Method for detecting young bulls at high potential of meat performance

FIELD: animal science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with daily collection of urine followed by detecting there the concentration of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine. According to the data of urinary secretion of creatinine of 3-methylhistidine one should determine the rate of deposition and degradation of proteins in skeletal muscles, moreover, the evaluation of the results obtained should be carried out according to relative degradation of muscular proteins (RDP) estimated by the following formula: RDP,%/d=100xrate of degradation/rate of protein deposition, g/d. Young bulls at RDP value being about 1.51-2.05%/d should be referred to animals of low potential of meat performance, and at values ranged 1.10-1.50%/d - to animals of high potential of meat performance. The innovation enables to predict meat qualities of stud bulls before obtaining the offspring and accelerate selection process.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of detection.

1 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the physiology of farm animals, and in particular to methods aimed at improving early assessment of the genetic potential future meat efficiency of steers, and can be used when implementing breeding programs in cattle on tribal entities to identify highly productive gobies.

The profitability of livestock and the rate of increase of its meat productivity largely depends on timely and reliable estimates of the genetic potential of animals. Currently, zootechnical practice, the improvement of the productive qualities of cattle, his selection in the breeding process usually performed on the basis of estimates of breeding animals on the results of tests of their own productivity and the quality of offspring, the method includes a relatively small number of important features provided guidelines and instructions on the evaluation. In the main complex of the most important characteristics when evaluating young cattle bred for meat include: live weight at different age periods, absolute and relative gains, the cost of feed per unit of production, data on the origin, performance of exterior measurements and indices of body) (large-Scale breeding in cattle. Ernst L.K., Zalitis A. M.: Kolos, 1982, p.160-234. IU the methodological recommendations: "Evaluation of bulls of beef breeds on the quality of offspring and testing of bulls by growth rate, live weight, meat forms". M: Agropromizdat, 1990). The main drawback of this system is that when evaluating productive qualities of the animal are not disclosed and are not taken into account the mechanisms and regularities of the formation of meat productivity.

It is known that in any living organism occurs continuously as the synthesis of protein molecules from amino acids and their decay. The longer I live the protein molecules, the less overall energy and amino acids for the resynthesis of - the restoration of the dissolved molecules. The rate of protein turnover depends on the rate of synthesis and degradation. Thus, the speed of turnover of body proteins of slow-growing Leghorn significantly higher than those of fast-growing broilers (Perspective on the Future Feeding of Poultry. Blair R., Proc. XX World′'s Poultry Congr. New-Dehli, 1996, 2:65-74). According to the approximate data (Manipulating metabolic parameters to improve growth rate and milk secretion. Baldwin R.L. et al., J. Anim. Sci., 1980, 51:1416-1428) development of tests for selection on the high efficiency of protein synthesis and their use can provide a 20% increase in output at current rates cost of feed, as the intensity of synthesis and protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is the main component of meat in the largest extent is influenced by genetic factors. Moreover, the coefficient of heritability on muscle growth in animals bred for meat, is 0,48-0,52 (Basic information what about the genetic improvement of meat productivity of Berkshire pigs. Hirokazu M., Hiroshi H., Keisuke M. et al. Bull. Fac. Agr. Miyazaki Univ., 2004, 50, No. 1-2, p.19-23).

To date not well developed and very little used biochemical criteria for the evaluation of the genetic potential of the meat animal productivity. Closest to the claimed method is identify bulls with high growth potential in the activity index insular apparatus ("How to identify bulls with high growth potential." Copyright certificate №1304795, Rodchenkov VP and others 1986, AK 67/02 (prototype).

The aim of the present invention is to develop efficient and more simple and available for widespread use in the practice of the method of detection of bulls with high potential for meat production. This goal is achieved by the fact that the way to identify bulls with high potential meat productivity is based on the rate of protein turnover, including daily collection of urine with subsequent determination of the concentration of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine* (* note: the excretion of urine creatinine reflects the dynamics of the increase in the General Fund of the muscle proteins (the speed of accumulation of muscle proteins), while the allocation 3-methylhistidine shows the dynamics of the collapse of these proteins). It is known that creatinine is produced from creatine, more than 95% of which in mammals is the skeletal muscle. Currently proved the irreversibility of this non-enzymatic reaction, which formed creatinine enters the blood and is excreted in the urine. It is shown that the amount of creatine per unit mass of total muscle protein in animals of different kinds constantly and that 1 g secreted creatinine has an average of 20 pounds of muscle. In our research it was found that the rate of excretion of creatinine from the body steers highly correlated (r=+0,97) with a mass of muscles and can be expressed by the following regression equation: Y=17,308 × X+4,003, where Y is the muscle mass, kg; X urine creatinine, g/day. Based on these data, we proposed a formula to calculate the deposition of muscle proteins in calves:

The muscle protein deposition (g/day) = urine creatinine (µmol/day) / 4,15 µmol creatinine (estimated that 1 g of protein excreted to 4.15 mmol creatinine) (1).

Recently to study the degradation of muscle proteins developed a more simple and less accurate way to assess this process. To assess the rate of protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is widely used a method based on the determination of the excretion in the urine of 3-methylhistidine. 3-methylhistidine is a component myofibrillary proteins: actin and myosin. Methylation of histidine proishodiashie its inclusion in protein and due to the fact, that free 3-methylhistidine not attached to tRNA, it is excreted in the urine. So not happening recycling 3-methylhistidine. From this point of view 3-methylhistidine can be considered as a reasonable index to measure the speed of degradation of muscle proteins. In animals, approximately 90% 3-methylhistidine in the body is found in skeletal muscle. Quantitative data on excretion in the urine of 3-methylhistidine were the basis of the calculation of the degradation of muscle protein in calves:

Degradation of muscle proteins (g/day)=the urine 3-MG (µmol/day) / 3-methylhistidine content in the protein of skeletal muscle ×2,17 (2).

