Hydro-mechanical catcher

FIELD: drilling equipment, namely engineering of devices for freeing wedged part of drilling column in wells.

SUBSTANCE: device includes tubular body and hollow mandrel which are telescopically interconnected. The body is composed of parts, and contains first packer and grooves on internal surface on the side of first edge. In the middle section the body contains internal anvil-shelves, and on the side of second edge - an internal thread. The mandrel is composed of parts, contains threaded tail and grooves on external surface on the side of first edge of body, strikers between internal anvil-shelves of body, at least one piston with second packer on the side of second edge of body. Strikers and piston form a chamber filled with working liquid. The device contains at least one limiting mechanism for connecting working liquid to chamber for liquid in form of belt of greater diameter of mandrel and circular valve, installed in working liquid chamber with mandrel passing through internal hollow. The internal surface of circular valve is in contact with belt of greater diameter of mandrel. Longitudinal drive of circular valve is limited between two stops, projecting from internal surface of the body. Longitudinal drive equals at least the longitudinal drive of mandrel relatively to spring-loaded mechanism of latch from the start of application of force which makes the mandrel enter the body before setting of latch mechanism to working position. Between first and second packers at least two packers are positioned, which divide the chamber for liquid on three sections. Spring-loaded mechanism of latch is contained inside the working liquid chamber, blocking longitudinal drive of mandrel relatively to the body. The stop which limits longitudinal drive of circular valve towards the second edge of body with internal thread, is formed by shelf from lesser diameter of internal surface of body, to which one of packers, which divide working liquid chamber onto sections, is movably connected. Piston with packer on the side of second edge of body with internal thread is made with possible sliding relatively to mandrel and provided with its own packer in contact with mandrel.

EFFECT: increased reliability and resource, prevented unwanted activation, destruction or wedging of drill bit.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the drilling technique, namely, devices for creating shock loads, upward and downward, to the liberation of the stuck portion of the drill string in vertical, directional and horizontal sections of the wells.

Known hydraulic drilling jar double action, including a tubular housing and mandrel, telescopically interconnected, the body contains the splines on the inner surface, the inner protrusions of the anvil, the first seal with the first end and the mandrel contains the splines on the outer surface under the slots in the housing, the belt of enlarged diameter, drummers, placed between the inner tabs-anvils of the housing and the second seal placed in the drummer from the second end of the body forming a chamber for working fluid, and containing a ring valve mounted in the chamber of the working fluid from the mandrel passing through the internal cavity and located inside the housing, with the inner surface of the annular valve tightly in contact with the belt increased diameter of the mandrel, the longitudinal speed of the ring valve is limited between two lugs projecting from the inner surface of the housing and containing a limiting mechanism for reporting the working fluid in one of the sections of the camera work is fluid, including at least one bypass valve, placed in the annular valve that restricts the period of the working fluid within one of the sections of the camera in the same direction [1].

A disadvantage of the known design is the complexity of the control load directed downward to release remaining in the borehole bit or exemption from sticking part of the drill string in a deviated or horizontal section of the well, which is explained by the loss of stability (change of sign) and the friction of the drill pipe with the curvature of the borehole, as well as unexpected activation and spontaneous strikes hydraulic jar during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string due to the low accuracy of the time delay generated by the hydraulic system, due to the lack of locking mechanism longitudinal travel of the mandrel relative to the housing, thereby increasing the wear of internal parts.

Known hydraulic drilling jar, consisting of telescopically installed relative to each other casing sealed at its upper end, the inner tabs-anvils and slots on the inner surface, and a mandrel, forming with the casing an annular cavity is filled with the working fluid, and having slots in the outer surface of the slot the casing, an annular flange with a cylindrical outer surfaces and outer drums ledge, placed between the inner tabs-anvils housing, lower dosing mechanism, mounted in the annular cavity between the mandrel and the housing to restrict fluid flow through the metering mechanism in the event of axial movement of the mandrel and mounted under the bottom of the metering mechanism in the annular cavity between the mandrel and the body "floating" piston seal [2].

Known hydraulic jar is equipped with top of the dosing mechanism, which is placed in the annular cavity between the mandrel and the casing above the bottom of the dosing mechanism, and additional pistons with seals, the mandrel is made with an additional annular ledge seal placed between the metering mechanisms and dividing the annular cavity between the lower and upper high pressure chamber, and a circular stage with a radial channel placed over the top of the dosing mechanism, the additional annular pistons are placed on both sides of the ring steps and is spring-loaded in relation to it.

The upper end of the compensating chamber 38 is defined by a "floating" piston 37, the lower end of the compensating chamber 53 - other "floating" piston 56, which is shifted upwards by means of a spring 57 and to whom GCA 58, which in turn rely on the mandrel 54 with the sleeve 59 and the locking ring 60. Inner 61 62 and outer sealing rings prevent leakage of fluid. The lower surface of the piston 56 is communicated with the hole 30 of the mandrel through the open area 63. Pistons 56, 31 and 37 provide equalization of pressure and volume changes due to thermal effects, thus preventing the destruction of the seals high pressure mud and contamination of the liquid in the chambers.

