Tool made of high-speed steel

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly cold and hot mechanical working of different materials, mainly metals and their alloys.

SUBSTANCE: tool made of high-speed steel P18 may be in the form of cutter, milling cutter, drill, screw tap and so on. High-speed steel of tool contains α-phase - martensite α-Fe alloyed with chrome and tungsten; γ-phase - austenite alloyed with chrome and tungsten; and carbide Fe3W3C. Austenite concentration is no more than 4.4 ± 0.5 mass%; martensite concentration is no less than 84.3 ± 4.0 mass %; concentration of Fe3W3C is equal to 11.3 ± 0.6 mass%.

EFFECT: improved strength, reduced embrittlement, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for hot and cold machining of various materials, mainly metals and their alloys, and can be made in the form of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, taps, etc.

Well known tool made of high speed tungsten steel P9 [1]. The disadvantage of the tool is made of steel P9, is the deterioration of lifemost: occurs when the grinding prizhogi and buildup of machined metal on the tool.

Closest to the claimed tool is a tool made of high speed tungsten steel R18 [2]. Lack of tool steel R18 is the high content of carbides in the steel, resulting in lower values of strength and ductility in comparison with steels with a lower content of tungsten.

The claimed invention is directed to increasing the strength and reducing the brittleness of high-speed steel R18 and, thereby, to increase tool life made of it.

This result is achieved in that the tool made of high speed steel brand R18, containing α-phase - martensite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten - Fe48CrW (BCC), γ-phase austenite γ-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten Fe483W3C, the concentration of the austenite is not more than 4.4 wt.%, the concentration of martensite is not less than 84,3 wt.%, as the concentration of Fe3W3C remains almost unchanged.

Distinctive features of the claimed invention are:

- the choice of the concentration of the austenite, not in excess of 4.4 wt.%;

- the choice of the concentration of martensite is not less 84,3 wt.%;

- save almost constant concentration of carbide high-speed steel.

It was established experimentally that the concentration of γ-phase iron - austenite γ-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten - Fe48CrW implemented in the inventive instrument and equal to 4.4 wt.%, 3.25 times less concentration γ-phase in the underlying instrument.

This concentration is the minimum achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. Concentration γ-phase, large 4.4 wt.% implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller increase in strength as compared with the baseline tool. Therefore, their use in the inventive instrument is impractical.

It was established experimentally that the concentration of α-phase - martensite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten - Fe48CrW implemented in the inventive instrument and equal 84,3 wt.%, 16% more concentration α-f the s in the underlying instrument.

This concentration is the maximum achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. Concentration α-phase, smaller 84,3 wt.% implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller increase in strength as compared with the baseline tool. Therefore, their use in the inventive instrument is impractical.

It was established experimentally that the concentration of carbide high speed steel Fe3W3With practically does not change under the action of ionizing radiation and is equal to about 11-12 wt.%.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in the following description.

The tool is a single entity and has no moving parts, so the tool is not described and the drawings explaining the operation of the tool, not shown.

Austenite γ-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten - Fe48CrW (γ-phase)with gracenthrowing cubic lattice required for the hardening of high-speed steels [3], but after quenching it has on the tool only negative effect, reducing its service life. Usually the concentration of austenitic steel after quenching of the products made from it, is reduced by repeated annealing (tempering steel). These anneals deteriorate the properties of hardened steel.

Experimentally set the go, the impact of ionizing radiation on the instrument, made of steel R18, reduces the concentration of austenite in it, which goes into martensite.

Check the claimed technical result was as follows. Core samples from high-speed steel R18 and samples of steel R18 subjected to radiation treatment, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. Phase composition of the steel was determined using the programs PHAN and PHAN% [4].

Example

Samples of cylindrical shape (s) of diameter 20 mm and thickness of 5 mm after heat treatment (quenching and tempering) was irradiated from the side of one of the flat bases of the penetrating radiation. Samples as non-irradiated, and irradiated, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. The results of the experiments presented in the table.

From the table it is clear that, due to radiation treatment, the concentration of the residual austenite decreases 3.25 times. The austenite transforms into martensite, so in terms of the experience of the concentration of martensite increases by 16%. The concentration of carbide high speed steel taking into account measurement errors does not change as a result of irradiation.

Table

Concentration (wt.%) martensite, austenite and carbide high speed of a hundred and Fe 3W3With samples of high speed steel brand R18 in non-irradiated sample and the sample subjected to penetrating radiation
PhaseUnirradiated sampleThe irradiated sample
α-phase72,7±5,384,3±4,0
γ-phase14,3±1,34,4±0,5
Fe3W3C13,0±1,111,3±0,6

Such a significant decrease in the concentration of the residual austenite certainly reduces the fragility of the instrument, made of steel R18, although the exact amount of reduction is difficult to make based on the data presented. Increased tool life, made of steel R18 and subjected to radiation treatment, due to the transition of austenite into martensite, it is necessary to determine experimentally.

