Front-end loader with energy saving hydraulic drive of loading equipment

FIELD: construction and road building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and road-building machinery, particularly, to single-bucket front-end with hydraulic-operated loading equipment. Proposed front-end loader with energy saving hydraulic drive of loading equipment contains base chassis with portal which carries loading equipment consisting of boom, rocker, tie-rod and bucket. Limit switch installed on boom has roller which is in constant contact with cam mounted on portal. Typical hydraulic drive of loading equipment includes boom and bucket cylinders, additional boom cylinder hinge connected with portal and boom, oil tank, pneumohydraulic accumulator, hydraulic distributor and other hydraulic mechanical connected by hydraulic lines into system providing control of all operations of machine working process. Hydraulic drive of loading equipment is furnished additionally with hydraulic pump, two-position and three-position electrohydraulic spools. In initial position and in position of lifting of loading equipment to height of unloading of loose material into vehicle, pressure hydraulic line of additional hydraulic pump is connected through channel of two-position electrohydraulic spool with drain hydraulic line and rod space of additional boom cylinder, and its piston space communicates through channel of three-position of electrohydraulic spool with liquid space of pneumohydraulic accumulator. In position of unloading of bucket into vehicle, pressure hydraulic line of additional hydraulic pump communicates through channels of two-position and three-position electrohydraulic spools with rod space of bucket cylinder, and piston space of said cylinder communicates through channel of three-position electrohydraulic spool with piston space of additional boom cylinder, and in lowering position of loading equipment, like spaces of additional boom and bucket cylinders communicate through channels of three-position electrohydraulic spool.

EFFECT: increased capacity owing to reduction of power consumption, reduced time of working cycle, facilitated conditions of operation for crane operator.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of building and road machines, namely, the front shovel loaders, equipped with hydraulic loading equipment.

Known hydraulic forklift, including pumping installation, the lifting mechanism of the boom cylinder, bucket cylinder, the valves of the cylinders, distribution electrohydraulic body provided with hydraulic cylinders, and an electrical control system with switch associated with the valve cylinder boom and a switch associated with the hydraulic cylinder of the bucket, with electrohydraulic body made from connected with the cylinder of the bucket three-position valve with hydraulic control and informed with the latest electro-hydraulic valve, pressure line which is connected with the piston cylinder chamber of the boom, the electrical control system is provided with an additional switch associated with the lifting mechanism, and a switch associated with the valve cylinder boom, done two, in one of the positions of the three-position valve flow valve of the cylinder is communicated with the drain [A.S. USSR №960397, CL 02F 9/22, 1982].

When positive effects (automatic stop arrows at a given discharge height; facilitating the work of the human operator; improving performance) this solution has significant drawbacks when loading.

Typically, the loading of bulk material in the vehicle is out of loading equipment in which the boom is raised to the maximum height and bucket fully suprarenal, and ends in position completely overturned bucket. The angle of rotation of the bucket when unloading is not less than π/2. For domestic and foreign front-end loaders, working on such technology unloading of bulk material in the vehicle at the location of the loading equipment at the maximum height ratio of the heights of the location of the cutting edge of the bucket when fully thrown back and tilted positions from the reference surface of the pile is from 1.3 to 1.5.

Applied technology unloading of bulk material in the vehicle leads to negative consequences, the main ones are:

1) on the vehicle body and the vehicle are large dynamic loads due to the fact that the pieces of bulk material begin to fall from a great height;

2) in the limited altitude conditions (indoors, mines etc) unloading of bulk material can be carried out only in vehicles with low body.

And the known control system eject wall of the bucket loader, includes pump, oil tank, hydraulic bucket, push the wall and boom hydraulically connected by valves with manual and electromagnetic control elements of mechanical locks and switches, installed on the cylinders bucket, push the wall and valves. In this control system is the combination of time lifting, rotation of the bucket and the nomination eject wall during unloading of the bucket in the vehicle due to the fact that the rod and piston cavity of the cylinders of the boom and bucket hydraulically connected respectively with one and the cylinders push the wall with both valves with solenoid control, and the valves manually operated hydraulically connected with the rod cavities, respectively, of the cylinders of the boom and bucket and the corresponding valve with solenoid control [A.S. USSR №746056, CL 02F 9/22, 1980].