A disadvantage of the known design is the complexity of the control load directed downward (compression columns), for exemption from sticking part of the drill string and drill bit in the borehole, which is explained by the loss of stability (change of sign) and the curved friction of the drill pipe with the curvature inclined directional and horizontal wells, as well as unexpected activation and spontaneous strikes hydraulic jar during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string due to the lack of locking mechanism longitudinal travel of the mandrel relative to the body, because they will not also decreases the wear of internal parts.

A disadvantage of the known construction is also incomplete use of opportunities to improve reliability and increase the precision of the time delay, saveimage hydraulics, when using the curved part of the drill pipe in an inclined well aimed, for example, by reducing the pressure loss of the fluid and reduce the wear of the sliding surfaces when the flow of fluid through the bypass holes in the metering sleeve 67, and the upper and lower metering sites 49, 50.

A well-known mechanism of Yas, including part of the outer member(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), part of the inner element (1, 5, 11)mounted on the outer element(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), camera working fluid (35, 37, 42), separated by parts of the inner element (1, 5, 11) and the outer element(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), and limiting mechanism (12, 13, 48, 50) of the communication liquid chamber for liquid (35, 37, 42), internal (1, 5, 11) and external parts of the body(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), movable relative to each other between the first design, in which a limiting mechanism (12, 13, 48, 50) limits the relative movement between the inner (1, 5, 11) and outer shell elements(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), and the second design, in which the limiting mechanism (12, 13, 48, 50) to a lesser extent restricts the relative movement between the inner (1, 5, 11) and outer shell elements(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), than in the first design, and a limiting mechanism includes two valve device (58), each of which limits the movement of the fluid inside the chamber (35, 37, 42) in one n the Board, when this valve device (58) are arranged in such a way as to limit the flow of fluid in opposite directions [3].

The mechanism includes a housing, the first seal and the splines on the inner surface side of the first region, in the middle part of the housing contains an internal ledges-anvil, and from the side of the second region contains an internal thread, for example, for connection with the column of drill pipe, the mandrel includes a threaded shaft and the splines on the outer surface side of the first housing edge, drummers, placed between the inner tabs-anvils housing, at least one piston with the second seal from the second edges of the body forming a chamber filled with working fluid.

In the known mechanism of Yas limiting mechanism communications to the working fluid chamber for fluid made in the form of a band of enlarged diameter and a ring valve mounted in the chamber of the working fluid from the mandrel passing through the internal cavity, the internal surface of the ring valve is in contact with the belt increased diameter of the mandrel, the longitudinal speed of the ring valve is limited between two lugs projecting from the inner surface of the shell, and in the annular valve is provided with at least one bypass Klah is an, limiting the period of the working fluid in one direction between the first and second seals are placed at least two seals that separate chamber for the liquid into three compartments, allowing fluid to flow into all compartments of the camera, and contains inside the chamber working fluid, a spring-loaded latch mechanism, blocking the longitudinal passage of the mandrel relative to the housing, the latch mechanism is released or is moved into position under the application of a longitudinal force greater limit.

A disadvantage of the known design is the complexity of the control load directed downward to release jammed in the bore of the bit or exemption from sticking part of the drill string in the downward directional and horizontal well, which is explained by the loss of stability (change of sign) and the curved friction of the drill pipe with the curvature of the borehole, as well as unexpected (spontaneous) activation and strikes hydraulic jar knocks down due to low accuracy of the time delay generated by hydraulics.

A disadvantage of the known construction is also incomplete use of the possibility of creating ultra high impact power for any shock loads upward (when the tension is Olonne), to free from sticking of the drill string and (or) the drilling tool in the well, because of the large pressure loss in the second design, in which the limiting mechanism (12, 13, 48, 50) to a lesser extent restricts the relative movement between the inner (1, 5, 11) and outer shell elements(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), than in the first design, and a limiting mechanism includes two valve device (58), each of which limits the movement of the fluid inside the chamber (35, 37, 42 in one direction, while the valve device (58) are arranged in such a way as to limit the flow of fluid in opposite directions.

The complexity of the control load directed downward, is also due to the small longitudinal stroke (not in excess of the values of the projections of the bands of enlarged diameter 13 of the part of the mandrel 11) limiting mechanism(12, 13, 48, 50), which limits the relative movement between the inner (1, 5, 11) and outer shell elements(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17), and a large hydraulic resistance of the second structure, in which the limiting mechanism(12, 13, 48, 50), includes two valve device 58, each of which restricts the movement the liquid inside the chamber (35, 37, 42) in one direction, and the valve device 58 are arranged to restrict the flow of fluid in protivopul is mportant directions.

