Traverse gear

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: traverse gear comprises table, movable bridge, four pickups of linear movements along the X, Y1, Y2, and Z coordinates, and pickup of contacting with the probe mounted for permitting movements along the Z coordinate. Each pickup of the linear movements has measuring grid, recording head with carriage provided with indicating grid, and guiding member. The guiding member for all pickups of linear movements is made of two mutually perpendicular planes that are rigidly interconnected. One of the planes of the guiding member is a plane of the measuring grid with marks, and the second plane of the guiding member is made of a glass substrate. The pickup of contacting is made of a pickup of linear movements. The pickup of linear movements along the Z coordinate and the pickup of contacting have the common measuring grid and guiding member. The recording head of the contacting pickup is secured to the measuring grid of the pickup of linear movements along the Z coordinate. The probe is rigidly connected with the carriage of the contacting pickup. The carriage of the contacting pickup bears on the stop when it is in a bottom position. The stop is made of a ball secured to the area perpendicular to the face of the guiding member of the pickup of linear movements along the Z coordinate. The movable bridge is made of a glass channel.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reduced weight.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement devices, more specifically to the field of determining the coordinates of the surface (measured product)? and can be used in machinery, machine tools, optical-mechanical industry, as well as in all high-tech industries, science, technology etc.

Known coordinate measuring machine (CMM) "MicroVal 454(EM) (Brown&Sharpe) /1/ to determine the coordinates of the surface of the measured product. KIM is a coordinate measuring machine containing the measuring table with one side wall, a movable bridge, gantry, leaning with one hand on the side wall and with the other hand on the measuring table and can move along the Y coordinate, three mutually perpendicular linear displacement sensor X, Y, Z (working volume equal 457×508×406 mm), each of which registers its coordinate and set mutually perpendicular movement of the three coordinates X, Y, Z, and the touch sensor (DK) with the probe. The machine has a device that allows the bridge to move the Y-coordinate at 508 mm, the sensor along the Z coordinate and the touch sensor with the probe to move along the coordinates X 457 mm, and along the Z 406 mm Sensor, the Y-coordinate is installed on the side wall of the measuring table with one of its edges. The sensor position is natam X, Z and the touch sensor (Rensihaw) /2/ with the probe, which is rigidly connected with it, is installed on the bridge. Each linear displacement sensor has a measuring grid, the sensing head and the guide, and the read head sensor linear displacement of the X coordinate is rigidly connected with the read head sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, and they have the ability to move along the direction of the measuring grating sensor linear displacement along the X coordinate, and the read head of the Y-coordinate is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, and guide in X and Y, on the basis of diabase consists of two mutually perpendicular planes, rigidly interconnected, and the probe set in the touch sensor so that it has the capability of touch with the measuring table.

The device operates as follows :

The product which is necessary to determine the coordinates set on the measuring table. Included a program where DK - Renishaw is moved in the direction of the measured surface along the coordinates that KIM should determine at the moment of touch. Pre-probe is centered in the specified node to align its axis with the axis direction of the coordinates along which the ISM is ratesa coordinate surface. Upon contact with the surface to be measured produces an electrical signal, which is supplied to the interface M17. The coordinate of the touch point corresponds to a common coordinate system by the given axis and is registered in the TNC, PC or device, which is equipped with this KIM. For each coordinate set of the linear displacement sensor with the required measurement range of the coordinates, which can be up to one meter or more, depending on the dimensions of the measured product. Known DK is valid only in a small range of movement of about 1 mm due To the fact that the measurements used two sensors with different operating principles, it is necessary to provide as accurate as possible their compatibility.

The touch sensor at the moment of contact with the surface produces an electrical signal which is fed to the motor, to stop measuring sensor. As a measuring sensor, linear displacement, as a rule, use the sensor bar (diffraction) linear scales.

The accuracy for each individual coordinate 5 μm. Best achieved volumetric accuracy SKIM is 10 micron/325 mm repeatability 4 microns.

This device has the following disadvantages.

Limitation of accuracy due to the following circumstances

1.1. The head of the touch sensor, according to the Scripture, contains two nodes, working on the curve: two metal membrane and the probe, resulting in repeated measurements, the gain of the nonlinear residual deformation (mechanical hysteresis), which places limitations on the accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the system.

1.2. The signal obtained as a result of mechanical deformation of the probe and membranes, puts a constraint on the system response as the response time of the on-going contact and inertia of the ongoing changes in the structure of the substances themselves membranes and probe touch sensor. This leads to a time delay produced by the pulse stop measuring sensor and, consequently, to a distortion of the measured coordinates.