Sources of information

1. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - S-355.

2. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - S.353 (prototype).

3. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - Pp.178-188.

4. Shelekhov E.V., T.A. Sviridova Program for x-ray analysis of polycrystals // Metallography and heat treatment of metals. - 2000. No. 8. - P.16-19.

Tool made of high speed steel brand R18, containing α-phase - martensite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten, γ-phase austenite, doped with chromium and tungsten and carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C, characterized in that the concentration of the austenite is not more than (4,4±0,5) wt.%, the concentration of martensite is not less than (84,3±4,0) wt.%, as the concentration of Fe3W3C (11,3±0,6) wt.%.



 

Same patents:
Tool made of steel // 2306207

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of steel containing as main structural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 35 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 4.3 x 10-3. Invention provides increased strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of high speed steel P6M5 containing as main strutural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome, tungsten and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 47 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 5.2 x10-3. Invention provides improved strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of quick cutting steel P18 containing ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and tungsten and carbide Fe3W3C of quick cutting steel. Mean size of blocks cc-Fe is no more than 42 nm; of Fe3 W3C blocks - no more than 32 nm. Micro-deformations of crystal lattice oc-Fe are no more than 4.7 x10-3 and micro-deformations of crystal lattice of Fe3W3C are no more than 6.5 X10-4.

EFFECT: increased strength of steel, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy, namely production of rolled bars such as calibrated round rods of medium-carbon micro-alloy steel with improved cutting ability used for making rods of automobile shock absorbers.

SUBSTANCE: rolled calibrated round rods are melted from medium-carbon micro-alloy steel containing next ingredients, mass %: carbon, 0.40 - 0.52; manganese, 0.40 - 0.95; silicon, 0.17 - 0.37; chrome, 0.01 - 0.025; sulfur, 0.020 - 0.045; vanadium, 0.005 - 0.02; aluminum, 0.03 - 0.05; calcium, 0.001 - 0.010; nitrogen, 0.005 - 0.015, nickel, no more than 0.25; copper, no more than 0.25; molybdenum, no more than 0.10; arsenic, no more than 0.08; phosphorus, no more than 0.030; iron and inevitable impurities, the balance while next relation is satisfied: calcium/sulfur is equal to 0.065 or more. Rolled piece has lamella type ferrite-pearlite structure with real size of grain 5 - 8 points and with diameter of rolled piece 10 - 30 mm. It has decarburated layer (ferrite + transition zone) consisting of no more than 1,5% of rod diameter, hardness of blank 229 - 255, temporary tensile strength no less than 640 MPa, percentage elongation no less than 6%, percentage narrowing no less than 30 %. Invention provides through calcination of rolled bars with diameter up to 30 mm.

EFFECT: improved cutting capability of steel at favorable relation of strength, ductility and viscosity, minimum anisotropy of mechanical properties at enhanced characteristics of calcination capability.

1 ex

Rail steel // 2291218

FIELD: ferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steel used in making railways. Invention proposes steel comprising the following components, wt.-%: carbon, 0.71-0.82; manganese, 0.75-1.10; silicon, 0.40-0.60; chrome, 0.70-1.20; aluminum, 0.005, not above, vanadium, 0.05-0.15; calcium, 0.0001-0.005; nitrogen, 0.005-0.015; nickel, 0.03-0.20; barium, 0.0001-0.005; strontium, 0.0001-0.005, and iron, the balance. As impurities steel can comprise, %, sulfur, 0.02, not above; phosphorus, 0.025, not above, and copper, 0.15, not above. Invention provides enhancing complex of physical-mechanical properties and exploitation strength of steel.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of steel.

2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy; production of round bars used for manufacture of shock absorber rods.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes melting steel in electric furnace, off-furnace treatment, pouring into ingot molds at protection of jet, hot rolling of ingot, thus obtaining billet followed by rolling, controlled cooling and winding bars in bundles, calibration of bars at deformation degree of 20-25%, unwinding of bars, cutting and straightening and special treatment of surface. Steel contains the following components, mass-%: carbon, 0.40-0.52; manganese, 0.40-0.95; silicon, 0.17-0.37; chromium,, 0.01-0.25; sulfur, 0.020-0.045; vanadium, 0.005-0.020; aluminum, 0.03-0.050; calcium, 0.001-0.010; nitrogen, 0.005-0.015; nickel, up to 0.25; copper, no more than 0.25; molybdenum, no more than 0.10; arsenic, no more than 0.08; phosphorus, no more than 0.030; the remainder being iron and unavoidable admixtures. Calcium-to-sulfur ratio is ≥0.065; hot rolling of merchant shaped is completed at temperature of 1000-1050°C followed by fast cooling to 880-900°C and cooling in air to 300°C. Length of bars from bundle of hot-rolled shapes reaches 6 m at accuracy of cutting of ±5 mm. Finishing of shapes includes trimming, check of surfaces for flaws and ultrasonic monitoring of internal defects, selective dressing.