The value of the longitudinal travel of the ring valve 13 for example, between the bounding portions 53, 63 of the housing parts 10, 14, essentially, an order of magnitude smaller than the longitudinal course of the internal parts 1, 5, 11 of the frame 1 with respect to the outer elements(2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 17) housing 2 defined by a spring-loaded latch mechanism, from the beginning of application of force, vdvigaya mandrel into the casing prior to installation of the latch mechanism in operating position.

As a consequence, does not necessarily increase the precision of the time delay generated by the hydraulic system, to strike at the optimum ratio between the shock and the shock pulse, and this prevents the operator on the rig to change allowable power tension on the drill string, then apply the brake drawworks, and the force during the liberation of sticking hard to control that causes damage to the lifting equipment.

Due to rigid (threaded) mounting part 11 of the frame 1 and of the piston 15 with the seal 40 is the change in volume and pressure of the working fluid in the cavity 42 and is heated working fluid in the cavity 42, which increases the pressure loss of the working fluid in the cavity 42, and also increases the contamination of the working fluid abrasive particles in the drilling fluid and reduces the service life of the seals bounding fur the mechanism 12, 13, 48, 50.

Technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to increase the reliability and life, the formation of ultra high impact power in the wellbore at the optimum ratio between the shock and the shock pulse, influencing up and down on the spot sticking columns, and prevent unexpected energizing and spontaneous strikes hydraulic jarring shocks down by increasing the precision of the time delay generated by the hydraulic system, and reduce the pressure loss in the sudden expansion of the working fluid compressed in the high pressure chamber.

Another technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to further increase the accuracy of the controlled load directed downward, with a certain shock pulse during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string, the reduction of wear to internal parts, as well as the prevention of destruction and / or sticking of the bit in the well.

The essence of the technical solutions is that in the mechanism of Yas, consisting of a tubular body and a hollow mandrel telescopically interconnected, while the body is made of parts, contains the first seal and the splines on the inner surface side of the first region, in the middle part of the housing contains an internal ectopy-anvil, and from the side of the second region contains an internal thread, for example, for connection with the column of drill pipe, the mandrel is made of parts, includes a threaded shank and the splines on the outer surface side of the first housing edge, drummers, placed between the inner tabs-anvils housing, at least one piston with the second seal from the second edges of the body forming a chamber filled with working fluid, and containing at least one limiting mechanism communications to the working fluid chamber for fluid, essentially in the form of a band of enlarged diameter of the mandrel and a ring valve mounted in the chamber of the working fluid from the mandrel passing through the internal cavity, the internal surface of the ring valve is in contact with the belt increased diameter of the mandrel, the longitudinal speed of the ring valve is limited between two lugs projecting from the inner surface of the shell, and in the annular valve is provided with at least one bypass valve, limiting the period of the working fluid in one direction between the first and second seals are placed at least two seals that separate chamber for the liquid into three compartments, and inside the chamber containing the working fluid spring of mechanismbased, blocking the longitudinal passage of the mandrel relative to the housing, the latch mechanism is released or is moved into position under the application of a longitudinal force greater limit, according to the invention the annular valve mounted in the chamber filled with working fluid, is made with a longitudinal stroke at least equal to the longitudinal course of the mandrel relative to the spring latch mechanism from the beginning of application of force, vdvigaya mandrel into the casing prior to installation of the latch mechanism in working position, and a stop limiting the longitudinal stroke of the ring valve toward the second edge of the housing with internal thread, is formed by a protrusion from the reduced diameter of the inner surface of the shell, which movably connected to one of the seals separating chamber working fluid into compartments, and the piston seal from the second edge of the housing with internal thread, made slidable relative to the mandrel and has its own seal in contact with the mandrel.

In addition, inside the case from the side of the second edge with internal thread, installed the tubular sleeve, the piston seal is placed in the sleeve, and a spring-loaded latch mechanism is in contact with the sleeve and (or)at least one end ring, regulating the force of the mechanism is as latch to release or set into position.

Between the ends of the slots of the mandrel and directed toward the slots drummer mandrel mounted shock ring.

The second edge of the housing is connected by a thread with the bottom of the upper part of the drill string, the threaded shank of the mandrel is connected with the top of the lower part of the drill string at the edge of the frame, located inside stipulated protective ring.