1.3. The great weight of the bridge has a large inertia when moving through the measuring table. As a result, the torque, which causes a slight delay in one arm of the bridge relative to another. The movement of the shoulder of the bridge at the edge of the table, which has a measuring sensor in the Y direction, rigidly connected with the motor, is carried out with a slight delay relative to the other shoulder, which moves due to the stiffness of the bridge. This leads to errors when determining the y coordinate.

1.4. Design features of the touch sensor, containing a large number of mechanical elements, the creature is but increases its size (F mm), the weight and number of interactions between them, which increases its inertia and reduce the accuracy in the determination of the touch point.

1.5. Great strength of feeling (50, 75, and 150 grams) of the measuring head of the DC leads to the deformation of the measured surface and reduce the accuracy of the measured coordinates especially in the case of measurement of surfaces with low hardness.

1.6. Various principles laid down in the two sensors (measuring and touch), acting independently and at the same time complementary, used to define the coordinates of the product for each individual coordinate axes require additional conditions for their compatibility. Different principles of construction of these two sensors with different resolution and accuracy characteristics, determine the necessity of interfacing and compatibility of these two sensors. The pairing of two different sensors requires high installation precision relative to each other. Inaccuracy in the installation, reduces the accuracy of the system when determining each coordinate separately and the determination of the three coordinates in General.

2. Great weight SKIM associated with the use of the exact stone guide the X-coordinate is installed on the bridge leads to the increase of inertia of the system and, consequently, to reduce the accuracy of the machine.

Most Blimber is Kim the technical essence is SKIM "Crysta-Plus 504" (Mitutoyo) /3/ to determine the coordinates of the surface of the measured product. SKIM is a coordinate measuring machine containing the measuring table with one side wall, a movable bridge, gantry, leaning with one hand on the side wall and with the other hand on the measuring table and can move around the table in the Y-coordinate of the three mutually perpendicular linear displacement sensor X, Y, Z (working volume equal 505×405×405 mm), each of which registers its coordinate and set mutually perpendicular movement of the three coordinates X, Y, Z, and the sensor touch with probe type Rensihaw /2/. The machine has a device that allows the bridge to move the Y-coordinate at 405 mm, the sensor along the Z coordinate in conjunction with the touch sensor with the probe on the coordinate X 505 mm, and along the Z-coordinate at 405 mm Sensor, the Y-coordinate is installed on the side wall near one end of the measuring table, and sensors by coordinates X, Z and the touch sensor (Rensihaw) with the probe installed on the bridge, and all three sensors are measuring the lattice, the sensing head with the flat bars and the guide, and the read head sensor linear displacement of the X coordinate is rigidly connected with the read head sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, and both heads have the ability to move along the direction of the measuring grid is Attica linear movement of the X-coordinate, and the reading head of the Y-coordinate is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, and guide for the X-and Y - stone and consists of two mutually perpendicular planes, rigidly interconnected, and the probe is installed in the touch sensor so that it has the capability of touch with the measuring table.

The device operates as follows.

The product is installed on the measuring table. Included a program where DK with the probe moves through the engine towards the point measured on the surface of the product along the coordinates that KIM should determine at the moment of touch. Sensors linear displacements in X, Y and Z define the coordinate of the measured surface of the product within its consumption, and DK with the probe allows at the moment of contact to define a small fraction measured these 3 sensors the value of the coordinates of the product, which is the fraction of the period of the diffraction grating of the measurement sensor. The touch sensor and the probe at the moment of contact with the surface produces an electrical signal which is fed to the engines, rigidly connected with the measuring linear displacement sensors to stop. Repeatability DC when measuring one coordinate is 1 micron.

Accuracy SKIM "Crysta Plu 504" is defined by the following formula:

Q=(2,9+41L/1000)ám,

where L in mm

The accuracy achieved in the whole volume - 9 micron repeatability 3 micron.

This device has the same disadvantages as the above equivalent.

1. Limited precision due to the following circumstances:

1.1. The head of the touch sensor, according to the description contains two nodes, working on the curve: two metal membrane and the probe, resulting in repeated measurements, the gain of the nonlinear residual deformation (mechanical hysteresis), which places limitations on the accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the system.

1.2. The signal obtained as a result of mechanical deformation of the probe and membranes, puts a constraint on the system response as the response time of the on-going contact and inertia of the ongoing changes in the structure of the substances themselves membranes and probe touch sensor. This leads to a time delay produced by the pulse stops the first sensor and rigidly linked to membranes and, consequently, to reduce the accuracy when determining the magnitude of the measured coordinates.

