Hydraulic power-generating plant

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is designed for converting energy of water flows into electric energy. Hydraulic power-generating plant contains at least two turbine water conduits arranged horizontally one over the other, generator installed over turbine water conduits, and orthogonal turbines arranged in water conduits whose shafts are installed vertically in bearing supports. Process spaces are formed in walls of turbine water conduits being sealed by detachable partitions. Said spaces accommodate bearing supports and connecting members mechanically coupling turbine shafts with each other and with shaft of generator. Bearing supports can be fastened in detachable watertight partitions. Plant can be furnished with at least two groups of turbine water conduits arranged one over the other horizontally along head front. Plant can be furnished with watertight communication channels designed for communication of process spaces with operating well of hydroelectric station.

EFFECT: provision of conditions for convenient mounting, demounting and servicing of equipment at reduced specific capital outlays.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the field of hydropower construction and can be used in the construction of tidal hydroelectric power plants (TPP) and low-pressure river hydropower plants with water streams with relatively large depths greater than the diameter of the turbine is more than 2.5 times.

The level of technology

Known multi hydropower plant project Penzhina PES [1], in which the horizontal turbine water lines are located one above the other in three tiers. In each of the penstocks installed capsule hidroelectrica, consisting of a horizontal axis turbine and placed inside a waterproof capsule generator with multiplier. The diameter of the impeller of the two lower tiers equals 10 m, which is currently limited by technical capabilities diameter for pressure turbines, which corresponds to the maximum specific (per 1 kW of installed capacity) values of the mass and cost of the unit. Disadvantages of installing [1] - the complexity of installation and operation of a multi-tiered capsule hydroelectricrelated, high unit cost of the installation of 1 kW of installed capacity.

Known hydropower plant containing at least two installed in the turbine water orthogon the global turbine, the shafts are connected to a common shaft through a sealed cavity bull dividing the turbine conduits, and the generator shaft is kinematically connected with a common shaft [2]. In [2] turbine conduits are located on the same horizontal level, the shafts of the turbine and generator are linked in a common horizontal shaft, and the generator is placed on the same level with water in a sealed cavity enhanced steer between the two turbine conduit.

Disadvantages installation [2], the necessity of establishing an extended bull and volume sealed cavity in the body of a bull for the placement and operation of the generator and associated electrical equipment, complexity of installation and operation of its electric power equipment in the cramped conditions of the cavity formed in the body of the extended bull.

The objective of the invention is to provide convenient conditions of installation, dismantling and maintenance of the equipment at low unit capital cost per 1 kW of installed capacity and high specific throughput and capacity per unit length of the penstock front of hydroelectric power.

The invention

The subject of the invention is hydropower installation comprising at least two horizontally spaced one above the other turbine conduit gene is combined, mounted above the turbine conduits, and placed in the turbine conduits orthogonal turbine shafts which are installed vertically in the bearings in the walls of the penstocks is formed is sealed by a removable partitions technological cavity, in which are placed the bearings and the connecting elements, kinematically connecting the shafts of the turbines to each other and with the shaft of the generator.

This allows to solve the problem of the invention.

High technical performance and reduced capital costs for creating skompanovano specified hydropower installation combined with the convenience of maintenance placed in a sealed technological cavities bearing and connecting elements connecting the shafts orthogonal turbine and the generator shaft. You can use a bearing support on the basis of rolling bearings with oil lubrication, having a lower coefficient of friction than the bearings are water lubricated.

The invention has the development for particular cases of its implementation.

The bearings can be mounted in removable waterproof the walls. This creates convenience for installation and dismantling of multi hydroelectricity of kinematically connected orthogonal turbines, generatorfree initial Assembly and repair.

The installation may contain at least two horizontally placed along the pressure front of the power plant (i.e. across the water flow) group penstocks located one above the other. This allows preserving the above advantages to increase the capacity of the plant by increasing its length along the pressure front hydroelectric power.

The unit can be equipped with waterproof moves the message intended for communication technology cavities with operational wells hydroelectric power. Waterproof moves messages provide service personnel hydropower station access in tight technological cavity installation of operating the well, running in the building of a hydroelectric power station.

Brief description of drawings

1 to 3 illustrate an example embodiment of the invention (including its development) in megaturbinas installation that combines horizontally placed along the pressure front two groups penstocks located one above the other. Figure 1 shows a section a-a installation of the vertical plane directed along the flow and passing through one of the groups of conduits, and vertical shafts orthogonal turbines. Figure 2 shows the cut-In installation horizontal plane passing at the level of the top is about tier penstocks, as figure 3 Dan incision With-With the installation of a vertical plane passing along the pressure front of hydroelectric power through the vertical shafts of the two orthogonal turbines installed in the turbine conduits of adjacent groups.