EFFECT: enhanced machinability of merchant shapes; enhanced ductility and toughness.

1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy; production of merchant shapes for manufacture of spherical pins, end-pieces of rods and spherical supports for automobile suspensions.

SUBSTANCE: merchant shapes are molten from steel containing the following components, mass-%: carbon, 0.35-0.42; manganese, 0.50-0.80; silicon, 0.17-0.37; chromium, 0.80-1.10; sulfur, 0.020-0.040; vanadium, 0.005-0.020; calcium, 0.001-0.010; oxygen, 0.001-0.015; nickel, up to 0.25; copper, no more than 0.25; molybdenum, no more than 0.10; arsenic, no more than 0.08; nitrogen, no more than 0.015; the remainder being iron and unavoidable admixtures at oxygen-to-calcium ratio equal to 1-4.5 and calcium-to-sulfur ratio ≥0.065. Proposed merchant shapes contains nonmetallic inclusions of sulfide having double-layer structure; maximum contamination with nonmetallic inclusions pertaining to sulfides, oxides, silicates and nitrides does not exceed 3 points; it contains also structure consisting of 80% of granular pearlite; size of actual grain is 5-10 points at diameter ranging from 10 to 30 mm; provision is made for decarbonized layer not exceeding 1.5% of diameter, magnitude of cold upsetting is no less than 1/3 of height, rupture strength does not exceed 600 Mpa; relative elongation is no less than 18% and relative reduction in area is no less than 60%.

EFFECT: enhanced machinability at full hardenability of shapes up to 30 mm in diameter; retaining of technological ductility of steel.

1 ex

Low-alloyed steel // 2283362

FIELD: metallurgy; making of low-alloy steels for manufacture of articles operating in aggressive media containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-alloyed steel contains the following components, mass-%: carbon, 0.05-0.15; manganese, 0.40-0.65; chromium, 0.50-0.80; silicon, 0.30-0.80; vanadium, 0.04-0.09; aluminum, 0.02-0.05; the remainder being iron and admixtures. Content of admixtures is limited as follows, mass-%: nitrogen, no more than 0.008; nickel, no more than 0.30; copper, no more than 0.25; hydrogen, no more than 0.0002; total calcium/sulfur ratio shall be no less than 1. In particular case, proposed steel may contain titanium and niobium; total amount of vanadium, titanium and niobium shall not exceed 0.15 mass-%. Proposed steel may be used for manufacture of pipes and joints for handling aggressive media, watery oil and formation water in particular characterized by high degree of mineralization and containing H2S and CO2.

EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics and corrosion resistance.

2 cl, 4 tbl

Rail steel // 2259416

FIELD: ferrous metallurgy; production of rail steel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of ferrous metallurgy, in particular, to production of steel for manufacture of railway rails. The offered rail steel contains its components in the following ratio (in mass %): Carbon - 0.83-0.5; manganese - 0.6-1.1; silicon - 0.3-0.7; vanadium - 0.08-0.15; aluminum - no more than 0.005; nitrogen - 0.012-0.02; calcium -0.0005-0.005; chromium - 0.05-0.5; one of the devices sampled from a group including zirconium and REM, namely, zirconium -0.0005-0.005; REM - 0.0005-0.005; molybdenum - 0.11-0.3; nickel - 0.05-0.3, iron and impurities - the rest. The technical result of the invention is an increased complex of mechanical properties, firmness of steel and its resistance to brittle fracture, which improves operational stability of the rails. Out of the steel of a stated composition it is possible to manufacture the rails hardened both in oil and in a compressed air with a troostite structure.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased complex of the rail steel mechanical properties, firmness of the steel, its resistance to brittle fracture and production of rails with a troostite structure.