Although such a control system would push the wall of the bucket and has positive effects (increased productivity by integrating in time of lifting, rotating bucket and extension eject wall during the unloading of the bulk material in the vehicle, and the possibility of discharge of the material in the higher vehicles is about, as history is made in the horizontal position of the bottom of the bucket), but it has significant disadvantages, which are as follows.

1) the Introduction of additional hydromechanical (electro-hydraulic spools, switches, hydraulic cylinders push the walls of the bucket) complicated design hydraulic loading equipment.

2) the introduction of the ejector walls and cylinders governance of the wall of the complicated design of the bucket. Because the bucket has become more severe, the energy consumption for the unloading of bulk material in the vehicle is increased.

Known technical solutions closest to the technical nature of the claimed object is a hydraulic lifting the front of the truck, including the cylinders, a distributor, a hydropneumatic accumulator communicated with the piston cavity of one of the cylinders via the distribution unit, and the cylinder is provided with a hydropneumatic accumulator shifted in the direction of the base boom, and the distribution unit is made in the form of a valve with the control chamber, which is connected with a pressure line (A.S. USSR №804793, CL 02F 9/22, 1981).

Using this technical solution allows to reduce the energy consumption when lifting and loading equipment at height & other fix spot labeling the key of the bulk material in the vehicle and to improve performance. However, as previously discussed technical solutions (A.S. USSR №960397, CL 02F 9/22, 1982; A.S. USSR №746056, CL 02F 9/22, 1980), unloading of the bulk material in the vehicle is out of loading equipment in which the boom is raised to the maximum height and bucket fully suprarenal, and ends in position completely overturned bucket.

Thus, the known technical solutions do not provide for the unloading of bulk material in the vehicle with the minimum required in this process the energy that ultimately leads to poor performance front-end loader

The objective of the invention is to improve the performance of front-end loader by reducing power consumption when the bucket is being raised to the position of discharge of the bulk material in the vehicle, reducing the working time cycle, facilitating the work of the human operator while reducing the dynamic loads on the vehicle in the process of loading it loose material.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the hydraulic loading equipment have been added to the hydraulic pump, two-position and three-position electro-hydraulic valve, in this case: in the initial position and the position of the lifting pogresan the equipment up to the height of unloading the bulk material in the vehicle lifting hydroline additional hydraulic pump through the channel on-off electro-hydraulic valve communicated with the drain hydroline and rod cavity for more on the boom cylinder, and its piston cavity through the channel of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve is in communication with the fluid cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator; in the unload position of the bucket in the vehicle lifting hydroline additional hydraulic pump through the channels of the two-position and three-position electro-hydraulic spools communicated with the rod cavity of the bucket cylinder, and the piston chamber of the cylinder through the channel of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve is in communication with the piston cavity additional boom cylinder; the position of the lowering of the loading equipment of the same cavity for more on the boom and bucket cylinders communicated with the channels of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve.

In comparison with the known technical solutions proposed technical solution has the following advantages:

1. Increases performance by reducing power consumption when the bucket is being raised to the position of discharge of the bulk material in the vehicle.

2. Facilitates the work of the human operator due to the fact that the control of the lifting and tipping bucket is effected by a single handle valve boom.

3. Reduced cycle times due to combined the I in time operations of lifting and tipping bucket during unloading of the granular material in the vehicle.

4. Facilitates the work of the human operator due to the fact that the management lowering the boom to transport position and crowding the bucket on "yourself" is a single handle valve boom.

5. Reduced cycle times by integrating in time the operations of lowering the boom when it is installed in the transport position and supraciliary bucket on yourself.

6. Reduced dynamic loads on the vehicle side of the bulk material in the process of unloading due to the fact that the unloading is carried out when the boom is raised not at the maximum value.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where: figure 1 shows a front loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment at the time when the cutting edge of the bucket is at a height of hrunloading of bulk material in the vehicle; figure 2 shows a front loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment in an intermediate position of the unloading of bulk material in the vehicle. At this time the bottom of the ladle is located horizontally; figure 3 shows the front-end loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment at the final time of the unloading of bulk material in transport with estvo, when the bucket is completely overturned. At this point in time, the boom is raised to the maximum height. The hinge connection of the boom with bucket is at a height of hstmaxfrom the supporting surface of the truck; figure 4 shows a diagram of the energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment at the time when the bucket is in the transport position; figure 5 shows a diagram of the electrical switches control the lifting and lowering of the arrows; figure 6 shows the circuit of an electro-hydraulic spools and electrical contacts of a limit switch and the electrical contacts of the switches control the lifting and lowering of the boom in the electrical control circuit of energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment.