The implementation of the invention with regard to its development

Installation (see Fig.1 - 3) contains two groups of horizontally placed one above the other penstocks: upper turbine conduit 1 and the lower turbine conduit 2.

In average, the most narrow part of the conduits 1 and 2 are placed orthogonal turbine 3 and 4, respectively. Over the conduits 1 and 2 installed generator 5. The shafts 6 and 7 turbines 3 and 4 are installed vertically in the bearings 8. In the described example implementation of the shafts 6 and 7 kinematically connected between a connecting element 9 in the form of clutches and shaft 10 of the generator 5 to the connecting element, including (in addition to couplings) the intermediate shaft 11 and the multiplier 12. In other versions of the element 9 may be made in the form of a short intermediate shaft and two gear coupling or flexible coupling for compensating misalignment of the shafts 6 and 7 turbines 3 and 4 that occur during manufacturing and Assembly, and the intermediate shaft 11 and/or the multiplier 12 can not be used.

Horizontal walls 13 penstocks 1 and 2 formed technologically the cavity 14, in which the connecting elements of the shafts and installed the bearings 8. The lower cavity 14 formed in the form of niches in the bottom horizontal wall 13 of the conduit 2. Other cavities 14 are made in the walls 13 end-to-end.

Technological cavity 14 is separated from the water removable waterproof horizontal rails 15, which may be performed, for example, in the form of discs with a seal having a Central shaft hole. In the partition 15 can be secured in a bearing support 8.

Cavity 14, protected from water by watertight bulkheads 15, filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, they can be applied to a support 8, is executed on the basis of rolling bearings with oil lubrication. For service personnel access to the bearing supports 8 and the connecting elements placed in the cavities 14 may be provided with a waterproof moves messages 16, which provide the message of technological cavities 14 with production well 17, provided with a spiral staircase and placed in the Central part of the power plant (see figure 3).

To control the operation of the turbines, the channels 1 and 2 can be equipped with working shutters, for example predeterminada gates a particular design (figure 1-3 not shown). Typically, such a shutter is required for HPS, but on PES predetermine gates can not be installed. In the latter case, to control the operation of the turbines is provided a braking device (figure 1-3 not shown).

At the ends of the conduits 1 and 2 can be provided by the grooves 18 under gates are installed for maintenance and motorized transportation.

The plant consists of PES is as follows.

Pressure front cuts from the sea pool PES. When tidal fluctuations in sea level occur cyclical fluctuations of the difference in water levels between the pool and the sea. This difference in the levels creates a static pressure, which changes periodically as the magnitude and sign. In case of equal levels of pool water and sea pressure takes a value of zero, and the flow in pressure conduits 1 and 2 is practically absent. That is why the turbines 3 and 4 are fixed. In the process of tide increases the sea level and the water in the conduits 1 and 2 flows out of the sea in the pool. Because of the limited bandwidth of the conduits PES level in the pool is growing more slowly than in the sea, and the pressure on PES in absolute value and, accordingly, the rate of flow of water in the conduits 1 and 2 increases. The shafts 6 and 7 turbines 3 and 4 and kinematically associated shaft 10 of the generator 5 are removed from the brake and when the pressure is about 0.3 m of the turbine under the action of the current in the conduits 1 and 2 water start in adatsa and gradually increase the speed. When the pressure of about 0.5 m rotation speed of the turbine 6 and 7 reaches the rated value, and the frequency of rotation of the shaft 10 of the generator 5, increased the multiplier reaches synchronous value at which the generator 5 is included in the grid. With further increase of pressure in excess of 0.5 m generator 5 gives the network active power, increasing with increasing pressure. When the tide is low pressure begins to fall, and given the active power of the generator 5 is reduced. At zero active power generator 5 is disconnected from the power turbine shafts slow down and stop. Then, as the tide is low the pressure goes to zero and, when the water level in the pool to become higher than in the sea, the head changes its sign on protivopolozhny, providing a reverse flow of water in the conduits 1 and 2 from the pool into the sea. When the appropriate pressure reverse direction hidroelectrica again removed from the brake and gaining momentum. Due to the fact that the characteristics of the orthogonal turbine and the direction of their rotation does not depend on the direction of flow of water [2], the generator 5 operates in the same way as described above. Then the ebb tide is replaced by the tide, and the cycle of operation is repeated. Similarly almost synchronously operates hidroelectrica with turbines placed in the next group located one over on the natives of water.

At depths in the target PES 25-30 m, which is designed to educate and tugurskaya plants, and the installation of a single-layer arrangement of the conduits must be used turbine with the utmost in technical possibilities impeller diameter 10 m as in the case of application of the axial and in the case of the use of the orthogonal turbine. The turbines use a smaller diameter at a single location of the water at these depths is not economically viable due to the decreasing share of throughput and capacity per unit length of the penstock front PES. However, the specific gravity and the cost of hydroelectricrelated (per 1 kW of installed capacity) with increasing diameter of the impeller turbines grow. So, for example, increasing the diameter of the turbine 2 times with 5 to 10 m unit weight of unit (1 kW of installed capacity) is almost doubled. The use of hydroelectricrelated smaller diameter in a multi-tiered system penstocks with capsule units placed in each of the conduits [1], complicates the conditions of installation and operation, which, ultimately, increases the cost of PES and makes it unsuitable for use.