1.3. The great weight of the bridge has a large inertia when moving through the measuring table. As a result, the torque, which causes a slight delay in one arm of the bridge relative to another. During the movement of the bridge, one shoulder mos is and at the edge of the table, which has a measuring sensor no Y and rigidly associated engine, is carried out with a slight delay relative to the other arm of the bridge, installed at the opposite edge of the table. The second arm is moved only by the stiffness of the bridge. This leads to errors when determining the y coordinate.

1.4. Design features of the touch sensor, containing a large number of mechanical elements significantly increases its size (Ø82 mm), weight and the number of interactions between them, which increases its inertia and reduce the accuracy.

1.5. Great strength of feeling (50, 75, and 150 grams) of the measuring head of the DC leads to the deformation of the measured surface and reduce the accuracy of the measured coordinates, especially in the case of measurement of surfaces with low hardness.

1.6. Various principles laid down in the two sensors operating independently and at the same time complement each other when determining the values of the coordinates of the product for each individual coordinate axes require additional conditions for their compatibility (of relatedness to the standard length). The pairing of two different sensors requires them accurately set relative to each other. Inaccuracy in setting reduces the accuracy of the system when determining each coordinate separately and when Oprah is the bookmark of the three coordinates in General.

2. Much weight KIM, associated with the need to use the exact stone guide for the X coordinate, installed on the bridge leads to the increase of inertia of the system and, consequently, to reduce the accuracy of the machine.

The objective of the proposed invention is the provision of increasing the accuracy of determining the coordinates of an object when the measurements using KIM and reducing the weight of the bridge, which will also lead to increased precision.

The task is solved in that in the coordinate-measuring machine containing the measuring table with lateral parallel walls at its opposite edges, a movable bridge, resting on the side walls for movement of the Y-coordinate, three linear displacement sensor, each of which registers its coordinate and set mutually perpendicular movement of the three coordinates X, Y, Z, and the touch sensor with probe, device, one of which is installed on the bridge and controls the movement of the sensor along the X coordinate, the other is installed on one side wall of the measuring table and controls the movement sensor the Y-coordinate is installed on the same side wall, and the sensor coordinates X and Z is installed on a movable bridge, and the touch sensor with probe, which is rigidly connected with it, is installed on the bridge with the possibility PE is Emesene along the Z coordinate, and each linear displacement sensor has a measuring grid, the sensing head with the carriage containing the indicator bars, and guide, and the read head sensor linear displacement of the X coordinate is rigidly connected with the read head sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, and both heads have the ability to move along the direction of the measuring grating sensor linear displacement of the X-coordinate, and the read head of the Y-coordinate is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, and guide in X and Y consists of two mutually perpendicular planes, rigidly connected each other, and the probe is installed in the touch sensor so that it has the capability of touch with the measuring table, what is new is that the second sensor linear displacement of the Y-coordinate is mounted on the second side wall of the measuring table, parallel to the first known sensor linear displacement of the Y-coordinate and within its aperture, and the read head is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, and the touch sensor is made in the form of a linear displacement sensor, and one of the voltage planes is alausa in the linear displacement sensors, is the measuring plane of the lattice with the strokes, and the second plane guide is made in the shape of a glass substrate, and the sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate and the touch sensor have a common measurement grating, and a General guide, and the read head touch sensor mounted on the measuring grating sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate after the read head from the location of the probe, and the probe is rigidly connected with the carriage of a touch sensor, and they have the ability to move relative to the read head touch sensor, and the carriage in the lower position rests on the emphasis made in the form of a ball rigidly mounted on a platform attached to the end of the guide sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, and the ground plane perpendicular to the direction of movement of the sensor and does not intersect the probe and the movable bridge is made in the shape of a glass channel, two planes which are guide sensor linear displacement of the X-coordinate and the other newly introduced glass substrate channel perpendicular to the first and rigidly connected to it.

Such constructive execution of KIM allows to determine the coordinates of the points measured on the surface with higher accuracy and with a small surface deformation due to:

- the introduction of the second change is sustained fashion sensor linear displacement along the Y coordinate

- compatibility of the principles of the combined effect of two sensors: linear displacement sensor and touch sensor through the use of the same measuring element measuring a diffraction grating along the Z coordinate and the same principle of reading data for both sensors

- reduce the weight of the bridge due to the use of glass guides the measuring sensor on the X coordinate and the glass channel, one side of which serves as a substrate, which is the second plane of the sensor linear displacement of the X-coordinate, and the second side, added glass substrate perpendicular to the first and rigidly connected to it.

Figure 1 (a, b) shows a concrete example of the constructive solutions of the claimed KIM devices for measuring the coordinates of the product and given the appearance of this device. Figure 2 gives the picture a specific implementation of the inventive KIM, and figure 3 shows results of measurement of the deviation of the flatness measuring table with KIM correction of systematic errors. Figure 4 presents a photograph torroidalnom mirrors, and figure 5 - results of measurement on KIM.