2 tbl

The invention relates to welding and for the composition of welding wire for welding and surfacing of products from high-carbon steels operating at high alternating loads, and can be used mainly when restoring components and parts railroad rolling stock
Tool made of steel // 2306207

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of steel containing as main structural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 35 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 4.3 x 10-3. Invention provides increased strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of high speed steel P6M5 containing as main strutural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome, tungsten and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 47 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 5.2 x10-3. Invention provides improved strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of quick cutting steel P18 containing ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and tungsten and carbide Fe3W3C of quick cutting steel. Mean size of blocks cc-Fe is no more than 42 nm; of Fe3 W3C blocks - no more than 32 nm. Micro-deformations of crystal lattice oc-Fe are no more than 4.7 x10-3 and micro-deformations of crystal lattice of Fe3W3C are no more than 6.5 X10-4.

EFFECT: increased strength of steel, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: tool making industry branch, namely plastic working of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in order to improve metal using factor, to increase wear resistance of tool, steel (P6M5) blank. Is heated up to 830°C and it is deformed in isothermal mode at rate 10-3 s -1 and at deformation degree 60%. Then blank is subjected to deformation at 765°C at rate 10-3 s-1 and at deformation degree 40%. According to invention strength of tool made of deformed blanks exceeds by two times strength of tool made in accordance with well known process.

EFFECT: improved strength of tool made of worked steel blank.

1 dwg, 6 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: treatment of the wear-resistant hardware products of the wear-resistant hardware products of an instrumental designation.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of treatment of the wear-resistant hardware products of an instrumental designation and may be used for increasing an operational life of gears and tools, components of machines and the devices working in conditions of cutting, friction and an abrasive wear-out. The technical result of the invention is an increase almost in two times of the wear resistance of the cemented-carbide tools or hardware products, predominantly made out of a tungsten-free metal-ceramic alloy based on titanium carbide and nickel-chromium compound (TiC-NiCr). The indicated technical result is obtained by conduct of the treatment of the effective areas of the tools or the hardware products with a pulsing high-current beam coupling with a pulse duration - 2-3 microseconds, power of electrons - 10-30 keV, density of power - 4.5-5.5 Joule/cm2 and a number of pulses - from 10 up to 30.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase almost in two times of the wear resistance of the cemented-carbide tools or hardware products.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering; aircraft industry; shipbuilding; methods of metal forming.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the methods of metal forming intended to increase durability of tool steels and may be applied in the field of mechanical engineering, aircraft industry, shipbuilding and other industries. The substance of the offered invention consists in plastic deformation of billets blanks out of a tool steel by a compression setting with a twisting till the accumulated deformation defined by the formula:

where - the critical deformation causing an intensive growth of grains of a microstructure of the steel; and - additional optimal deformations of compression and shift ensuring the maximum increase of the steel wear resistance. Application of the given invention in an industry will allow to increase rather efficiently the steel wear resistance of the steel, that may be used for production of cutting and measuring tools.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the maximum increase of wear resistance of the steel, that may be used for production of cutting and measuring tools.

FIELD: mechanical engineering; increase of wear resistance of tools by magnetic treatment.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes circulating magnetizing by transmitting electrical pulses through tools; electrical pulses are supplied to tools through melt of low-melting alloy.

EFFECT: increase of wear resistance of tools by 0.8-1.2 times.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy; engineering industry and instrument-making industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of thermal treatment of tools made out of fast-cutting steels in salt baths. The method is pertinent to the field of metallurgy and production of tools and may be used at a thermal treatment of tools made out of fast-cutting steels. The technical result from the invention is a decrease of labor input, an increase of productivity and speeding up of the production process. The technical result of the invention is achieved due to the fact, that preheating of the tools is conducted by a method, which ensures the given hardness (HRC, 36-46) on the tail part and on the working part (HRC, 62) after a final thermal treatment of the tools. The such technology of heating ensures hardnessHRC, 36-46 on the tail part of the tools without additional modes of the thermal treatment, that allows to reduce labor input, to increase labor productivity and to speed up production process. The invention also may be used in engineering industry and instrument-making industry.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease labor input, to increase productivity and to speed up production process.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method providing an increase of wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels by magnetic-pulse treatment with a preheating and an installation for its realization. The invention is dealt with the field of mechanical engineering, in particular with production of metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels by preheating and magnetic-pulse treatment. The technical result is increased wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels due to removal of internal stresses, increase of thermal conductivity, ordering of magnetic structure of a material. For achievement of the technical result conduct a preheating of the tools by high-frequency currents (HFC) with consequent action by a pulse of a magnetic field of high magnetic intensity. The method is realized by an installation containing a combined inductor with windings. At that a winding of the inductor, powered by high-frequency currents, is placed inside the winding powered by a magnetic-pulse device.

EFFECT: the invention allows to increase wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels.

3 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the technology of surface hardening a metal tool and can be applied in engineering
Tool made of steel // 2306207

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of steel containing as main structural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 35 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 4.3 x 10-3. Invention provides increased strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

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