Device for converting energy of water into electric energy

FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for converting energy of small water flows with low flow rates and heads into electric energy. Proposed device contains water wheel made up of rigidly connected drum, side walls, blades and hub rigidly connected by spokes with drum, connected by mechanical transmission through reduction gear with electric generator, bearing units, supports, water supply and water outlet systems. It is provided with water holding member installed at a distance of 5-10 mm from lower, in vertical axis, pointed of side walls from side of working part of water wheel and made radially curved with angle of enclosure equal to 150-165° and width equal to width of water wheel. Each blade of water wheel is made in form of plates consisting of two parts, with angle in between equal to 120-140° and ratio of length of one part of plate to length of other part secured on drum being 1/1.5 - 1/2.0, with angle to tangential line in place of contact of plate and drum equal to 25-45°. Number of blades is chosen to provide blade-to-blade distance over outer perimeter of side walls equal to 0.25-0.35 m. Water is installed on axle secured on supports by means of hub and bearing units. Used as electric generator is induction motor connected with automatic control system including switching and measuring equipment unit to which units of field capacitors, thyristor converter and useful load are connected and regulating, protection and control unit connected with thyristor converter unit to which ballast load and field capacitor units are connected. Mechanical transmission is made in form of chain train whose driving sprocket is secured on spokes of water wheel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, improved reliability and convenience in operation, simplified design of device.

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The invention relates to hydropower, namely, devices for energy conversion of small water streams with low cost and heads into electricity, and can be used for the supply of agricultural enterprises and small businesses located in the mountains and hard-to-reach, remote areas.

It is known a device for converting energy of water containing a water wheel, for example verhnesadovoe, rigidly connected to the drum, the side walls and vanes curved shape, power and drainage systems (I.N. Smirnov. Hydraulic turbines and pumps. A training manual for energy and polytechnics. M: "High school". - 1969. - P.8).

The disadvantage of the described device is the low coefficient of performance (COP), due to the fact that the shape of the blades of the water wheel does not ensure the retention of sufficient water in the pockets during rotation of the water wheel.

Closest to the proposed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result (prototype) is a device for converting energy of water into electricity, containing water wheel from rigidly fixed to the drum side walls, blades and hub firmly attached by spokes to drum, United mechanical transmission via a gearbox by electrogeneration, bearing, bearings, power and drainage system, water wheel through the hub and bearing assemblies mounted on the shaft, which is mounted on poles. The space bounded by two adjacent blades, drum and side walls, forms a pocket water wheel (Gerald Muller, Klemens Kauppert. Old watermills - Britain's new source of energy? // New civil engineer international. - March. - 2003. - p.21-24).

The disadvantages of the described device are low efficiency, due to the fact that the occupancy of the pockets of the water-wheel is not more than 60-70% of the maximum possible, while part of the water discharged from the pockets of the water-wheel in its rotation due to the inability of the hold, difficult to manufacture the design of the blades and the need to use them in large quantities; and operational complexity due to the use of the generator.

The invention solves the problem of increasing efficiency, reliability and easy operation, simplifying the design.

Increase efficiency, reliability and serviceability, design simplification is achieved in that the device for converting energy of water into electricity contains water wheel from rigidly fixed to the drum side walls, blades and hub firmly attached by spokes to drum, United mechanical transmission through the om gear with the generator, bearing, bearings, power and drainage systems, and is equipped with a water-retaining element, set from the bottom on the vertical axis point of the side walls from the side of the working part of the water-wheel at a distance of 5-10 mm and is made radially curved with an angle of coverage equal to 150-165°and a width equal to the width of the water-wheel, with each of the blades of a water wheel made in the form of plates of two parts, the angle between which is equal to 120-140°and the ratio of the length of one side of the plate to the length of the other part fixed to the drum, is equal to 1/1,5-1/2,0 angle to the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and drum, equal 25-45°, number of blades is selected taking into account the fact that the distance between them on the outer diameter side walls is equal to 0.25-0.35 m, and the water wheel through the hub and bearing assemblies mounted on an axis fixed to the supports, and the generator used induction motor associated with the automatic control system, including the switching unit and the measuring equipment that is connected to the blocks of the excitation capacitors, thyristor converters, useful load, and the control unit, protection and control connected with a power thyristor, connected blocks of the ballast load and the condensate is ditch excitation, meanwhile, the mechanical transmission is made in the form of a chain, a drive sprocket which is fixed to the spokes of the water-wheel.