The implementation mechanism of the jar so that the annular valve mounted in the chamber filled with working fluid, is made with a longitudinal stroke at least equal to the longitudinal course of the mandrel relative to the spring latch mechanism from the beginning of application of force, vdvigaya mandrel into the casing prior to installation of the latch mechanism in working position, and a stop limiting the longitudinal stroke of the ring valve toward the second edge of the housing with internal thread, is formed by a protrusion from the reduced diameter of the inner surface of the shell, which is movably connected to one of the seals separating chamber working fluid into compartments, and the piston seal, from the second edges of the body with internal thread, made slidable relative to the mandrel and has its own seal in contact with the mandrel, increases reliability and service life, and also prevents unexpected activation and attacks the Hydra is placestogo the jar during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string, and produces ultra high impact power for any shock loads upward (due to stress relaxation in the tension of the drill string)to free from sticking of the drill string and (or) the drilling tool in the well, due to the decreased pressure losses and reduce the time the sudden expansion of the working fluid in the damper parts of the sealed chamber for receiving the dynamic impact with a certain shock pulse by increasing the precision of the time delay created by the hydraulics to strike at the optimum ratio between the shock and the shock pulse.

Improving the accuracy of time delay generated by hydraulics to attack, with the optimal ratio between the shock and the shock pulse, allows the operator on the rig to change allowable power tension on the drill string, then apply the brake drawworks. As a consequence, the force upon release of the clamping strap is easily controlled, prevented damage to hoisting equipment.

In addition, this embodiment of the mechanism of Yas increases the efficiency of the seals at high pressure, prevents contamination of mud and metal particles (spalling is mi and the destruction of the chrome coating) of the working fluid and improves hydrodynamic centering of the hollow mandrel in the tubular casing, prevents distortions and tacks in the sliding surfaces due to cyclic bending stresses tubular casing during the rotation of the curved the drill pipe string.

The implementation mechanism of the jar so that the inside side of the second edge with internal thread, installed the tubular sleeve, the piston seal is placed in the sleeve, and a spring-loaded latch mechanism is in contact with the sleeve and at least one end ring, regulating the force of the latch mechanism to release or set into position, additionally increases the accuracy of the controlled load directed downward, with a certain shock pulse, prevents unexpected activation and strikes hydromechanical the jar during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string, reduces wear on the internal parts, and prevents the destruction and (or) the sticking of a drill bit in the well.

The implementation mechanism of the jar so that the ends of the slots of the mandrel and directed toward the slots drummer mandrel mounted shock ring, additionally increases the accuracy of the controlled load directed downward, with a certain shock pulse, prevents breakage and a hardening of the shock ends.

You shall olnine the jar so the second edge of the housing is connected by a thread with the bottom of the upper part of the drill string, the threaded shank of the mandrel is connected with the top of the lower part of the drill string at the edge of the frame, located inside stipulated protective ring protects against possible damage to the sliding surfaces of the hollow mandrel in the capture of the tubular body clamps lifting equipment on the rig, additionally increases the accuracy of the controlled load directed downward, with a certain shock pulse, prevents breakdown (work hardening, chips) shock surfaces, as well as the accumulation of abrasive particles (sludge) from the piston seal from the second edge of the case with internal thread, made slidable relative to the mandrel and has its own seal in contact with the mandrel.

Below are the best option hydromechanical the jar to create a shock loads, upward and downward, with the aim of releasing stuck drill string in the downward directed the well at a depth of 4400 meters, has a horizontal area of 450 meters.

1 shows a hydraulic jar section of the upper, middle and lower parts, and sub for connecting the upper part with a column of drill pipe.

Figure 2 shows the element I on Frigo framework for the communication of fluid from the chamber for fluid, made in the form of a band of enlarged diameter, annular valve in the chamber for working fluid, and a bypass valve that restricts the period of the working fluid in the same direction.

Figure 3 shows the element II figure 1 is a spring-loaded latch mechanism, blocking the longitudinal passage of the mandrel relative to the body.

Figure 4 shows the element III in figure 1 drummer mandrel with a shock ring in the chamber fluid.

Hydromechanical jar consists of a tubular body 1 and the hollow mandrel 2, telescopically interconnected, the housing 1 is made of parts 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, contains the first seal 8 and slots 9 on the inner surface side of the first region 10, and part 6 of the housing 1 contains an internal ledge-anvil 11, part 5 of the housing 1 contains an internal ledge-the anvil 12 and from the second edge 13 of part 3 of the housing 1 has an internal thread 14 for connection with the transmission 15 to the top of the drill pipe shown in figure 1 at the top of the column of drill pipe not shown.

The mandrel 2 is made of parts 16, 17, 18, includes a threaded shank 19 for connection with the lower column of drill pipe and the splines 20 on the outer surface of the portion 18 of the mandrel 2 from the first edge 10 of the body 1, the drums 21, 22 placed between the inner tabs-anvils 11, 12 of the housing 1, m is Nisha least one piston 23 with the second seal 24 from the second edge 13 of the housing 1, forming a chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26, with POS - slotted end portion 18 of the mandrel 2, and POS - shock ring installed between the flange 22 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2 and the slotted end face 27 of the portion 18 of the mandrel 2, as shown in figures 1, 4, while the lower column of drill pipe not shown.

