Method for pickling of sheepskin-fur raw material

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, process for pickling of sheepskin fur coats and raw fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling fur sheepskins in solution such as sour-milk composition having titratable acidity of at least 300 T, lactic acid concentration of at least 25 g/dm3 and medium active reaction below 3.5; providing said process at temperature of 30±2 C during 16 hours at variable mechanical action, with liquid to acid ratio of 7, sodium chloride consumption of 20 g/dm3.

EFFECT: improved quality of fur sheepskins due to reduced curling of hair-covering and improved elastoplastic properties thereof.

4 tbl, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production during the process of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials.

The known method of pickling using sodium chloride (40 g/DM3), acetic acid (up to 3.0 and 1.5 g/DM3respectively) (see processing Technology fur sheepskin. M: Createrepo, 1988. - 200 C.).

The disadvantage of this method with the use of known composition is that in this method the influence of acids exposed hair fur semi-finished product. Because of the action of the acids there is a change in the hydrogen and salt bonds in the structure of keratin, resulting in weakened hair structure.

The known method of pickling fur processing of raw materials at 40-50°a composition containing sulfuric or acetic acid, salt. Pickling is carried out in conjunction with the tanning, which leads to additional introduction in a solution of chromic extract, hyposulfite, sodium carbonate and excipients OP-10, when the processing duration fur 9-12 h and volume ratio (LCD) 9-11 (see Aronia YU. and other Technology fur. M., 1974. - 152 C.).

The disadvantage of this method is the formation of large quantities of wastewater, as well as carrying out the process at elevated is emperature, that leads to higher costs of electricity.

The main disadvantage of the above methods is the formation of strongly acidic wastewater (pH<4,5) after acid-salt treatment. Note the high mineralizovannoi these waters after technological processes, as the average consumption of sodium chloride is 40 g/DM3and the degree of improvement - not more than 10%.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is a method of pickling, based on the fact that the first stage of pickling spend pikelny solution containing lactic acid and sulphuric acid, and the second in the presence of the enzyme preparation is andprecautions in an amount of 0.1-0.3 g/DM3(see Ed. certificate No. 549474 from 11.08.75, M. CL.2SS 1/04. The method of processing furs /Dianova OP, Martakos A.A., Shishkova, A.N., Vdovin LD).

The disadvantage of this method is the high complexity, a significant amount of wastewater, and the use in the first stage, the sulfuric acid can cause negative processes in the hair structure.

The problem to be solved in the present invention is the development of the technology of pickling using milk compositions with reduced consumption of sodium chloride and exclusion from the labour baths aggressive KIS is on, in particular sulfuric.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of fur skins by reducing sunset hair and improve their elastoplastic properties.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials, which consists in processing pikelny solution according to the invention as pixellogo solution using milk composition having a value of titratable acidity of not less than 300°T, the concentration of lactic acid is not less than 25 g/DM3or a pH of at least 3.5; however, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 30±2°, duration 16 h, AC mechanical action, LC=7, the consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials is its biotechnological processing in a dairy composition having a high value of titratable acidity, allowing to reduce the consumption of sodium chloride to 50%, without additional introduction of mineral and/or organic acids. The effect of pickling due to the presence of lactic acid in the composition, accumulating in the process of involvement in the metabolism of lactose. In the symbiotic effects of cultures of microorganisms and mo is full of acid, contained in milk composition, is the effect on collagen fibers and their subsequent loosening and lowering of pH of aqueous extract.

The presence in the composition of lactic acid bacteria, removes fat from the surface of the hair without having their deposition on the surface of the fur and leather. The treatment is carried out at a temperature of 30±2°, duration 16 h, AC mechanical action, the value of LC=7 and the consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