The invention provides reduced capital costs due to the fact that (in contrast to the known solutions [1] and [2]) allows jet to use turbines of smaller diameter without compromising the specific throughput and capacity per unit length of the pressure front. For example, an implementation of the invention on Mezenskaya tidal power plant with depths of water flow 25-30 m allows you to replace the units with orthogonal turbines with a diameter of 10 m to apply the units of orthogonal turbines with a diameter of 5 m, While retaining unchanged the specific bandwidth and power generating units per unit length of the penstock front PES. At the same time at a constant total power PES significantly (almost 2 times) reduced the total cost of its generating units and approximately 30% reduced the cost of building PES. Reducing the cost of the building with decreasing diameter of the turbine is due to the decrease in hydraulic conditions the length of the conduits.

Assembly, disassembly and maintenance of the equipment proposed installation is greatly simplified in comparison with [1] and [2]. After the closing of the conduits 1 and 2 gates and pumping water all equipment underwater part of the installation (including POS. 3, 4, 8, 9, 11 and 15) may go down or up through the cavity 14 (sizes which provide vertical movement neumolimogo equipment and available space in the middle of the conduits 1 and 2. Easy operation is ensured, in particular, the fact that in contrast to plants [1] and [2] proposed installation framing equipment op is kizirova in relation to maintenance. The generator 5 and the associated electrical equipment that requires frequent access service personnel posted in the unflooded upper part of the unit (for example, above the upper water), and in the underwater part of the installation in sealed cavities 14 posted by equipment (bearings, connecting elements, partitions), requiring more rare access for routine maintenance.

Sources of information

1. Tidal power plants. Edited Lbergman. Moscow, JSC "Institute Hydroproject", 1994, book 1, str, RES.

2. RF patent №2216644 from 27.12.2001, IPC F03B 7/00, 13/00

1. Turbine installation comprising at least two horizontally spaced one above the other turbine conduit, power generator, mounted on the turbine by the water, and placed in the turbine conduits orthogonal turbine shafts which are installed vertically in the bearings in the walls of the penstocks is formed is sealed by a removable partitions technological cavity, in which are placed the bearings and the connecting elements, kinematically connecting the shafts of the turbines to each other and with the shaft of the generator.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the bearing Assembly is fixed in a removable partitions.

3. Installation according to claim 1, atricauda is the, it contains at least two placed along the pressure front group penstocks located one above the other.

4. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it is equipped with waterproof moves the message intended for communication technology cavities with operational wells hydroelectric power.



 

Same patents:

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Wave power plant // 2305794

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is designed to convert energy of waves into electric energy. Proposed device contains pontoon, anchor chain and anchor, electric generator and drive including working and support sheaves over which flexible tie with weights o each end is passed. One of weights is installed for hanging over bottom and is made in form of floating anchor and the other is made in form of counterweight. Anchor chain is provided with tie-rod. Floating anchor and counterweight are made for adjustment of their mass. Floating anchor can be made in form of hollow platform in which row of chambers is made. Each chamber is sealed and designed for accommodating and/or ground, and /or air, and/or water. Counterweight is made in form of hollow float with sealed chamber in lower part which is designed for ground, and sealed air chamber is found in its upper part. Tie-rod is installed by one end on anchor chain and by other end, on pontoon. It is made flexible and can be adjusted in length.

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5 cl, 3 dwg

Wave power plant // 2305794

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is designed to convert energy of waves into electric energy. Proposed device contains pontoon, anchor chain and anchor, electric generator and drive including working and support sheaves over which flexible tie with weights o each end is passed. One of weights is installed for hanging over bottom and is made in form of floating anchor and the other is made in form of counterweight. Anchor chain is provided with tie-rod. Floating anchor and counterweight are made for adjustment of their mass. Floating anchor can be made in form of hollow platform in which row of chambers is made. Each chamber is sealed and designed for accommodating and/or ground, and /or air, and/or water. Counterweight is made in form of hollow float with sealed chamber in lower part which is designed for ground, and sealed air chamber is found in its upper part. Tie-rod is installed by one end on anchor chain and by other end, on pontoon. It is made flexible and can be adjusted in length.

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5 cl, 3 dwg

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4 dwg

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8 cl, 7 dwg

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FIELD: mobile generator plants.

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EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.

2 cl, 21 dwg

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4 dwg

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1 dwg

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FIELD: power engineering.

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2 cl, 3 dwg

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