In accordance with the figures and claims, KIM contains (figure 1 (a, b)); probe 1 (see node A); measurement table 2; holographic sensors linear moved the th X Y1, Y2Z and DK, each of which has its measuring lattice Rush 3, Riza14, z25 Robe25 and z 6; motors 7, 8 and 9, respectively installed at the coordinates X, Y1and Z; the read head Sch 10, SCO-11 and SCU-12 and z-13 and the sensing head touch sensor Scdc 14, side walls 15 and 16 of the measuring table 2; shareavenue pair 17 for the X coordinate and shareavenue a couple 18 of the Y-coordinate1; mount Sch and z 19; a first plane of the guide 3, 4, 5 and 6, which corresponds to the plane of the stroke measuring grids in X, Y1, Y2and Z, and the second guide plane 20, 21 (see node B), 22 and 23; the indicator bars Rinds 24 of the read head sensor touch - (site A); the carriage fixing 25 indicator lattice Rinds 24 of the touch sensor; a ball 26 to stop the carriage and fixing 25 indicator lattice Rinds 24 sensor touch - (see node A); bearings 27 of the carriage fixing 25; bearings 28 of the read head z-13; the bridge in the shape of a glass channel having a single plane 3, the second plane 20, which coincides with the second plane of the guide sensor linear displacements along the X coordinate, and the third plane 29; glass platform 30 to the stop bead 26 of the carriage fixing 25 has a plane side lock ball 26 that is perpendicular to the direction of the plumage is of edenia this sensor does not intersect the probe 1. Plane 3, 20 and 29 form a channel bridge. The stiffness of the bridge in the channel of the bridge may be present linking elbows.

Each read head has its own flat grating with a frequency of strokes, which coincides with the frequency corresponding measurement gratings, are also sources of radiation and bearings, allowing the indicator arrays to roll on the two planes of the guide relative to the measuring of gratings or, as in the case of a measurement probe on the Z coordinate, on the contrary, the measuring grating 6 to roll relatively flat grid, which is fixed in the reader head z 13.

Thus,

1) one design feature of the coordinate measuring machine is that the Y-coordinate is first installed at the same time, two sensors, respectively, containing two measuring grids (Riza14, the Robe25) with their reading heads (SCU111, STU212). These two sensors are located symmetrically with respect to the rolling bridge and on the edges. Moreover, the engine 8 is installed only on one side of the bridge and moves the cylinder, only one of these two sensors - Y1as to provide simultaneous movement of the two motors for Y1and Y2with a precision of several tens of nanometers almost nevozmozhno connection it will be observed hysteresis hysteresis carriage of the read head measuring sensor coordinate Y 2. Order, adjustment of this factor on the Y coordinate2install a second linear displacement sensor with its measurement grid Robe25 and with his guide, a first plane which coincides with the plane of the measuring grating 5, and the second prong - 22;

2) the second design feature KIM stems from the fact that combined the principles of operation of the sensor is linear in Z and DK (since DK is made in the form of a linear displacement sensor based on diffraction gratings). Moreover, they have one and the same measuring grating 6 and the same guide consisting of two planes 5 and 22;

3) in contrast to all known structures it uses the linear displacement sensors, each of which guide are two glass plates, one of which is measuring the lattice, and the second substrate, rigidly associated with it. The deviation from straightness of the glass guide no more than ±1.2 microns to 500 mm, which is very difficult to obtain in the processing of stone or metal used in known constructions KIM as guides, including analog and prototype.

4) movable bridge KIM also glass and made in the form of a channel with sides of 3, 20 and 29. Because of this, he has not only easy, but also rigidity, which leads to the reduction prog the BA bridge because of the fixed sensors linear coordinates X, Z and DK and thereby to reduce systematic errors in the measurement of the products on this KIM.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows.

Lowered the probe 1 on the measuring table 2 at the origin and zanulyayutsya all sensors linear displacements X, Y1, Y2Z and DK.

Set the measuring unit on the measuring table 2 and is fed to the probe 1 to it to the point where it is necessary to measure its coordinates. The probe 1 is brought to the desired point on the device with the help of motors 7, 8 and 9 and the standard program that allows for the optimum path to move the probe in 3-dimensional space to this point. While the read head SCU1-11, STU2-12 sensors, linear displacement of Y1and Y2installed on the side walls 15 and 16 of the measuring table 2, mounted on the edges of the bridge (channel), is moved along the measuring of gratings, Risus14 and Robe25, and the read head z 10 and z 13 attached to the node 19 are moved along the measuring grid Risk 3. z -6 and read head Scdc 14, attached to it (see node a in figure 1), is moved along the flat lattice of the read head z 13 attached to the node 19.