Selecting the conduct biotechnological pickling due to technical result underlying the developed method, namely: optimal loosening of the collagen fibers of the dermis without the formation of acid plumping and weakening the connection of the hair with Koshevoy cloth. Optimal loosening of the collagen fibers is achieved if the dairy composition has a value of titratable acidity of not less than 300°So the Decrease in titratable acidity up to 200°T and more requires an increase in the duration of treatment up to 48-72 hours, which may cause the putrefactive processes, smell, and weakening the connection of the hair with Koshevoy cloth. Reducing consumption of sodium chloride by more than 50% causes acid plumping, snizeni the elastoplastic properties of the finished sheepskin. The processing temperatures should be in the range of 30±2°as the decrease or increase it can cause a decrease in metabolicheskikh processes of microorganisms. The processing of sheepskin milk composition for 16 h provides optimal loosening of the collagen fibers and the preparation of a semifinished product for tanning. Reducing the duration of treatment may cause insufficient loosening of the collagen fibers, and this may cause during the process of tanning the binding of chromium compounds in the upper layers of the dermis and the occurrence of such defect, as Narodov. While the increase in processing time more than 16 hours may cause the beginning of putrefactive processes and occurrence of defect - teclast hair.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by symptoms that are identical to all the essential features of the claimed method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, which is closer to the totality of symptoms analogue, has allowed to establish the essential about the wearing perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features, set forth in the claims.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the conditions of "novelty" and "inventive step".

To perform the present invention is a method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials were carried out semiindustrial studies, which were identified modes of cultivation of lactic acid compositions, the optimum value of titratable acidity, the concentration of sodium chloride in pikelner solution, the duration of the pickling, the number of input composition.

Milk composition is prepared on the basis of secondary products of the dairy industry, namely pasteurized cheese whey, and/or fat-free milk with a fat content of 0.1% and 0.05%, respectively. The cultivation is carried out with the use of pasteurized skim milk at a temperature of 22±2°C for 5 days with periodic mechanical impact (twice a day for 15 min). Upon reaching values of titratable acidity KMC 280-300°T add the whey and cottage cheese and skim milk pasteurized in the total number of 100 cm3within 13 days, gradually increasing the amount of whey and cottage cheese to completely eliminate pasteurized skim milk. At the end of cultivation carried out OC the GCC values of titratable acidity, which should be at least 300°T or active acidity (pH) of not more than 3.5. The parameters of the finished milk composition are presented in table 1.

Table 1
The name of the parameterQuantitative expression
1. Titratable acidity, °Tat least 300
2. The concentration of lactic acid, g/DM3at least 25
3. Active reaction medium, pHnot less than 3.5
4. The ratio of microorganisms in milk compositions (KMK) (mesophilic lactic streptococci: thermophilic lactic acid bacteria:lactobacilius yeast, acetic acid bacteria):
- KMK obtained by culturing kefir grains in pasteurized fat-free milk1:2:0.25 to:0
- KMK obtained by culturing kefir grains in pasteurized cheese whey1:1:0.25 to:0
- KMK obtained by culturing krugovoy ferment in pasteurized fat-free milk2:1:1:1
- KMK obtained by culturing krugovoy ferment in pasteurized cheese savored the 2:0,5:0,5:0,5

As can be seen from table 1, a dairy composition is characterized by high acidity (at least 300°T), active low pH (pH less than 3.5). Such a high value of titratable acidity, indicates significant content of lactic acid in the composition (25-30 g/DM3), which should provide optimal loosening of the collagen fibers fur sheepskin.

The obtained fermented milk composition is proposed to be stored at a temperature of 4-7°C for 40-60 days. Titratable acidity during storage is 280-300°So the Reactivation dairy compositions should be carried out at a temperature of 22±2°C for 8 hours and double the aeration. The dose of the added substrate (pasteurized skim milk) is 30-40% of the volume of milk composition.

After the analysis in the barge pour the calculated amount of milk composition, add the sodium chloride at the rate of 20 g/DM3. Then the barge is placed sheepskin fur in the unfolded after degreasing and washing. The process is carried out at a temperature of (30±2)°With variable mechanical impact for 16 h, when the value LC=7. After biotech pickling sheepskin unload, straighten and take a sample for determining the temperature of the welding leather, which should be no more than 46°C.

The finished semi-finished product is characterized by white Koshevoy cloth, evenly filled with good lift (average area increase should not be less than 14%). This effect is reached due to the symbiotic effects of fermented milk produced by these microorganisms and metabolites present in milk composition that provides additional abating the leather, and this is caused by the improvement of the quality of the semifinished product.