Improving the efficiency of the device by increasing the rotational moment due to a more complete filling with water pockets water-wheel and retention of water in them when the rotation is ensured by the fact that the device is equipped with a water-retaining element, set from the bottom on the vertical axis point of the side walls from the side of the working part of the water-wheel at a distance of 5-10 mm and is made radially curved with an angle of coverage equal to 150-165°and a width equal to the width of the water-wheel, with each of the blades of a water wheel made in the form of plates of two parts, the angle between which is equal to 120-140°, and the ratio of the length of one side of the plate to the length of the other part fixed to the drum, is equal to 1/1,5-1/2,0 angle to the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and drum, equal 25-45°, number of blades is selected taking into account the fact that the distance between them on the outer diameter side walls is equal to 0.25-0.35 m, and the water wheel through the hub and bearing assemblies mounted on an axis fixed to the supports.

Increased reliability and easy operation is ensured by the fact that, as the generator used induction motor associated with what Stamou automatic control, includes the switching unit and the measuring equipment that is connected to the blocks of the excitation capacitors, thyristor converters, payload, and block the regulation, protection and control, coupled with a power thyristor, connected blocks of the ballast load and capacitor excitation, while the power transmission is made in the form of a chain, a drive sprocket which is fixed to the spokes of the water-wheel.

The simplification of the structure is achieved by reducing the number of blades made simple in manufacture of moulds.

The establishment of the retention element at a distance of 5-10 mm from the outer diameter side walls of the water-wheel is optimal, as it ensures the retention of water in the pockets to the lower turning point of the water-wheel, because with such a gap from the pockets poured a small amount of water.

The angle of coverage of the retention element equal to 150-165°is optimal and selected based on the number of blades and the outer diameter of the water wheel so that the upper edge of the retention element does not interfere with water freely to fill the pockets of the water-wheel, located in the upper working position, and the bottom edge does not interfere with the water to freely flow from the pockets of the water-wheel in the bottom-most point is the location.

The implementation of each of the blades of a water wheel in the form of plates of two parts, the angle between which is equal to 120-140°and the ratio of the length of one side of the plate to the length of the other part fixed to the drum, is equal to 1/1,5-1/2,0 angle to the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and drum, equal 25-45°is appropriate because it provides optimal Gulf water into the pockets of the water-wheel and devastation, and also contributes to the location of the center of gravity of the water in the pockets of the rotation about the horizontal plane of the water-wheel, closer to the external diameter of the side walls, which increases the rotational moment of the water-wheel and, consequently, to increase the efficiency of this device.

The distance between the blades on the outer diameter side walls equal to 0.25-0.35 m, is feasible, allowing you to choose the optimal number of blades and creating conditions for their convenient attachment to the drum and the side walls of the water-wheel, as at a distance less 0.25 m having difficulty attaching the blades, and at a distance greater than 0.35 m decreases the number of blades, which negatively affects the efficiency.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a device for converting energy of water into electricity, a longitudinal section; figure 2 is the same as the ID from above; figure 3 - the same, type 1; figure 4 shows the block diagram of the automatic control system.

In addition, figure 1 shows the angle of coverage of the retention element ϕ, figure 3 shows:

l - the distance at which the retention element is from a water wheel.

α - the angle between the two parts of the wafer;

a - the length of one side of the plate;

b - the length of the other side plate attached to the drum;

β - the angle with the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and the drum;

l1- the distance between the blades on the outer diameter side walls.

A device for converting energy of water into electricity contains water wheel, consisting of rigidly interconnected drum 1, two side walls 2, the blades 3 and the hub 4, is rigidly fastened spokes 5 and the drum 1. The water wheel is connected by a mechanical transmission, made in the form of a chain drive 6 through a reduction gear 7 with the asynchronous motor 8, which used a three-phase induction motor for General industrial use. The device also includes bearing assemblies 9, the supports 10, 11 power and drainage 12 system. The device is equipped with a water-retaining element 13, which is installed from the bottom on the vertical axis point of the side walls 2 from the side of the working part of the water-wheel on distance is (l) 5-10 mm and is made radially curved with an angle of coverage (ϕ )equal to 150-165°and a width equal to the width of the water-wheel. Water-holding element 13, made for example of sheet metal, prevents premature emptying of pockets, a water wheel and allows you to use a water wheel made not only in production but also in terms of repair shops, made with low accuracy.

Each of the blades 3 of the water-wheel in the form of flat bent plate angle (α) between the parts which is equal to 120-140°and the ratio of one part of the plate (a) to the length of the other part (b), attached to the drum 1, is equal to 1/1,5-1/2,0 angle to the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and the drum (β), equal 25-45°. The width of the blades 3 corresponds to the width of the drum 1. The blades 3 are rigidly connected to the latter in width and ends with the side walls 2. The number of blades 3 is selected taking into account the fact that the distance (l1between them on the outer diameter side walls 2 is equal to 0.25-0.35 m Blades 3 are bent against the rotation of the water wheel and the flow of falling water.