Front loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment (see figure 1) contains the base chassis 1 with portal 2, which established loading equipment, which includes a boom 3, an arm 4, a rod 5, the bucket 6. Loading equipment is driven Executive hydromechanically typical hydraulic drive. Executive hydromechanically are a boom cylinder 7 and the bucket cylinder 8. Typical hydraulic loading equipment is improved by introducing an additional boom cylinder 9, the United States is m articulated with portal 2 and arrow 3. In addition, the boom mounted on the bracket 10, which is fixed to the leaf switch 11, and the roller limit switch is continuously in contact with the Cam 12, located on portal 2.

Figure 1 is a used legend: hr- the height of the cutting edge of the bucket above the support surface of the truck, which unload the bulk material in the vehicle; (hstr- the height of the hinge connection of the boom with bucket above the support surface of the front loader at the beginning of the unloading of bulk material in the vehicle; Vn- the speed of the base chassis; VssVdss- speed rods respectively jib cylinder 7 and an additional boom cylinder 9.

In addition to the previously used notation used in figure 2 legend: Vks- the speed of movement of the piston rod of the bucket cylinder; hst- the height of the hinge connection of the boom with bucket above the support surface of the front loader at a horizontal location of the bottom of the bucket.

Scheme of energy saving hydraulic loading equipment front loader (see figure 4) contains a typical hydraulic actuator 13 includes a valve 14, a boom 7 and the bucket 8 cylinders, the oil tank 15 and other hydromechanics is the mechanism connected by a hose to a system which allows control of all process steps of the working cycle of the machine (raising and lowering of the loading equipment, as well as crowding and tilting bucket). In a typical hydraulic actuator 13 additional hydraulic pump 16, additional : cylinder 9, the hydropneumatic accumulator 17, a two-position electro-hydraulic slide valve 18, the valve 19 and the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20, connected by a hose 21-33.

In the initial position, shown in figure 4, the hydraulic pump 16 hydroline 21 is connected with the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13. Pressure hydroline 22 of the hydraulic pump 16 through the channel electrohydraulic two-position slide valve 18 and hydroline 23 is connected with a locked channel three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20. In addition, pressure hydroline 22 is connected by hydroline 24 with a locked channel electrohydraulic two-position slide valve 18 and hydroline 25 with safety valve 19, which drain hydroline 26 communicated with hydroline 21.

Hydroline 23 reported by hydroline 27 with the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13 and through hydroline 28 with the rod cavity for more on the boom cylinder 9. Locked channels electrohydraulic two-position zo is etnica 18 and the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 reported by hydroline 29.

Piston chamber additional boom cylinder 9 through hydroline 30, outdoor channel three-position electro-hydraulic spool 20 and hydroline 31 communicated with the hydraulic cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 17. Locked channels three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 hose 32, 33 communicated respectively with the rod and the piston cavities of the bucket cylinder 8.

Electrical switches 34, 35 (see figure 5) control respectively the lifting and lowering of the boom is set in a typical hydraulic actuator 13 loading equipment of the truck, namely the valve 14 on the handle of the valve to control the lifting and lowering of the boom.

The switching circuit (see Fig.6) contains two electrical path 36, 37 which are connected to the onboard power source 38.

The electrical circuit of the circuit 36 in the direction from the onboard power source 38 of series-connected normally open contact 39 of the electrical switch 34 and normally open contact 40 of a limit switch installed on the loader boom. In this same circuit is further connected in parallel to the coils 41, 42, respectively, of a bistable electro-hydraulic slide valve 18 and the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20.

The electrical circuit of the circuit 37 sequentially enabled the normally open contact 43 of switch 35, normally open contact 44 of a limit switch installed on the loader boom, and the coil 45 of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20.

Working front loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment is as follows.

In the initial position (before unloading the bulk material in the vehicle) cargo handling equipment with upturned bucket and which is in the final bulk material is in transport position. Front loader with velocity Vnapproaching vehicle. At this time, the human operator has no effect on the control arm energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment. The elements of the hydraulic drive are in the positions shown in figure 4-6.