Hydromechanical Yas contains the bounding mechanism 28 messages working fluid 26 from the chamber 25 to the fluid being in the form of a band of enlarged diameter 29 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2 and the annular valve 30 installed in the chamber 25 of the working fluid from the mandrel 2, passing through the inner cavity, the inner surface 31 of the ring valve 30 is in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2, a longitudinal passage 32 of the ring valve 30 is limited between two stops 33, 34, protruding from the inner surface 35 of the portion 4 of the housing 1 and the annular valve 30 is installed, at least one bypass valve 36, bounding over the working fluid 26 in one direction 37, between the first seal 8 and the second seal 24 is placed at least two seal 38, 39, which divide the chamber 25 for liquids into three compartments 40, 41, 42, allowing fluid 26 to flow only in the compartment 41 of the chamber 25 through the bypass valve 36, while the ANO in figure 1, 2.

The chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26 between the seal 39 and the annular valve 30 which is in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the mandrel 2, is a high-pressure chamber, the working fluid 26 in the compartment 41, pull the mandrel 2 from the housing 1 in the direction 37, shown in Fig.1, 2.

Hydromechanical Yas contains in the compartment 42 of the chamber 25 of the working fluid 26, the spring of the Belleville springs 43 and compressed by means of rings 44, 45 of the latch mechanism 46, the locking of the longitudinal stroke of the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1 in the direction 37 and 47, the latch mechanism 46 is released or is moved into position under the application of longitudinal force, more than the limit shown in figures 1, 3.

The latch mechanism 46 is made, for example, of the eight segments 48 has an annular groove 49 and is located between the part 3 of the housing 1 and part 16 of the mandrel 2, which has a ring of teeth 50, with annular grooves 49 and the ring teeth 50 are made of different width, so the latch mechanism 46 locks the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1 in only one relative position of the ring of teeth 50 relative to the annular grooves 49, shown in figures 1, 3.

The annular valve 30, essentially breaking mechanism mounted in the chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26 is made with a longitudinal passage 32, is at least equal to the longitudinal course 51 of the mandrel 2 relative to the spring latch mechanism 46 from the start of application of the force in the direction 47, vdvigaya the mandrel 2 into the housing 1, prior to the installation of the latch mechanism 46 in the operating position, and the stop 34 limiting the longitudinal stroke of the ring valve 30 in the direction 47 in the direction of the second edge 13 of the housing 1 with internal thread 14 is formed by the protrusion 34 of reduced diameter 51 of the inner surface of part 4 of the housing 1, which is movably connected to the seal 39, the separating chamber 25 of the working fluid 26 into compartments 41, 42, shown in figures 1, 2, 3.

The piston 23 with seal 24 from the side of the second edge 13 of part 3 of the housing 1 with internal thread 14 made slidable relative to the surface 52 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2, and has its own seal 53 in contact with the portion 16 of the mandrel mandrel 2, which compensates for pressure and volume change of the working fluid in the chamber 42 due to thermal effects, thus preventing the destruction of the seals high pressure mud and contamination of the liquid in the compartments 41, 42, shown in figure 1.

Within part 3 of the housing 1 from the side of the second edge 13C internal thread 14, installed tubular sleeve 54, the piston 23 with gasket 24 is placed in the sleeve 54, and a spring-loaded latch mechanism 46 is in contact with the sleeve 54 and at least one end ring 55, the regulating force of the latch mechanism 46 to release or installation in the operating position shown in figure 1.

The second edge 13 of part 3 of the housing 1 is connected by threads 14 with the bottom of the upper part of the drill string (Fig. not shown), the threaded shank 19 of the portion 18 of the mandrel 2 is connected with the top of the lower part of the drill string (Fig. not shown), the edge 56 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2 located inside the housing 1, a fixed protective ring 57 prevents the accumulation of sludge during sliding of the piston 23 with the seal 24 in contact with the sleeve 54, and when the sliding seal 53 in contact with the surface 52 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2, as shown in figure 1.

In addition, figures 1, 2, 3, 4 shown: POS - threaded tube for filling and pumping of the working fluid 26 in the compartments 40, 41, 42 of the chamber 25.

When this POS. 59 figure 1 - the direction of flow of the drilling fluid inside the hollow mandrel 2 and the tubular housing 1, POS marked the end of part 4 of the housing 1, and POS. 61 marked the end portion 16 of the mandrel 2, which do not communicate among themselves when hitting the jar in a downward direction.

The compartments 40, 41, 42 of the chamber 25 through the threaded hole of the tube 58 is filled with the working fluid 26 (gear oil)produce a flow of the working fluid 26 to remove air, and then produce a tightening of the tubes 58.