Water wheel through the hub 4 and the bearing 9 mounted on the axle 14 mounted on poles 10. Using axis 14 facilitates and simplifies the design of the proposed device.

Three-phase asynchronous motor (AD) 8 is connected with the automatic control system (the AU) 15, including block switching and measuring equipment (BCIA) 16, which connects the blocks of excitation capacitors (BKV) 17, thyristor converters (BTP) 18, payload (BNP) 19, and a control unit, protection and control (BRCU) 20 connected to the BTP 18, to which is attached a block of ballast load (BBN) 21, which is a three-phase water boiler, and BKV 17. SAU 15 is designed to stabilize the output parameters of three-phase AD 8 running in generator mode, such as amplitude and frequency of the generated voltage deviation from nominal parameters can be caused by variations in water flow and capacity payload, as well as the imbalance of the water-wheel. This sprocket chain 22 of the transmission 6 is fixed to the spokes 5 of the water-wheel and the driven sprocket 23 mounted on the low speed shaft of the two-stage gear 7, the high-speed shaft which is connected with a three-phase AD 8.

A device for converting energy of water into electricity works as follows.

Water from the reservoir (not shown) of power system 11 comes on top of the water wheel. Under the effect of gravity, the water held in the pockets of the retention element 13, the water wheel is driven into rotation around the axis 14, fixed the oops on the supports 10. Water pours out of the pockets at the lowest point of the water-wheel. Created when this rotational moment, depending on the total mass of water in the pockets of the water-wheel, is transmitted from the sprocket chain 22 of the transmission 6, mounted on the spokes of the water-wheel on the driven sprocket 23 and further from the gear 7 to the three-phase AD 8, which is a four-wire cable is connected to the SAU 15. When a certain speed of rotation of the rotor three-phase AD 8 to the stator windings through which BCIA 16 connected capacitors excitation BKV 17, at the terminals of three-phase AD 8 voltage occurs. Generated voltage with three-phase stator windings HELL 8 through BCIA 16 arrives at the BRCU 20, which generates control signals for the thyristors BTP 18, connects via BCIA 16 to three-phase AD 8 ballast load BBN 21 power corresponding to the mechanical power is transmitted to the rotor HELL 8 from a water wheel. BRCU 20 also generates control signals for the thyristors BTP 18, which produce the connection and disconnection of additional capacitors BKV 17 for stabilizing the frequency of generated voltage. When connecting to three-phase AD 8 through BCIA 16 payload BNP 19 BRCU 20 produces control signals for the thyristors BTP 18, which partially or completely disable the ballast load BBN 21 and, if necessary, p is glucat or disable incremental capacitors BKV 17, creating the three-phase terminals HELL 8 voltage of a certain amplitude and frequency.

Thus, the proposed device has a high efficiency, reliable and convenient in operation, has a long useful life, does not require the presence of qualified personnel, generates electricity with the given parameters and can be used to supply power to remote Autonomous consumers, while waterwheel simple to manufacture and may be made of metal or wood in any workshop without the use of expensive special equipment, in addition, water wheel can be operated at various pressures between 0.5 m and more.

A device for converting energy of water into electricity, containing water wheel from rigidly fixed to the drum side walls, blades and hub firmly attached by spokes to drum, United mechanical transmission via a gearbox to a generator, bearing, bearings, power and drainage system, characterized in that it is provided with a retaining element mounted on the bottom on the vertical axis point of the side walls from the side of the working part of the water-wheel at a distance of 5-10 mm and is made radially curved with an angle of coverage equal to 150-165°and a width equal to the width of the water to the ECA, each of the blades of a water wheel made in the form of plates of two parts, the angle between which is equal to 120-140°and the ratio of the length of one side of the plate to the length of the other part fixed to the drum, is equal to 1/1,5-1/2,0 angle to the tangent at the point of contact with the plate and drum, equal 25-45°, number of blades is selected taking into account the fact that the distance between them on the outer diameter side walls is equal to 0.25-0.35 m, and the water wheel through the hub and bearing assemblies mounted on an axis fixed on the supports, and the generator used induction motor associated with the automatic control system, including the switching unit and the measuring equipment that is connected to the blocks of the excitation capacitors, thyristor converters, payload, and block the regulation, protection and control, connected to the unit thyristor, connected blocks of the ballast load and capacitor excitation, while the power transmission is made in the form of a chain, a drive sprocket which is fixed to the spokes of the water-wheel.



 

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