Diffractive laser localizer for x-ray emitter

FIELD: technology for orientation of x-ray emitter relatively to the object.

SUBSTANCE: laser localizer additionally comprises optical pattern, consisting of 4 groups of identical transparent and nontransparent bars with width t and height H, bars of each group are turned in pattern plane by 45° relatively to bars of adjacent groups and positioned symmetrically to laser axis, pattern is mounted on laser axis perpendicularly to it, in front of the pattern between it and the first deflector on the laser axis perpendicularly to it a nontransparent screen is mounted for screening laser rays of highest diffraction orders, screen having one central aperture for passage of laser rays of zero diffraction order and eight apertures for passage of laser rays, diffracted into ±1 diffraction order, which are positioned on the screen at certain diameter with 45° interval from each other and spatially combined with position of corresponding diffraction maximums of ±1 order in pattern plane.

EFFECT: defined area of the object being x-rayed, simplified procedure for determining center of the zone.

4 dwg

 

Known laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, further provided with two cylindrical lenses mounted on the axis of the laser radiation, across each of the output beam, the first between one of the end faces of the laser oscillator and the first reflector and the second between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, and their focus is chosen from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray beam, while the cylindrical lens mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam [2].

The disadvantage of this centralizer is the inability to evaluate the area of the object irradiated by x-rays, and SL is the possibility of determining the center of this area and determine the distance from the x-ray emitter to the object in connection with the necessity of rotation of the cylindrical lenses.

To address these shortcomings in the laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, a cylindrical lens mounted on the axis of radiation of the laser across its output beam, between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, the focus of which is selected from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray beam, while the cylindrical lens mounted for rotation County axis of the laser beam, added optical raster consisting of 4 groups of identical transparent and opaque strokes of width t and height H, the strokes of each group deployed in the plane of the raster on 45° relatively strokes neighboring GRU is p and are arranged symmetrically relative to the axis of the laser, raster installed on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it at a distance from the center of the first reflector is equal to the distance from the center to focus x-ray tube, the width of the strokes is selected as t=λ(sin(α/2)), where λ - wavelength laser radiation, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray tube, in front of a raster between him and the first reflector on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it at a distance B from the raster has an opaque screen for shielding laser beams of higher diffraction orders screen has one Central hole for passage of the laser beams of the zero order of diffraction and the eight holes for the transmission of laser beams, diffracted in ±1st order of diffraction, which are located on screen diameter D=B(tg(α/2)) 45° from each other and spatially coincident with the position of the corresponding diffraction peaks ±1-th order in the plane of the raster, and the parsing of the screen should be selected based on the ratio of DE≥2tgϕκwherethat ϕkthe angle of the diffraction order, κ - order of diffraction, κ≥2,3,4..., and a specific value is selected according to the brightness of the diffraction maxima of higher order, depending on the laser power and observation conditions.

The invention is illustrated by drawings figure 1-4, where PR is dstanley General diagram of the device (figure 1), the configuration of the diffraction image (figure 2), the structure of the diffraction pattern after passing the laser radiation through the raster (Fig 3,a), a screen for shielding the laser radiation diffracted into higher orders of diffraction (figure 3,b), the diffraction pattern behind the screen (Fig 3,b) and schematic illustration of the screen and laser beams, diffracted on the raster in ±1 orders of diffraction.

Laser centralizer contains the x-ray radiator 1, to which is attached the housing 2 located therein by laser 3 with bilateral output radiation, the optical axis of the output radiation which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector 4 and 5, the first (4) of which are made of plexiglass, installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser 8 with the axis of the x-ray beam 7 of the radiator (falling on controlled surface 6) can be rotated around an axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis 8 of the output radiation of the laser with the axis 7 of the x-ray beam in the angle range 25-65°and the second (5) mounted to rotate around an axis parallel to the axis of rotation of the first reflector on the optical axis 9 of the output radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter, means for indicating the focal length as a pointer 10 with the scale 11, the fixed nekocase 2 clamp, associated with the second reflector 5, and a means of interrupting the beam from the second reflector 5 made in the form of hinged shutters installed before or after the second reflector.

The centralizer includes a cylindrical lens 12, which is installed on the optical axis of the laser beam between the end face of the laser and the reflector 5 so that the object 6 is formed a vertical luminescent band.

Before the first output end of the laser between him and the first reflector 4 at a distance from the center of the reflector 4 on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it has optical raster 13, consisting of 4 groups of identical transparent and opaque strokes of width t and height H (figure 2). The strokes of each group are inclined at an angle of 45° in relation to the strokes of a neighboring group. Between the grid 13 and the first reflector 4 on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it has a screen 14 for shielding the laser beams of higher fractional orders.

The raster diameter d must be d≤dLwhere dL- the diameter of the laser beam.

The device operates as follows. The laser beam 3 from the first output end of the falls on the raster 13 and, in accordance with the laws of optical diffraction, is converted to a system of spatially separated beams propagating at different angles to the axis of the laser. Thus beams of zero-order direccionestrategica along the axis of the laser and have a maximum radiation intensity. Rays, dragirovaniya in the 1st and higher orders of diffraction, extend in planes perpendicular to the strokes in this group of lines in the raster symmetrically to the axis of the laser angle - ϕκ, the value of which is determined by the ratio tsinϕκ=κλwhere κ=0, 1, 2, 3..., where t is the width of lines in the raster, κ - order of diffraction, λ - wavelength laser.