All movements of the read head and the measuring of gratings relative to each other in each sensor X, Y1, Y2, Z and DK are using bearings. Guide each sensor consists of two glass planes perpendicular to each other, glued together, one of which coincides with the plane of the measuring grating of the sensor, and the second with the plane of the respective substrates 20, 21, 22 and 23.

Guide sensor on the Z coordinate is both a guide DK (see node A).

In the read head of each linear displacement sensor uses a pair of two diffraction gratings, one of which is measuring Reese with length equal to the measured length, and the other, a small, flat Rin (see figure 1 - site And, where shown Indk-23), and design all read heads are the same.

When covering each pair of gratings (measuring and indicator) light flux from the radiation source, located in each read head, the output gratings appear interference fringes, which arise due to the interference beams of different diffraction orders of the two gratings. Step and form interference fringes depends on the lattice parameters: the frequency and the angle between the strokes of the grating (i.e. the relative position of their stroke). Basically the interference fringe in the sensors represent a wide collection of straight lines. Moving the measuring grating relative to the indicator in each of citymouse the head of the sensors causes synchronous movement of these bands in one direction, and in the case of changing the direction of movement of the gratings (reverse) - to the simultaneous reverse bands.

In the field of interference fringes is set the matrix of photodetectors. Travel lanes will be transformed with the help of sensors into electrical signals. These electrical signals are processed in a standard electronic logic blocks to receiving digital information about the measured displacement. Z coordinate to the adder "With" enter numeric values from two sensors Z and DK. When moving z 6 in the direction of the measured point of the product, due to the engine 9 and the bearings 28, the read head z 13 produces corresponding electrical signals, which are processed in their electronic logic unit to receive the digital information, and then they fall to the adder "With" all the time - before and after touch. In the read head sensor DK movement of the moire fringes occurs only after the touch probe 1 with the surface and stops the moment you stop all sensors. To touch the carriage DK - 25 with indicator bars Indk-24 rests relatively z-6, resting on the ball 26. At the moment of touch probe 1 measuring point surface carriage-25 rigidly connected with Rindt-24 begins to move along z 6 through bearings 27 in the opposite direction relative to Ri the z-6. While the strokes of each pair of gratings both read heads (z-13 and Scdc-14) for the Z coordinate does not change their position relative to each other (slope) during their movement and are not out of the realm of mutual overlap.

Thus, the digital values from the sensor DK starting to get to the adder "With" only after the touch and they have the opposite sign than the sensor data Z, resulting in their subtraction. Because of this, in the future, to stop the movement z 6 adder "With" will actually give the same value, i.e. the Z coordinate in the touch point. A very important point that the removal of coordinates from the sensor coordinate Z and DK before getting to the adder undergoes the same transformation as these two sensors one and the same measuring element. This reduces errors in determining the coordinates. After contact of the probe with the surface of the product Scdc 18 produces a control pulse to stop all motors KIM.

Due to the fact that the basis of the measurement probe on the Z coordinate and the touch sensor DK is the subtraction of the values of the coordinates obtained from the two read heads sensor linear displacement along the coordinate Z and DK, the system of the sensor Z and DK can be called differential sensor touch. And its application in KIM lets not catch the ü only instant contact since this moment just might not reflect the correct value of the coordinates of the touch, say, at least because of the strike, when the elastic deformation of the probe and the surface. The coordinate of the touch easily perceptible over the whole interval of time from touchdown to stop the engine. In this particular execution DK had the following characteristics:

resolution, µm0,01
the repeatability of the system, microns±0,05

Coordinate measuring machine-specific version was oberemm volume 500×500×200 cubm

Due to the fact that KIM proposed the Y-coordinate is set at the same time, two sensors, respectively, containing two measuring grids Robe14 and Robe25 with their reading heads SCU111 and SCHU212, the calculation of the true coordinates of Y are programmable and is a function of the position coordinates of the X axis transducer Z measuring the Z coordinate, and the values of Y1and Y2counted by the measuring grating sensors Y1and Y2i.e.

where the value of L is equal to the distance between the scales of Y1and Y2.

Studies suggested guide linear sensors the displacement /4/ showed a higher precision ± 1 μm for a length of 500 mm, For measurements on the Z coordinate was used the linear displacement sensor with measuring holographic diffraction grating /5/ and a differential sensor touch. A high degree of straightness of the guide opens the possibility of programmatically correct systematic errors in real time. This allows to increase the accuracy KIM 2-3 times.

Thus, these characteristics are a breakthrough solution for the creation of such coordinate measuring machines.