Make the adjustment (calibration) of a spring-loaded Poppet springs 43 efforts actuation of the latch mechanism 46, the locking longitudinal Ho the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1 in the direction 37 and 47, (installation parameter latch), and the hydraulic delay time shock hydromechanical the jar in a special stand so that the longitudinal forces acting on Yas during drilling, does not exceed, for example, 50% effort actuation of the latch mechanism 46, the locking of the longitudinal stroke of the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1, and the effort to unlock the latch 46 to strike down was, for example, 50% of the installation parameter latch 46 to blow up.

Determine the best position of Yas in the Assembly of the drill string, thus take into account many factors, some of which are:

- the expected type of stuck; stuck due to differential pressure or mechanical;

- the state trajectory and the angle of inclination of the wellbore;

the configuration of the downhole composition;

- pressure pump;

- the ratio of buoyancy mud;

- the value of maximum load on the bit;

allowable tension on the drill string;

- tensile strength drill pipe;

the parameters of the actuation latch on ACE.

Hydromechanical Yas connect the thread 14 of the housing 1 with sub 15 and the bottom of the upper part of the long elastic drill string used in drilling oil wells, and the threaded shank 19 of the mandrel 2 connects with the top of the lower part of the drill string, which is located below the jar. Hydrostat the static pressure of the drilling fluid inside the hollow mandrel 2 and the tubular casing 1, supplied from the wellhead to the bit in the direction 59, can be up to 50 MPa.

The movement of Yas at the initial stage is constrained by the hydraulic couple: a hollow mandrel 2 - ring valve 30 to the tubular body 1, and is maintained up until the drill column will not be created sufficiently high tensile stresses. Stage free vertical movement of parts inside the jar is intended for abrupt withdrawal of part of the tensile stresses accumulated in the string of drill pipes.

This stress relieving the drill pipe string is used to accelerate heavy-weight drill pipe and (or) the total weight of the drill string and create a shock pulse in the borehole depth within the percussion section of this hydromechanical the jar.

Usually the concentration of large masses directly above the jars, i.e. where the maximum speed at the release of the jar or the completion stage of its free movement, use a heavy-weight drill pipe (UBT).

Wave voltage in the string of drill pipes arises due to the sudden stop of the moving mass of the sleeves and the collar, while the kinetic energy is converted to the energy of the stress state. Wave voltage simultaneously moves up to the sleeves and the collar and down to the point of sticking. Wave voltage, which is transmitted upward to clutch the or heavy weight, will move up until then, until you reach the designated change in cross-section, such as moving from couplings to the heavy weight and UBT. Then it will be reflected down. Wave voltage, which originally was moving down from the jar reaches the place of sticking and bounces back up. After some time, the combination of stress waves in place of sticking determines the value of the maximum applied load. Usually, the more shock pulse applied to the place of sticking, the less shock. However, the more dynamic impact, the less shock pulse. Need and impact and momentum.

For immediate release designated sticking requires a certain impact force. At that time, when the impact force exceeds the force of privacyware, the momentum of the blow causes slippage designated sticking. The impact force is the main factor. Best value requires a certain dynamic impact with sufficient shock pulse, essentially, ultra-high impact power.

Optimal location of hydromechanical Yas above the transition zone, however, the jar can be omitted and below the transition zone.

Hydromechanical Yas down in the hole is blocked by the latch 46 with so many UBT, which provides the necessary pressure on the bit and provides the location of the jar above go to the ne area.

The bit load pick up, adding or removing UBT under hydromechanical Yas, and maintaining over Yas weight, sufficient to provide an effective shock Yas.

Hydromechanical Yas works from the movement of the drill string in the direction up or down. The magnitude of the impact force directed upwards, is directly proportional to the applied tension force.

In this mode, as the force of the tension begins to exceed the setting value of the latch 46 when you blow up a mechanical latch 46 sharply is released and begins a hydraulic delay. After a short period of time, the mandrel 2 Yas abruptly released and accelerated to the position of full extension.

Mode kick downwards, as the compression force acting on the mandrel 2 of the jar begins to exceed the setting value of the latch when struck down by a mechanical latch 46 sharply is released, allowing the mandrel 2 to return to the fully closed position.

If the release of stuck in the borehole is the circulation of the drilling fluid, the pressure drop across the bit creates stress, tensile Yas, thus take into account starting of the pump, as it reduces the force needed to strike the jar up and increases the required effort to strike in the direction down.

To compensate for the loss of friction in the borehole curved columns of drill pipe in an inclined aimed well, you need more tension on the drill pipe string.

The amount of compensation to take into account the indications of the load on the bit during descents and ascents to the sticking of the drill string. The weight of the free column is the weight of the drill string above the jar.

Strikes by Yas in the upward direction

The force exerted on the jar, must exceed the installation parameter latch 46, but to be less than the recommended maximum load when hydraulic delay, the value of the load on a free column is calculated as the difference between the settings of the latch 46 when struck Yas up and force pump start.