Thus, for a screen with 4 groups of strokes that are deployed relative to each other at an angle of 45° (2) a diffraction pattern in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the laser, will have the form shown in figure 3,A.

The radiation intensity in the 1st order is about 40% of the intensity in the zero order and higher orders quickly decreases. Therefore, in the device using the screen 14 mounted at a distance B from the raster, the object will only be sent rays of zero and first orders of magnitude (Fig 3,b).

The screen DEselected taking into account the full overlap of the higher order, starting with κ=2 and up κ=4, with regard to their intensity, depending on the power of lasers. For almost actually used the device with laser λ=0.63 µm beam diameter dL=2.0 mm and the radiation power P≈5 mW κ≥4 almost not visible on the object. Therefore, the dimensions of the screen are selected taking into account the elimination orders to κ=4./p>

The distance from the raster to the center of the first reflector is chosen equal to the distance from the center to focus x-ray tube. The direction of the zero order rays after reflection from the first reflector coincides with the direction of the axis of the x-ray beam, which is achieved by known techniques angular alignment of the mirrors.

Width of lines in the raster in all groups are the same and are selected such that the angles between the axis of the laser beams ±1 order diffraction numerically coincides with the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, i.e. a 2ϕκ=α (figure 4).

Accordingly, the object falls a fan of the 9 laser beams, one of which is the Central beam of the zero order diffraction, spatial coincides with the axis of the x-ray beam and generates object bright spot, geometrically coincident with the point of intersection of the object with the axis of the x-ray beam.

The remaining eight rays are distributed symmetrically relative to the Central zero order beam angles thereto, adequate angular size of the x-ray beam. On the object 8 is formed bright spots, which are arranged symmetrically about the Central spot of the zero order of diffraction, and the diameter of the circle on which they are located, corresponds to the diameter of the zone of the object irradiated by the x-ray beam.

p> As shown by our study, eight of laser points (spots) is enough to estimate the position and size of the area irradiated by the x-ray beam. At the same time, this allows you to use as a raster optical worlds to control the image quality of optical systems [4], widely used in optical and electronic industries.

Choosing the desired number of optical worlds and the group number of its strokes, can be quite simple to find the right angle for the diffraction order of 1-th order. The width of the strokes in the world varies from 2 μm (world No. 3) to 10 μm (world No. 4) and more, which is sufficient for practice.

In operation, the operator moves the centralizer on the desired area of the object, combining its center with laser ring, and then rotating the second reflector combines a bright dot in the center of the ring laser with laser stripe formed by a cylindrical lens in front of the second output end of the laser shoots from the scale device count equal to the distance from the object to the x-ray emitter, similar to the patent-similar [2].

To increase the image contrast of the laser beams on the object, especially in conditions of intensive sun exposure, it is recommended to observe the object through a narrow-band filter with the wavelength of the laser.

Raster is performed photolithographic method, well Osborn the m in the electronic and optical industry. The width of the strokes to obtain the angles of diffraction of the 1st order in the range of 6±10°that corresponds to the angles of radiation of x-ray emitters α=12÷20°is 2÷5 μm, which is quite feasible in practice, even ordinary photographic materials of the type "Migrat", etc. the Size of the raster is assumed equal to the diameter of the radiation serial lasers, i.e. H≈1÷2 mm, emitting at a wavelength of λ=0.63 µm (the most common range of radiation gas or semiconductor lasers). Using rasters of different widths, it is possible to easily change the angular size of the tapered laser beam.

LITERATURE

1. Patent of Russia 1798935, Laser centralizer.

2. Patent of Russia 2106619, Laser centralizer for x-ray emitter.

3. The reference design opto-mechanical devices, edited Vaganova, M.: engineering, 1980, 742 S.

4. Afanas'ev, V.A. Optical intentions. M.: Higher school, 1981, 229 S.

Laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window rentgenovskoj the emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis, perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, a cylindrical lens mounted on the axis of radiation of the laser across its output beam, between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, the focus of which is selected from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray beam, while the cylindrical lens mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam, characterized in that it was additionally introduced optical raster consisting of 4 groups of identical transparent and opaque strokes of width t and height H, the strokes of each group deployed in the plane of the raster at 45° relative strokes of adjacent groups and are located symmetrically to the axis of the laser, raster installed on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it at a distance from the center of the first reflector is equal to the distance from the center to focus x-ray tube, the width of the strokes is selected as t=λ(sin(α/2), where λ - wavelength laser radiation, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray tube, in front of a raster between him and the first reflector on the axis of the laser perpendicular to it at a distance In from the raster set is prozrachny screen for shielding laser beams of higher diffraction orders, the screen has one Central hole for passage of the laser beams of the zero order of diffraction and the eight holes for the transmission of laser beams, diffracted in ±1st order of diffraction, which are located on screen diameter D=B(tg(α/2) 45° from each other and spatially coincident with the position of the corresponding diffraction peaks ±1-th order in the plane of the raster, and the screen size should be selected based on the ratio of DE>2··tgακwherethat κ - order of diffraction, κ≥2, 3, 4..., and a specific value κ is selected according to the brightness of the diffraction maxima of higher order, depending on the laser power and observation conditions.



 

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