In a particular execution of KIM (Fig. 2,4) has the following characteristics:

1 - accuracy KIM, mcm

Q=±(0,2+2,5L/550),

/table>

The above KIM-e (see figure 2, where given a picture of her) was carried out following dimensions:

1 - determined deviation from flatness measuring table (2) KIM, given its systematic errors. The results are shown in chart 3;

2 is a graph of measurement of coordinates torroidalnom mirrors and picture torroidalnom mirror (5 and 4).

Thus, in this particular execution of KIM's goal is achieved by the fact that:

1 - use two sensors Y1 and Y2 for a more precise definition of Y coordinates (see figure 2);

2 - used the same type of sensors (including the touch sensor) for all coordinates (with the same high-precision high-resolution measurement and indicator diffraction gratings). This initially makes them fully compatible on all parameters, including accuracy and resolution without the use of additional methods for their compatibility and scaling;

3 - use high-precision glass guides for all of the sensors increases the accuracy of the measurement coordinates. In this particular case was used for all coordinates of the glass guides, obtained by gluing the measuring of gratings with substrates /4/. A prototype of such directing, made by special technology, showed the accuracy of the deviation from the direct is onlinenote no more ± 1.7 ám/500 mm;

4 - using a common glass rails on the Z coordinate and PC allows you to create a measuring cylinder and DK weights. The weight of the touch sensor surface does not depend on the weight of large parts of DK, as in the similar and the prototype, and the weight of small parts of the carriage 25, Indk-24 and probe 1, which reduces the deformation of the measured surface in the contact point due to the low power of feelings;

5 - touch sensor contains as an element of touch (contact) miniature, low-inertia element - indicator diffraction grating rigidly associated with the probe, therefore, the time response of the touch sensor at the moment of contact practical instant and is determined by the resolution of the measuring system of the two read heads (Z, DK), which is currently the same for these and for all used in the inventive KIM sensors and reaches 0.01 µm. This allows to maintain a high accuracy and in measurements with high speeds;

6 - glass guides on X and Z allow to develop more lightweight bridge in the shape of a glass channel (3, 20, 29), which reduces pressure on the measuring table and reduce system errors;

7 - all sensors and measuring grid(3, 4, 5, 6), and guides (20, 21, 22 and 23) have the same the cylinder is entom of thermal expansion, that increases the system's accuracy; accuracy KIM can be improved by using glass with a low coefficient of thermal expansion of the order of 2.10-7µm/m

Literature

1. "MicroVal 343" Personal Manual CMM (specifications / Specification), A Brown&Sharpe Company.

2. The measuring sensor touch MP3, Rensihaw. Passport MP3.

3. Passport MP3 "Crysta Plus 504", (Technical specifications / Specification), A Mitutoyo Company,

4. Turegano astray freight, Turegano N. "Sensor linear". RF patent №2197713, prior, dated 07.08.2000,

5. Gorelik VP, Nikolaev, S., Turegano astray freight, Turegano N. "Device for phase-in connection holographic diffraction gratings". RF patent №673018, prior, from 06.06.77.

Coordinate measuring machine containing the measuring table with lateral parallel walls at its opposite edges, a movable bridge, resting on the side walls for movement of the Y-coordinate, three linear displacement sensor, each of which registers its coordinate and set mutually perpendicular movement of the three coordinates X, Y, Z, and the touch sensor with probe, device, one of which is installed on the bridge and controls the movement of the sensor along the X coordinate, the other is installed on one side wall of the measuring table and controls the movement of datiko the Y coordinate installed on the same side wall, and the sensor coordinates X and Z is installed on a movable bridge, and the touch sensor with probe, which is rigidly connected with it, is installed on the bridge for movement along the Z-coordinate, and each linear displacement sensor has a measuring grid, the sensing head with the carriage containing the indicator bars, and guide, and the read head sensor linear displacement of the X coordinate is rigidly connected with the read head sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, and both heads have the ability to move along the direction of the measuring sensor grid linear displacements along the coordinate X, and the read head of the Y-coordinate is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, and guide in X and Y consists of two mutually perpendicular planes, rigidly interconnected, and the probe is installed in the touch sensor so that it has the capability of touch with the measuring table, characterized in that the input of the second sensor linear displacement of the Y-coordinate is mounted on the second side wall of the measuring table, parallel to the first known sensor linear displacement of the Y-coordinate within its aperture, and its considered one of th is that the cylinder is rigidly connected with a movable bridge, and has the ability to move along its measuring grid of the Y-coordinate, the touch sensor is made in the form of a linear displacement sensor, and one of the planes of the guide in the linear displacement sensors is measuring plane lattice with the strokes, and the second plane guide is made in the shape of a glass substrate, and the sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate and the touch sensor have a common measurement grating and a General guide, and the read head touch sensor mounted on the measuring grating sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate after the read head from the location of the probe, and the probe is rigidly connected with the carriage of the touch sensor to move relative to the read head touch sensor, and the carriage in the lower position rests the emphasis made in the form of a ball rigidly mounted on a platform attached to the end face of the guide sensor linear displacement along the Z coordinate, the ground plane perpendicular to the direction of movement of the sensor and does not intersect the probe and the movable bridge is made in the shape of a glass channel, two planes which are guide sensor linear displacement of the X-coordinate and the other newly introduced glass substrate channel perpendicular to the first and rigidly connected to it.