To kick up their load calculated value and then set the brake drawworks. The mandrel 2 is pulled out of the housing 1 in the direction 37, the latch mechanism 46, a spring-loaded Poppet springs 43 and compressed by means of rings 44, 45, releases the lock ring teeth 50 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2 in the annular grooves 49 and provides a longitudinal passage of the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1, is installed inside the chamber 25 of the working fluid 26, essentially, in the compartment 41 of the working chamber 25.

When growth is AI mandrel 2 from the housing 1, the chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26 between the seal 39 and the annular valve 30 which is in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the mandrel 2, forms a high pressure working fluid 26 in the compartment 41.

The working fluid 26 is compressed by the seal 39 and the annular valve 30 which is in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the mandrel 2, the compartment 41 of the working chamber 25 and partially flows into the gap between the shoulder of the enlarged diameter 29 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2 and the inner surface 31 of the ring valve 30, which contains the bounding mechanism 36 messages of the working fluid 26 from the compartment 41 of the chamber 25 in the other compartment 41 of this chamber 25 of the working fluid 26 bounded by the seal 38, thus limiting mechanism 36 is made essentially in the form of by-pass valve 36, placed in the annular valve 30.

The working fluid 26, which is located in the compartment 40, by pulling the mandrel 2 from the housing 1 in the direction 37 performs relative movement at a constant pressure in the spline 18 of the mandrel 2 relative to the part 6 of the housing 1.

The working fluid 26, which is located in the cavity 42, by pulling the mandrel 2 from the housing 1 in the direction 37 does not change the pressure due to longitudinal displacement of the floating piston 23 with seals 24, 53, from the second edge 13 of part 3 of the housing 1 with internal thread 14, the implementation of the military slidable relative to the surface 52 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2.

The inner surface 31 of the ring valve 30 is tightly in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2, and the longitudinal course of the ring 32 of the valve 30 in the direction 47 or 37 is limited by a stop 33 part 5 of the housing 1 and the stop 34, protruding from the inner surface 51 of part 4 of the housing 1, the pressure of the working fluid 26 in the compartment 41 of the working chamber 25 may be, for example, 200 MPa.

The breakdown of the edges of the belt enlarged diameter 29 with the edges of the inner surface 31 of the ring valve 30 is hydraulic shock fluid using the effect of "sudden expansion", with minimum pressure loss and the formation of ultra high impact power in the wellbore at the optimum ratio between the shock and the shock impulse acting down on the place of sticking columns.

Stretched the column of drill pipe in the course of time, for example 40 MS, loses tension strains, and in pipes and pipe joints occurs the effect of stress relaxation.

Wave voltage simultaneously moves up to the sleeves and the collar and down to the point of sticking. Wave voltage, which is transmitted upward to the couplings or heavy weight, moving up until then, until you reach the designated change in cross-section, such as moving from couplings to the heavy weight and the collar, then she reflected downward.

Wave voltage is I, which originally was moving down from the jar reaches the place of sticking and bounces back up. After some time, the combination of stress waves in place of sticking determines the value of the maximum applied load.

After the strike in the direction of put up a drill string up until the load indicator will not show the magnitude is less than the weight of the free columns. This means that the latch 46 is again blocked. Yas ready for the next cycle or you can resume drilling.

Strikes by Yas in a downward direction

The value of the discharge column of the weight of the spare columns is calculated as the sum of power of pump start-up and installation option latch 46 when shot down. Lifting device on the rig pull the string of drill pipes and throw her down, telling the column pulse strike downward.

The mandrel 2 is pushed into the housing 1 in the direction 47, the latch mechanism 46, a spring-loaded Poppet springs 43 and compressed by means of a sleeve 54, end ring 55, rings 44, 45, releases the lock ring teeth 50 of the portion 16 of the mandrel 2 in the annular grooves 49 and provides a longitudinal passage of the mandrel 2 relative to the housing 1, is installed inside the chamber 25 of the working fluid 26, essentially, in the compartment 40 of the working chamber 25 between the striker 22, percussion ring 28 and the end face 11 h and 6 of the mandrel 2.

The working fluid 26 in the compartment 41 of the chamber 25 of the working fluid is compressed by the seal 38 of the portion 17 of the mandrel 2, and the increase in pressure of the working fluid 26 in the compartment 41 of the chamber 25 of the working fluid produces a displacement in the direction 47 of the annular valve 30, which contains the bounding mechanism 36 messages of the working fluid 26 from the chamber 25 to the liquid.

The annular valve 30 mounted in the chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26 is made with a longitudinal passage 32, is at least equal to the longitudinal course 51 of the mandrel 2 relative to the spring latch mechanism 46 from the start of application of the force in the direction 47, vdvigaya the mandrel 2 into the housing 1, prior to the installation of the latch mechanism in working position, and the stop 34 limiting the longitudinal stroke of the ring valve 30 in the direction of the 47 or the second side edge 13 of the housing 1 with internal thread 14 is formed by the protrusion 34 of reduced diameter 51 of the inner surface of part 4 of the housing 1, which movably connected to the seal 39.