All provisions of the loading equipment roller limit switch 11 (see Fig 1) is in contact with the Cam profile 12 that is installed on the portal of the truck. The profile of the Cam 12 is designed so that in the transport position, the loading equipment electrical contact 40 (see Fig.6)included in the circuit 36, normally open and the electrical contact 44, which circuit 37, normally open. As a two-position electro-hydraulic valve 18 (see figure 4) is not included, the working of the LM is the bone of the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13 on the hydroline 21 enters an additional hydraulic pump 16. Then the working fluid from the secondary hydraulic pump 16 to the hydroline 22, through the channel of the two-position electro-hydraulic slide valve 18 and the hose 23, 27, 28 is supplied respectively to the locked channel, three-position electro-hydraulic spool 20, is discharged into the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13, is fed into the rod cavity for more on the boom cylinder 9. Because the piston chamber additional boom cylinder 9 through hydroline 30, channel three-position electro-hydraulic spool 20 and hydroline 31 communicated with the fluid cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 17, the pressure of the working fluid in the piston cavity (this pressure equals the pressure in the hydropneumatic accumulator) greater than the pressure of the working fluid in the rod end (this pressure equals the pressure of the working fluid in the drain hydroline 27), therefore, additional : cylinder 9 unloads with a boom cylinder 7 typical hydraulic actuator 13. The pressure of the working fluid in the piston cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 17 are selected so that : additional cylinder 9 kept loading equipment with the load in the bucket in the equilibrium position is at a maximum during rod jib cylinders.

With continued movement of the front loader with velocity Vnto the place where RA is the load for lifting and loading equipment on the discharge height h r(see figure 1) granular material in the vehicle operator person includes the handle of the valve control shaft in the valve 14 (see figure 5) typical hydraulic loading equipment 13 for lifting the boom and at the same time includes a switch 34. In this closes the electrical contact 39 (see Fig.6) in the circuit 36 and is lifting and loading equipment strelovymi cylinder 7 (see figure 4). Working jib cylinder is provided by a typical hydraulic loading equipment and not described in detail here. As dip 18 thermostat 20 electrohydraulic valves remain in the positions shown in figure 4, the working fluid from the fluid cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 17 under pressure of hydroline 31, channel three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 and hydroline 30 enters the piston cavity additional boom cylinder 9. The working fluid from the rod end extra boom cylinder 9 through the hose 28, 27 is discharged into the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13. As a result, the piston rod additional boom cylinder 9 is ejected with velocity Vdss(see figure 1). As noted previously, additional : cylinder 9 when lifting and loading equipment partially unloads arrow is haunted cylinders 7, facilitating the operation of the engine of the truck, and, consequently, increasing the velocity Vssmovement of the rod jib cylinder 7. This leads to a reduction of the working time cycle front loader, and hence to improve its performance.

When lifting the hinge connection of the boom 3 with bucket 6 to a height of hstr(see figure 1) the cutting edge of the bucket is at a height of hrunloading of bulk material in the vehicle. At this time, the roller limit switch 11 runs onto the Cam profile 12 and closes an electrical contact 40 (see Fig.6) in the circuit 36 and the electrical contact 44 in the circuit 37. Because the electrical contacts 39, 40 in the circuit 36 are closed, the electric current from the power source 38 is supplied to the coil 41 electrohydraulic two-position slide valve 18 and the coil 42 of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20.

As a result, the rod electrohydraulic two-position valve 18 (see figure 4) is moved to the rightmost position, and the rod of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 is moved to its extreme upper position. In this situation rods electro-hydraulic spools 18, 20, the working fluid from the secondary hydraulic pump 16 through the hose 22, 24, channel two-position electro-hydraulic slide valve 18, hydroline 29, channel three is ositional electrohydraulic valve 20 and hydroline 32 enters the rod cavity of the bucket cylinder 8. Of the piston cavity of the bucket cylinder 8, the working fluid in the hydroline 33, channel three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 and hydroline 30 enters the piston cavity additional boom cylinder 9. As the piston chamber of the bucket cylinder 8 is communicated only with the piston cavity additional boom cylinder 9, the stroke bucket cylinder depends only on the spindle stroke additional boom cylinder. Such connection of the piston cavities of the bucket and additional boom cylinder provides unambiguous kinematic coordination of the rotation of the bucket for unloading bulk material in a vehicle with lifting.