 

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5 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: device has standard side-view endoscope, which has system for illuminating object and system for observing object provided with measuring scale. Device is additionally provided with bushing having linear and angular scales, which bushing is capable of translation and rotation about axis of symmetry of flange fastened to input opening of cavity to be controlled. Tube with optical system for laser illumination of object is mounted inside bushing; tube has microscopic laser and mirror. Tube is mounted in bushing for linear movement relatively endoscope in parallel to its longitudinal axis. Precision of measurement of sizes of objects disposed at long distances to surfaces to be controlled is improved. Measurement of coordinates of defect location on surfaces of object can be made with higher precision.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

3 dwg

FIELD: engineering of touch sensors.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring diffraction grid, probe, two guides, two reading heads, substrate, engine, a group of magnets. First reading head is rigidly connected to body of indicator. Second reading head contains receiver of radiation, collimator, indicator diffraction grid, a matrix of photo-receivers. Group of bearings provides for movement of measuring diffraction grid along movement direction. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are utilized as guides. One indicator diffraction grid is held in carriage. Carriage is connected to probe, which touches measured surface and moves relatively to same together with measuring diffraction grid. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are connected to engine, and reading heads are connected to adders.

EFFECT: increased precision of touch coordinate detection at measured surface.

5 dwg

FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.

SUBSTANCE: the device has a laser, reflectors symmetrically installed on the scanner assembly provided with means for angular scanning of the reflectors relative to the axis of the mentioned assembly, and receiver of the laser beam reflected from the object surface. The scanner assembly is made in the form of a motor, whose shaft is coupled to the reflectors; the means for angular scanning relative to the axis of the scanner assembly are made in the form of a solenoid installed in the axis of the motor shaft, a laser beam splitter is positioned between the laser and deflectors.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of contour measurement.

1 dwg

FIELD: automatics, engineering of controlling devices.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylinder-shaped body with serially positioned lighting system, consisting of electronic lamp and toroidal lens, surveillance system, consisting of conic mirror for all-around observation, objective, light guide, scale mesh and ocular. Additionally inserted are second objective, positioned in front of input end of light guide and forming its image in plane of scale mesh, positioned in focal plane of ocular, optical axis of which coincides with axis of second objective micro-objective, positioned on optical axis, parallel to ocular axis and axis of second object respectively. Second objective and micro-objective are mounted with possible mutual displacement for serial mounting on optical axis of ocular, micro-objective is focused on output end of light guide and builds image of fragments of light section in plane of scale mesh, second objective, scale mesh, ocular and micro-objective are constructively combined in single block, mounted at output portion of light guide with possible movement in two orthogonal directions.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of device, improved precision of defects dimensions estimation.

3 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises receiving mirror and diffuse components of light radiation reflected from the surface, extracting pulses of the same duration from the components received, generating reference pulses by converting each pulse extracted from the mirror and diffusion components into photocurrents, and determining the quality of the surface from the photocurrents. Before being incident on the surface, the monochromatic beam is split into the mirror and diffusion pulses of the same duration. The reference pulses are generated by separating a part of the light flux from the extracted light pulses. The device comprises source of monochromatic light radiation, light-splitting plate, mirror made of a paraboloid of revolution, focusing system, first photodetector, unit for control and processing information, first obturator with a port and mirror zone on the surface of the rotatable disk, second obturator with a pair of same ports on the rotatable disk, and second photodetector.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and quality of determining.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: laser control technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sweep of light beam to straight line with providing for projection of this beam on surface of rolled strip, video capture of projection area of current beam on portion of controlled surface and point of nearby edge of rolled strip, projection area is separated on given number of ranges and for each range received image is separated on components, forming respectively line of edge points of beam light projection, being portion of measurement area, line of brightest points inside light beam projection range and line of edge points of beam projection, quitting measurement area, to determine their coordinates along rolling strip surface, coordinates of lines of brightest points and edge points within light beam projection are straightened, and value of total coordinate is determined, from which with consideration of coordinates of points of lines of brightest points within light beam projection, by geometric interpretation, total parameter of rolled strip shape SARK(i,j) is determined.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and efficiency.