The content of 3-methylhistidine in the protein of skeletal muscle, we have taken that at the dissolution of 1 g of protein excreted 3,5106 µmol of this amino acid (NT-methylhistidine content of organs and tissues of cattle and an attempt to estimate fractional catabolic and synthesis rates of myofibrillar proteins of skeletal muscle during growth by measuring urinary output on the NT-methylhistidine. Nishisawa N., Toyoda Y., Noguchi T. et al. Brit. J. Nutr. 1979, 42:247).

According to the allocation of urine creatinine and 3-methylhistidine (concentration of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine in urine × number of daily urine) determine the speed of fat and protein degradation in skeletal muscle, using the above formulas for calculating these indicators, and the evaluation results carried out at relatively the degradation of muscle proteins (OEB), defined by the formula:

This bulls having a value of relative protein degradation 1,51-2,05% / day, refer to animals with low potential of meat production, and with the values of 1,10-1,50% / day - to calves with a high potential of meat production.

Information on this method to identify bulls with high potential of meat production on the basis of biochemical criteria - speed body protein turnover in combination with traditional estimates of hereditary qualities of the animal, i.e. its genotype available in the patent and scientific literature, we have not identified.

Distinctive features of the proposed method in comparison with the prototype are as follows: 1) in the proposed method, the concentration of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine determined in the urine, while the prototype for research requires the feeding of glucose with milk to calves and two blood samples from the jugular vein - more-injure, time-consuming and require special qualification procedures; 2) significant disadvantages of the prototype should also be attributed to the high cost and procedural complexity of determining the concentration of the hormone insulin in the blood unlike the proposed method. The positive effect of the proposed method is that it is sushestvennee allows to evaluate the potential of bulls on the basis of data on the metabolism and update of the proteins of the muscles, reflecting and the mechanism of increasing the mass of skeletal muscles - the main component of meat, which increases the efficiency of the method, credibility and objectivity of the conclusions.

Example. A series of experiments on the bulls Kholmogory, black-and-white and Hereford breeds in 4 - to 17-month age. As an integral indicator of the rate of protein turnover in skeletal muscle, was elected the relative degradation of proteins. For its calculation in the period of assessment of potential meat production in Bychkov conducted daily collection of urine and was determined daily urinary excretion of creatinine (creatinine concentration in urine × number of daily urine). On the basis of these data, using the formula (1), expected rate of deposition of muscle proteins. The definition in this period, the daily excretion of 3-methylhistidine urine (concentration 3-methylhistidine in urine × number of daily urine) enabled (using formula (2)) to determine the decay rate of muscle proteins and speed of their deposits to calculate the relative degradation of proteins using the above formula. The concentration of 3-methylhistidine in the urine was determined by amino acid analyzer AAA-T-339, the content of creatinine in urine - chemical method.

Bychkov importance relative activities the Neu protein degradation 1,10-1,50% / day, refer to the number of animals with high potential for meat production.

Table 1 shows the results of numerous experiments.

which shows that the relative degradation of muscle proteins in calves are played in different ages, of different breeds and in different years. Calves with low potential of meat production compared to animals of group II were characterized by higher values of relative protein degradation (1,51-2,05 against 1,10-1,50% / day, which is 37% more).

The results of the control oboev calves at different ages showed that animals with high potential meat productivity differed from young cattle with low potential productive qualities significantly greater meat yield, and high ratio of flesh to the bones. These data indicate that the best masculinist carcasses and quality of beef produced from bulls with high potential productivity (table 2).

Table 2
IndicatorsI groupGroup II%Ki
4-5 months age
The amount of pulp in carcass, %64,3±2,3 70,5±1,9109,6(p<0,05)
The ratio of flesh to the bones2,1±0,082,4±0,09114,3(p<0,05)
14-15-month age
The amount of pulp in carcass, %76,1±1,681,7±2,0107,4(p<0,05)
The ratio of flesh to the bones3,6±0,124,2±0,10of 116.7(p<0,05)

Studies have shown that the intensity of muscle from steers largely due to the orientation of the protein metabolism in skeletal muscle and depends on the ratio of the speeds of oppositely directed processes of synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins in the body. Because the bulls with high potential meat efficiency of the decay rate of muscle proteins (relative degradation of protein) was significantly lower than that of peers with low potential productivity, and the rate of protein synthesis was not increased, with a resulting increase in efficiency of biosynthesis and deposition of protein in the muscles and more intense accumulation of muscle mass. This orientation of the protein metabolism in muscle tissue (i.e. the decrease in the rate of protein turnover) in animals with high potential productivity contributed more than e is onomea expenditure of energy substrates in the muscles. The positive results obtained in repeated experiments, advanced on species composition of animals used, confirm the existence of the relationship between the rate of protein turnover (relative degradation of protein) in the body and the level of meat efficiency of steers and stability of inheritance of their traits to offspring. Using this method in breeding work in combination with traditional estimates of hereditary qualities of the animal will make it possible to predict meat quality manufacturer to produce offspring and thereby twice to speed up the breeding process.

The way to identify bulls with high potential of meat production, characterized in that, to improve the accuracy of the method, use data daily excretion of urine creatinine and 3-methylhistidine with subsequent determination of the deposition rate and protein degradation in skeletal muscle, and the evaluation of results is done according to the relative degradation of muscle proteins, defined by the formula

this bulls having a value of relative protein degradation 1,51-2,05% / day, refer to animals with low potential of meat production, and with the values of 1,10-1,50% / day for calves with high potential for meat production.



 

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