Supply additional hydraulic pump 16 pick of the conditions for simultaneous lifting and rotation of the bucket on the rollover did not occur the phenomenon of cavitation in the piston cavities of the bucket 8 and the additional boom cylinder 9. As an additional hydraulic pump 16 delivers the pressure in hydroline 22 working fluid slightly more than required to fill the rod end of the bucket cylinder 8, the excess of hydroline 25, the channel of the safety valve 19 and hydroline 26 merges into hydroline 21 communicated with the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13 and the suction inlet of the additional hydraulic pump 16.

r(see figure 1-3)less than in the known technical solutions (A.S. USSR №960397, CL 02F 9/22, 1982; A.S. USSR №746056, CL 02F 9/22, 1980; A.S. USSR №804793, CL 02F 9/22, 1981).

As the unloading of bulk material from the bucket in the vehicle is not fully raised, the boom, the energy consumption for the operation of the operating cycle is reduced in comparison with the known technical solutions. This reduces and the pressure of the working fluid in the jib cylinder 7, as in the process of lifting involved : additional cylinder 9. This increases the service life of flexible hoses in a typical hydraulic loading equipment. In addition, by integrating in time the lifting and rotation of the bucket is reduced cycle times-loader, which leads to increased performance.

Unloading of bulk material in the vehicle (see figure 3) ends at the time when the hinge connection of the boom with bucket raised to a maximum height of hstmaxand the bucket is completely overturned. In this position, loading equipment the profile of the Cam 12 acts on the roller limit switch 11 and opens the electrical contact 4 (see 6) in the circuit 36. As a result, the coil 41 electrohydraulic two-position slide valve 18 and the coil 42 of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 is de-energized. Electrohydraulic valves 18, 20 occupy the original position shown in figure 4.

After unloading the bulk material from the bucket loading equipment installed in the transport position. For the operations of the business cycle front-end loader operator person includes the handle of the valve control shaft in the valve 14 (see figure 5) typical hydraulic loading equipment 13 for lowering the boom and at the same time includes a switch 35. In this closes the electrical contact 43 (see Fig.6) in the circuit 37. Since the electrical contact end 44 of the switch is also closed, the coil 45 of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 is raised and the stem of this valve is moved to the lowest position. The lowering of the loading equipment is strelovymi cylinder 7 (see figure 4) typical hydraulic actuator 13 and not described in detail here. When lowering the boom in the transport position the working fluid from the piston cavity additional boom cylinder 9 to the hydroline 30, channel three-position electro-hydraulic valve is 20 and hydroline 33 is pressed into the piston cavity of the bucket cylinder 8. From the rod end of the bucket cylinder 8, the working fluid in the hydroline 32, channel three-position electro-hydraulic spool 20 and the hose 23, 28 is pressed into the rod cavity for more on the boom cylinder 9. Excess fluid from the rod end of the bucket cylinder 8 is discharged into the oil tank 15 typical hydraulic actuator 13 to the hose 23, 27.

Thus, simultaneously with the lowering of the boom in the transport position and is crowding the bucket. By integrating in time the movements of the boom and bucket reduced cycle times front-end loader, and therefore, the more his performance.

Full crowding the empty bucket on the "self" comes at a time when the hinge connection of the boom with bucket is at a height of hstr(see figure 1). At this altitude the electrical contact 44 (see Fig.6) in the circuit 37 is opened, the three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 is de-energised and installed in its original position (see figure 4). Upon further lowering of the loading equipment to the transport position, the working fluid from the piston cavity additional boom cylinder 9 to the hydroline 30, channel three-position electro-hydraulic valve 20 and hydroline 31 is pressed into the liquid cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 17, charging the latter./p>

It should be noted that the hydropneumatic accumulator 17 is involved in raising and lowering the loading equipment only to the size of the hstrthe location of the hinge connection of the boom with a bucket from the supporting surface of front loader (see figure 1).

