed punch 6 squeeze the conical cavity 7. The base diameter of the cone cavity 7 (dcore.) perform equal to or larger than the diameter ded.at its lower end, which is determined by the configuration is nutrena cavity in the finished product. The height h1the cavity 7 is determined from the condition that the volume of the cavity is not less than the volume VPOS.

Depending on the degree of roughness of the end faces and the error in cutting the workpiece, typically has an error of volume (VPOS) relative to a set, equal to the volume of the finished product (Ved.). In practice, the fluctuation amount of the workpiece reaches 7-8%.

Wipe excess metal (VPOS) lead to the end of the semi-finished product 4 - metal wrap around the punch 6 and, thanks to its pointed shape asymmetrically routed into the end face of the semi-finished product (figure 2 and 5 are blacked out).

As an option: at this stage the source of the workpiece 1 before calibration (Fig) deform in an open mould with squeezing also pointed punch 6 and the upper end face 2 cavity 7 previously agreed parameters. In this case, the matrix 8 calibration (Fig.9) of the workpiece 1 is placed with 180° so that the base of the cavity 7 were from the bottom of the matrix 8, and the displacement of VPOSgoes first in the adjacent wall of the workpiece, and for the further calibration in matrix 8 (Fig.9 blacked out)in the end face of the semi-finished product 4.

The semi-finished product 4 is installed in the matrix 9 (3, 6, 10) cavity 7 down. Between the lower end face of the semi-finished product 4 and the bottom of the matrix 9 provide clearance Z, which is set based on the conditions that the volume of the cavity formed by the walls of the lower part of the matrix and cavity wall product height Z, equal to the volume of drilled cavity details, for a given volume of the workpiece.

Then pointed deforming punch 10 firmware squeeze the cavity 11 from the opposite end to a height of h2equal to the difference hed-h1and of diameter equal to ded.

When the punch 10, the lateral outer surface 5 of the semi-finished product 4 is restrained from movement by the walls of the cavity of the matrix 9 (down) due to the elevation matrix, tapering in the direction of the FAC steadily or stepwise (Fig 3, 5, 10) and/or additional technical means, such as notches or abrasive coating and the metal of the Central portion to move the punch in the direction of the firmware.

The relief of the matrix 9 is filled move the material to the full selection of clearance Z and the stop edge of the cake mix into the bottom of the matrix, providing products of the exact shape and size to exact lower and upper ends.

When the punch 10 reaches the top of the cavity 7, opens it. The deformation force falls. The excess metal VPOSgoes to otter 12 obtained at the junction of the cavities 7 and 11, in the form of two opposed conical in cross-section edges, as shown in figure 10 to the right.

At minimum VPOSotter may be missing or could also be a slight Burr on the wall of the cavity (figure 10 left).

Further downward movement of the plug 10 with the necessary standards is of particular importance for the calibration of the cavity by the force of the pointed part of the punch shift otter 12 down into the cavity 7, where she aproval beyond products, and at the same time, the cylindrical working part punch calibrated cavity.

At maximum VPOSand V respectively otters on its removal changes the parameters of the product, as the walls of the semi-finished product will only deform elastically.

Option extrusion cavity 7 select technologically, guided by the level of plastic properties of the metal and the parameters of the product, the Park available equipment.

The method allows obtaining a semi-finished product and other known techniques.

A specific example of implementation of the invention given for the example of the manufacture of the conical sleeve without flange 60 mm in diameter on the upper side of the inner diameter of the through cavity 27 mm, the angle of inclination of the outer surface 5°.

Manufacturing technology bushing in accordance with figure 5, 6, 7.

Cutting rod with a diameter of 50+0,5steel 45 receive the workpiece 1 length 72±2 mm Workpiece is heated up to 950° and rebuff to a height of 64 mm, Then the workpiece is placed in a closed die with the punch 6 at the bottom of the matrix and squeeze the conical cavity 7 with a height of h1equal to 26 mm, and dcore.32 mm with the location of the VPOS.at the end of the semi-finished product, at the same time produce the calibration of the upper and side surface of the semifinished product. The volume of the cavity sostavljaet approximately 7% of the set volume of the workpiece. Further, the semi-finished product is placed in a matrix with a gap Z equal to 20 mm, and pointed deforming punch with a diameter of 27 mm stitch cavity to a depth of h2=64 mm end of the semi-finished product touches the bottom of the matrix, the cavity 7 is opened, the further downward movement of the plug gauge cavity and remove the otter, receiving the finished product. The maximum force firmware to 19.5 cu at a depth of firmware on h1, further effort falls, calibration cavity and remove otters spend with effort 5-3 TC.

1. The method of manufacture of parts like bushings having a through cavity and the outer surface of the variable along the axis of the section, including preparation of the original piece, obtaining a semi-finished product, intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the workpiece, characterized in that a semi-finished product is carried out by deforming the original piece and further calibration of the outer side surface to match the parameters of the finished parts, semi-finished product to its intermediate deformation from one of the ends of the squeeze punch conical cavity with the base diameter of the cone equal to the diameter of the through cavity of the finished piece at this end to or greater than his, and height, which is determined from the condition, what is the volume of the conical cavity is not less than the amount of the metal constituting p is the sin of the volume of the original piece in relation to the volume of the finished part, these extrusion produced ensuring the displacement of the excess metal, due to the uncertainty of the volume of the original piece, at the end of the semi-finished product, intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping details carried out in one process transition deforming punch in the matrix stamp, in which prefabricated set conical cavity down to the location of its lower end with a gap relative to the bottom of the matrix, these deforming punch in the direction opposite to the direction of narrowing conical cavity, produce the firmware in the material of the cavity, with the cavity parameters of the finished piece, and a height equal to the difference between the height of the finished parts and the height of the conical cavity, the filling material of the semi-finished product the gap between the bottom face of the semifinished product and the bottom of the matrix, opening conical cavity with getting before deforming punch otters and then delete the mentioned otters by moving it into the conical cavity of the semi-finished product and the calibration cavity details.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the workpiece using the tool to ensure the braking side of the outer surface of the prefabricated wall is atrica.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as a means to ensure the braking side of the outer surface of the prefabricated wall matrix using a work relief matrix, tapering in the direction of the firmware.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as a means to ensure the braking side of the outer surface of the prefabricated wall matrix using a notch or abrasive coating on the walls of the matrix.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at intermediate deformation of semi-finished and final shaping of the parts use a pointed deforming punch with a diameter equal to the diameter of the cavity of the finished items.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that during extrusion of the material of the conical cavity, use a pointed punch.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the extrusion conical cavity is carried out upon receipt of the semi-finished product.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the extrusion conical cavity provide a closed firmware, which lead from the lower end of the semi-finished product.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the extrusion conical cavity carried out during the preparation of the original piece.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the extrusion conical cavity is carried out with one hundred is ons of the upper end of the original piece.



 

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