This results in a mechanical stroke of the striker 22 part 17 of the frame 2 about the shock ring 28 and the anvil 11 of part 6 of the housing 1 in the direction 37, with a minimum hydraulic resistance of the working fluid 26 and the formation of ultra high impact power in the wellbore, as controlled by the ratio between the shock and the shock pulse is m, acting down on the place of sticking columns and (or) on the bit.

Wave voltage simultaneously moves down to the sticking point and up to the sleeves and collar. Wave voltage, which is transmitted upward to the couplings or heavy weight, moving up until then, until you reach the designated change in cross-section, such as moving from couplings to the heavy weight and the collar, then she reflected downward.

Wave voltage, which originally was moving down from the jar reaches the place of sticking and bounces back up. After some time, the combination of stress waves in place of sticking determines the value of the maximum applied load.

In order to again place the clutch latch 46 Yas, raise the drill string up until the load indicator will not lock the increase in weight above the weight of the free columns.

When the chamber 25 is filled with the working fluid 26 between the seal 39 and the annular valve 30 which is in contact with the belt enlarged diameter 29 of the mandrel 2, is loaded high pressure working fluid 26 in the compartment 41, as a consequence, the abrasive particles of mud, and metal particles from wear of the mechanical parts of the splined connection of the housing with a mandrel and a spring-loaded latch mechanism is additionally delayed by the working fluid in the chambers 40, 42 located is on the edges of the housing 1, reducing wear and preventing the destruction of the seals 38 and 39 in the compartment 41.

The invention increases the reliability and life forms ultra high impact power in the wellbore at the optimum ratio between the shock and the shock pulse, influencing up and down on the spot sticking columns, prevents unexpected activation and strikes during drilling, descents and ascents of the drill string increases the accuracy of the load directed downward, reduces wear on the internal parts, and prevents the destruction and / or sticking of the bit in the well.

Sources of information

1. US 5647446, E21B 31/113, Jul. 15, 1997.

2. US 5033557, EV 4/06, Jul. 23, 1991.

3. GB 2332921 AND EV 31/113, 18.09.1997 prototype.

1. Hydromechanical Yas, consisting of a tubular body and a hollow mandrel telescopically interconnected, while the body is made of parts, contains the first seal and the splines on the inner surface side of the first region, in the middle part of the housing contains an internal ledges-anvil, and from the side of the second region contains an internal thread, for example, for connection with the column of drill pipe, the mandrel is made of parts, includes a threaded shank and the splines on the outer surface side of the first housing edge, drummers, placed between the inner tabs-anvils body, what about the least one piston with the second seal from the second edges of the body forming a chamber filled with working fluid, and containing at least one limiting mechanism communications to the working fluid chamber for fluid, essentially in the form of a band of enlarged diameter and a ring valve mounted in the chamber of the working fluid from the mandrel passing through the internal cavity, the internal surface of the ring valve is in contact with the belt increased diameter of the mandrel, the longitudinal speed of the ring valve is limited between two lugs projecting from the inner surface of the shell, and in the annular valve is provided with at least one bypass valve, limiting the period of the working fluid in one direction between the first and second seals are placed at least two seals that separate chamber for the liquid into three compartments, and inside the chamber containing working fluid, a spring-loaded latch mechanism, blocking the longitudinal passage of the mandrel relative to the housing, the latch mechanism is released or is moved into position under the application of a longitudinal force greater limit, characterized in that the annular valve mounted in the chamber filled with working fluid, is made with a longitudinal passage, m is Nisha least equal longitudinal course of the mandrel relative to the spring latch mechanism from the beginning of application of force, vdvigaya mandrel into the casing prior to installation of the latch mechanism in working position, and a stop limiting the longitudinal stroke of the ring valve toward the second edge of the housing with internal thread, is formed by a protrusion from the reduced diameter of the inner surface of the shell, which is movably connected to one of the seals separating chamber working fluid into compartments, and the piston seal from the second edge of the housing with internal thread is made slidable relative to the mandrel and has its own seal in contact with the mandrel.

2. Hydromechanical Yas according to claim 1, characterized in that inside the case from the side of the second edge with internal thread installed tubular sleeve, the piston seal is placed in the sleeve, and a spring-loaded latch mechanism is in contact with the sleeve and at least one end ring, regulating the force of the latch mechanism to release or set into position.

3. Hydromechanical Yas according to claim 1, characterized in that between the ends of the slots of the mandrel and directed toward the slots drummer mandrel mounted shock ring.

4. Hydromechanical Yas according to claim 1, characterized in that the second edge of the housing to connect the nen thread with the bottom of the upper part of the drill string, the threaded shank of the mandrel is connected with the top of the lower part of the drill string at the edge of the frame, located inside stipulated protective ring.



 

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