In the known technical solutions (A.S. USSR №960397, CL 02F 9/22, 1982; A.S. USSR №746056, CL 02F 9/22, 1980, A.S. USSR №804793, CL 02F 9/22, 1981) installation of material handling equipment in the transport position by sequential execution of two operations. The first operation is crowding the bucket on "yourself". The second operation - lowering the boom to transport position. In comparison with the known technical solutions proposed device has the advantage that the management operations sapacitabine bucket on oneself and lower the boom to transport position is accomplished by a single control handle. So how is the alignment in time of the operations of rotation of the bucket and lowering the boom, reduced cycle times and facilitates the work of the human operator.

Thus, the proposed revision of typical hydraulic loading equipment can improve the performance of front-end loader by reducing power consumption when the bucket is being raised to the position of unloading bulk material transport in the tool, to reduce cycle times, to facilitate the working conditions of the human operator while reducing the dynamic loads on the vehicle in the process of loading it loose material.

Front loader with energy-saving hydraulic loading equipment containing basic chassis with the portal, running, loading equipment consisting of a boom, arm, traction control, bucket mounted on the boom limit switch, roller which is continuously in contact with the Cam, located on the portal, the typical hydraulic loading equipment, including boom and bucket cylinders, additional : cylinder, pivotally connected with the portal and boom, oil tank, hydropneumatic accumulator, valve and hydromechanics connected by a hose to a system which allows control of all process steps of the working cycle of the machine, characterized in that the hydraulic loading equipment have been added to the hydraulic pump, two-position and three-position electro-hydraulic valve, in this case, in the initial position and the position of the lifting and loading equipment to the height of the unloading of bulk material in the vehicle, pressure hydroline additional hydraulic pump across the channel on-off electro-hydraulic valve communicated with the drain hydroline and rod cavity additional boom cylinder, and its piston cavity through the channel of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve is in communication with the fluid cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator, in the unload position of the bucket in the vehicle lifting hydroline additional hydraulic pump through the channels of the two-position and three-position electro-hydraulic spools communicated with the rod cavity of the bucket cylinder, and the piston chamber of the cylinder through the channel of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve is in communication with the piston cavity for more on the boom cylinder, the position of the lowering of the loading equipment of the same cavity for more on the boom and bucket cylinders communicated with the channels of the three-position electro-hydraulic valve.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction engineering and mining machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to drives of cyclic action machines. Propose hydraulic drive includes power motor, flywheel, pumping set, hydraulic motor regulated to "p=Const", hydraulic motors of actuating mechanisms valves "OR" installed between pressure and drain main lines of hydraulic motors of actuating mechanisms, distributing equipment and tank. Pumping set is made two-section. Shaft of one section of pumping set is mechanically coupled with shaft of power motor, and shaft of other section is mechanically coupled with shaft of hydraulic motor and flywheel, and flywheel is coupled with shaft of motor by overrunning clutch.

EFFECT: improved reliability and economy of drive owing to provision of constant loading of motor.

1 dwg

FIELD: boom earth-shifting, mining, construction and other cyclic handling machinery provided with wheels or caterpillars.

SUBSTANCE: balancing device comprises working implement, main hydraulic cylinder and balancing pneumohydrocylinder. The pneumohydrocylinder includes piston cavity communicated with gas cylinder. Device also has working liquid distribution means, hydraulic pump provided with parallel main hydraulic cylinder and pneumohydrocylinder installed in the hydraulic pump and brought together with respect to longitudinal axis of working implement symmetry. In accordance with the first embodiment working liquid distribution means is installed to alternately communicate working cavities of main hydraulic cylinders with hydraulic pump and with hydraulic reservoir inlet. In the second embodiment working liquid distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinder with each other and with hydraulic pump in the first slide position, wherein main hydraulic cylinder dimension ratio is selected to provide ratio of square of piston diameter to square of shaft diameter equal to 2. In accordance with the third embodiment main working liquid distribution means provides alternate communication of main hydraulic cylinder working cavities with hydraulic pump and with hydraulic reservoir inlet, wherein additional distribution means is installed to provide connection of working cavities of main hydraulic cylinder with each other and with hydraulic pump in the first slide position. In the forth embodiment main distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinder with each other and with hydraulic pump in the first slide position, as well as with each other and with hydraulic reservoir inlet in the second slide position, wherein additional distribution means is installed to connect shaft end of balancing pneumohydrocylinder with hydraulic reservoir inlet in the first slide position and with hydraulic pump in the second slide position.