8 dwg

FIELD: measurement of surface profiles.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in obtaining of a set of interferograms of the surface under examination at scanning of it by a low-coherent radiation source and recreation of the original profile of the surface under examination with the aid of them. At obtaining of each main interferogram an additional interferogram is read off at a shift of the bearing surface by a fractional part of the wavelength, after that the signal of the additional interferogram is subtracted from the signal of the main interferogram and a differential interferogram is obtained, and the original profile of the surface under examination is recreated from the obtained differential interferograms.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of interferograms due to localization of the zone of interference on the surface under examination.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has, serially placed at one optical axis, light source, collimator, ring optical mark forming means and multi-element photo-detector, connected to photo-detector signal processing block, as well as assembly for displacing part along axis. At optical axis before photo-detector ring mark projector is mounted with optical localizer of its position.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed and precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises receiving mirror and diffuse components of light radiation reflected from the surface, extracting pulses of the same duration from the components received, generating reference pulses by converting each pulse extracted from the mirror and diffusion components into photocurrents, and determining the quality of the surface from the photocurrents. Before being incident on the surface, the monochromatic beam is split into the mirror and diffusion pulses of the same duration. The reference pulses are generated by separating a part of the light flux from the extracted light pulses. The device comprises source of monochromatic light radiation, light-splitting plate, mirror made of a paraboloid of revolution, focusing system, first photodetector, unit for control and processing information, first obturator with a port and mirror zone on the surface of the rotatable disk, second obturator with a pair of same ports on the rotatable disk, and second photodetector.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and quality of determining.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: automatics, engineering of controlling devices.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylinder-shaped body with serially positioned lighting system, consisting of electronic lamp and toroidal lens, surveillance system, consisting of conic mirror for all-around observation, objective, light guide, scale mesh and ocular. Additionally inserted are second objective, positioned in front of input end of light guide and forming its image in plane of scale mesh, positioned in focal plane of ocular, optical axis of which coincides with axis of second objective micro-objective, positioned on optical axis, parallel to ocular axis and axis of second object respectively. Second objective and micro-objective are mounted with possible mutual displacement for serial mounting on optical axis of ocular, micro-objective is focused on output end of light guide and builds image of fragments of light section in plane of scale mesh, second objective, scale mesh, ocular and micro-objective are constructively combined in single block, mounted at output portion of light guide with possible movement in two orthogonal directions.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of device, improved precision of defects dimensions estimation.

3 dwg

FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.

SUBSTANCE: the device has a laser, reflectors symmetrically installed on the scanner assembly provided with means for angular scanning of the reflectors relative to the axis of the mentioned assembly, and receiver of the laser beam reflected from the object surface. The scanner assembly is made in the form of a motor, whose shaft is coupled to the reflectors; the means for angular scanning relative to the axis of the scanner assembly are made in the form of a solenoid installed in the axis of the motor shaft, a laser beam splitter is positioned between the laser and deflectors.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of contour measurement.

1 dwg

FIELD: engineering of touch sensors.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring diffraction grid, probe, two guides, two reading heads, substrate, engine, a group of magnets. First reading head is rigidly connected to body of indicator. Second reading head contains receiver of radiation, collimator, indicator diffraction grid, a matrix of photo-receivers. Group of bearings provides for movement of measuring diffraction grid along movement direction. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are utilized as guides. One indicator diffraction grid is held in carriage. Carriage is connected to probe, which touches measured surface and moves relatively to same together with measuring diffraction grid. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are connected to engine, and reading heads are connected to adders.

EFFECT: increased precision of touch coordinate detection at measured surface.

5 dwg

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: device has standard side-view endoscope, which has system for illuminating object and system for observing object provided with measuring scale. Device is additionally provided with bushing having linear and angular scales, which bushing is capable of translation and rotation about axis of symmetry of flange fastened to input opening of cavity to be controlled. Tube with optical system for laser illumination of object is mounted inside bushing; tube has microscopic laser and mirror. Tube is mounted in bushing for linear movement relatively endoscope in parallel to its longitudinal axis. Precision of measurement of sizes of objects disposed at long distances to surfaces to be controlled is improved. Measurement of coordinates of defect location on surfaces of object can be made with higher precision.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

3 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

Up!
where L in mm2,55
2 - permission KIM, mcm0,01
3 - repeatability of the system, microns0,20.
4 - the length of the measuring grids
Lx, Ly1, Ly2, /5/, mm550
5 - length, Lz, mm400
6 - accuracy sensors linear
displacements in X, Y, Z, µm
Q=(0,02±0,4L/1000),
where L in mm±0,2
7 - frequency gratings ν, Lin./mm1000