EFFECT: simplified structure, extended range of functional capabilities and increased rate of working implement lifting and lowering.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly cyclic machine drives.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic drive comprises pump, hydraulic monitor controlled by means of following slide. Above components are brought into rotation by power engine with flywheel. Hydraulic drive also has hydraulic cylinders for executive tools including hydraulic cylinder for working equipment, check valves installed between pressure and drainage pipelines of hydraulic cylinders for executive tools, distribution means including three-position distributor and three-position distributor control unit, as well as tank. Hydraulic drive is provided with two two-position slides. Control cavity of one two-position slide is connected to piston cavity of hydraulic cylinder. Control cavity of another two-position slide is communicated with control cavity of distributor. Inlet of the first two-position slide is connected with control unit, outlet thereof is linked to control cavity of distributor. Another outlet of the first two-position slide is connected to inlet of the second two-position slide having the first outlet linked to tank and the second outlet communicated with control cavity of following slide.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of the drive due to pumpback of lifted working equipment potential energy into the drive.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly hydraulic drives of earth-moving machines.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises hydraulic pump, hydraulic reservoir, hydraulic cylinders for bucket drive, front gate, rear wall, as well as pressure valve with filling-up hydraulic cylinder having rod end communicated with hydraulic reservoir. Serially arranged between hydraulic pump and blind side of filling-up hydraulic cylinder are electrically driven two-position two-way valve member, check valve, hydraulic accumulator with pressure relay and hydrocontrolled two-position two-way and four-way valve members. Two-way and four-way valve members have control cavities communicated with rod end of rear wall drive hydraulic cylinder. Opened line of electrically driven two-way valve member connects hydraulic pump and blind side of filling-up hydraulic cylinder through check valve, hydraulic accumulator, pressure relay and opened lines of two-position two-way and four-way valve members. Closed line of hydrocontrolled two-position four-way valve member disconnects hydraulic pump and rod end of filling-up hydraulic cylinder. All inlets and outlets are connected with each other through the four-way valve member in the second position.

EFFECT: decreased power inputs for filling-up hydraulic cylinder operation due to possibility of hydraulic accumulator usage.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator and connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.

EFFECT: decreased load to be applied to blade system during earth cutting as central section is in central and extreme positions, provision of automatic installation of above section in side blade plane and in extreme positions.

9 dwg

FIELD: earth moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic drives of draw-booster gears of tractor-drawn scrapers. Proposed hydraulic drive contains pump, hydraulic tank, hydraulic cylinder, pressure valve connected in parallel with hydraulic cylinder, and hydraulic distributor. Hydraulic drive contains additionally hydraulic accumulator, time relay, check valve, pressure valve is provided with control line, and hydraulic cylinder has control arm engaging with two-position spool whose input is connected with pump and output, through time relay, with hydraulic accumulator and control line of pressure valve and with input of check valve whose output is connected to input of pressure valve.

EFFECT: provision of automatic continuous increase of adhesion weight of tractor of scraper when digging.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, mechanical engineering, possible use in system for controlling caterpillar drive of mining machine.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system contains pumps for caterpillar drive and pump, feeding system of working functions of machine, hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive, driving hydro-motors and working mains, two controllable check valves and hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions. Outlet channels of hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions are connected to inlet channels of controllable check valves, which are connected between each other. Outlet channels of these valves are connected to working mains of driving hydro-motors and hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive.

EFFECT: possible movement of mining machine in case of breakdown of driving pumps at the expense of influx of working liquid from pump driving system normally used for working functions of machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving facilities; hydraulic drives of scraper working members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic drive contains pressure spool installed in parallel with like spaces of two hydraulic cylinders, pressure main line connected between two check valves, free outlet of check valve being connected with inlet of pressure spool and one hydraulic cylinder. Free inlet is connected with outlet of pressure spool and other hydraulic cylinder, drum main line connects opposite spaces of hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic drive is furnished with two series-connected pressure spools. Inlet of first pressure spool and outlet of second pressure spool are connected with outlet of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool. Their common line is connected with controllable space of second hydraulic cylinder and is separated by check valve from pressure main line. Inlets of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool are connected to outputs of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool and are connected with controllable spaces of first and second hydraulic cylinders. One inlet of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool is connected with inlet of pressure spool and is connected to pressure line through check valve, and second inlet is separated from pressure line by other check valve. Control spaces of two hydraulically controlled reversible spools are united and are connected to pressure main line through two-position spool.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of scraper blade system.

4 dwg

FIELD: handling machinery, particularly soil-shifting, mining, agricultural and loading cyclic machines.

SUBSTANCE: device includes implement, main hydraulic cylinders and balancing hydraulic cylinder, at least one gas cylinder and hydropneumatic accumulator, main and additional hydrodistributors, as well as safety valve. Gas cylinder communicates with gas chamber of hydropneumatic accumulator. Device made in the first embodiment has the second additional hydrodistributor connecting working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with pump. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder communicates with rod ends of the main ones. In the second embodiment additional hydraulic cylinder is arranged in main hydrodistributor case and connected to hydrolines of the main hydraulic cylinders through hydrolines. Additional hydrodistributor is installed so that additional hydrodistributor may connect working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with the pump when additional hydrodistributor is installed in the first position. Additional hydrodistributor being installed in the second position may connect working chambers of main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with drain. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with rod ends of main hydraulic cylinders.

EFFECT: increased machine productivity due to increased implement hoisting speed.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulically driven dredgers.

SUBSTANCE: drive comprises power plant with controlled power pumps having servo control taps, gear-box, hydraulic motors and hydraulic equipment. Hydraulic equipment has hydraulic distributor with address travel spool and its servo control taps, power hydraulic lines and servo control loop with hydraulic lines. The controlled power pumps may supply predetermined volume of working liquid at zero pressure in servo control lines thereof. Hydraulic lines for servo control of address travel spool have additional circuit including control unit, servo control lines and logical hydraulic OR valve with two inlet and one outlet taps. Hydraulic lines of servo control circuit included in additional loop are connected with inlet taps of hydraulic OR valve having outlet tap communicated with servo control taps of address travel spool.

EFFECT: provision of no-failure gear actuation in standing still dredger.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulic systems for mobile machines.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises hydraulic reservoir, controllable hydraulic pump with load-sensitive control slide, power hydraulic line protected with safety valve, main hydraulic distributor with three-position slide having one pressure supply means, two discharge lines, two working outlet means and line, which provides connection of each working outlet means with LS line, attached to control slide. The hydraulic system is provided with pressure control valve and with controllable reducing valve installed in LS line. Input and output of reducing valve are connected to hydraulic distributor and control slide correspondingly. Control line of reducing valve is linked to pressure control valve outlet. Inlet and discharge line of the pressure control valve are connected with power hydraulic line and with hydraulic reservoir correspondingly.

EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and reliability.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving, mining, building machines and other wheeled and caterpillar handling periodically acting machines.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises working implement, main and balancing hydraulic cylinders, gas cylinder, main and additional working liquid distribution means. The piston cavity of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with gas cylinder. Additional distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinders one with another and with hydraulic pump during implement lifting.

EFFECT: increased working implement lifting speed without pump and system parameter change.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, mechanical engineering, possible use in system for controlling caterpillar drive of mining machine.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system contains pumps for caterpillar drive and pump, feeding system of working functions of machine, hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive, driving hydro-motors and working mains, two controllable check valves and hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions. Outlet channels of hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions are connected to inlet channels of controllable check valves, which are connected between each other. Outlet channels of these valves are connected to working mains of driving hydro-motors and hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive.

EFFECT: possible movement of mining machine in case of breakdown of driving pumps at the expense of influx of working liquid from pump driving system normally used for working functions of machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic drives of draw-booster gears of tractor-drawn scrapers. Proposed hydraulic drive contains pump, hydraulic tank, hydraulic cylinder, pressure valve connected in parallel with hydraulic cylinder, and hydraulic distributor. Hydraulic drive contains additionally hydraulic accumulator, time relay, check valve, pressure valve is provided with control line, and hydraulic cylinder has control arm engaging with two-position spool whose input is connected with pump and output, through time relay, with hydraulic accumulator and control line of pressure valve and with input of check valve whose output is connected to input of pressure valve.

EFFECT: provision of automatic continuous increase of adhesion weight of tractor of scraper when digging.

3 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.

EFFECT: decreased load to be applied to blade system during earth cutting as central section is in central and extreme positions, provision of automatic installation of above section in side blade plane and in extreme positions.

9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

Up!