The proposed method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials is as follows. When preparing raw materials for processing pre-picked batch of skins sheepskin fur one conservation method weighed. The raw material is subjected to soaking, degreasing and mechanical operations according to the processing Technology of fur skins" (1988). Then the raw material is squeezed and punish him biotechnology pickling. Pour milk composition, heated to 33°add calculated amount of salt. Characteristics of fermented milk composition are presented in table 1. Thus prepared working solution mix and load raw materials in expanded form. The duration of the pickling 16 h at AC mechanical action. The end of the pickling judged by the decrease in t is mperature welding up to 42-46° And the emergence of "Sosenki"formed on the pressure of the fingers folded in half on the leather. Followed by a runoff, sheepskin unload. Further treatment is carried out according to the processing Technology of fur skins" (1988). In the control variant (see processing Technology fur sheepskin, 1988) use a composition that includes: LCD=7; the temperature of the solution (37±0,5)°s; duration of 16 h; salt 40 g/DM3; acetic acid 3.0 g/DM3; sulfuric acid 1.5 g/DM3.

After the process of pickling take samples for evaluation of the physico-mechanical properties of sheepskin. The results are presented in tables 2 and 3.

Table 2
Name of indicatorThe direction of the test siteCharacterization of raw materials to the pickling
For leather
Temperature welding, °-65,67
The load corresponding to the specified voltage of 4.9 MPaLongitudinal17
Cross 20
Elongation at a voltage of 4.9 MPa:
FullLongitudinal21 mm/42%
Cross11mm/22%
ResidualLongitudinal10 mm/20%
Cross5 mm/10%
ElasticLongitudinal11 mm/22%
Cross6 mm/12%
Load at break, NLongitudinal100,0
Cross30,8
Tensile strength atLongitudinal31,0
Tensile, MPaCross7,7
Elongation at break Longitudinal44 mm/88%
Cross28 mm/56%
Pull samples, %Longitudinal10
Cross10
Table 3
Name of indicatorThe direction of the test siteControl optionPrototype
For leather
Temperature welding, °-4442,5
The load corresponding to the specified voltage of 4.9 MPaLongitudinal2724
Cross2425
Elongation at a voltage of 4.9 MPa:
FullLongitudinal17 mm/34%16 mm/32%
Cross 7 mm/14%7 mm/14%
ResidualLongitudinal10 mm/20%10 mm/20%
Cross5 mm/10%5 mm/10%
ElasticLongitudinal7 mm/14%6 mm/12%
Cross2 mm/14%2 mm/4%
Load at break, NLongitudinal77,091,0
Cross37,024,5
Ultimate tensile strength, MPaLongitudinal14,619,2
Cross7,4a 4.9
Elongation at breakLongitudinal37 mm/74%40 mm/80%
Cross20 mm/40%25 mm/50%
Pull samples, %Prod is the emotional 2030
Cross1020

As can be seen from the obtained results, physico-mechanical properties of fur sheepskin, tanned on the claimed technology, practically does not differ from sheepskin, last typical pickling. In the process of pickling, both experienced and model, there is a reduction temperature welding for samples with 65-67 to 42.5 44°C, respectively. This is due to the loosening of the fibrous structure of the dermis, rupture of intermolecular cross-linking and leaching carbohydrate components. Tropicaliente samples was determined also out of line. Leather tissue samples becomes dry and high ductility, mastana the lighter side, when folding and tension formed the white stripes ("Sosenka"). The same change of physico-chemical parameters of the investigated variants indicates an optimum separation of the microstructure of the dermis and the destruction of hydrogen and electrovalent bonds.

Examples of implementation of the proposed method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials

Example 1. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after otkachki, pressing, degreasing, executed according to the processing Technology is echoboy sheepskin (1988), expose biotechnology pickling when the LCD 7, the temperature of 30°C for 16 h, at alternating mechanical action.

The composition pixellogo solution: milk composition obtained by culturing kefir grains in pasteurized fat-free milk(1:2:0,25:0); titratable acidity 315°T; the concentration of lactic acid to 28.3 g/DM3; active reaction (pH) of 3.5; the consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

In pikelny tub contribute 100% of the dairy composition, considering the mass of the party, a temperature of 32°C. Then put the sheepskin fur after degreasing in expanded form in the barge containing dairy composition. The processing time of 16 hours at AC mechanical action of the LCD 7, the temperature of the solution 30°C. Completion of pickling appreciate the magnitude of the temperature welding, which must be no more than 46°and the effect of "Sosenki".

Physico-chemical characteristics of fur sheepskin, after the biotechnological process of pickling presented in table 4.

Example 2. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after otkachki, pressing, degreasing, performed according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), is subjected to biotechnology pickling when the LCD 7, the temperature of 30°C for 16 h, when the variable m is a mechanical impact.

The composition pixellogo solution: milk composition obtained by culturing kefir grains in pasteurized cheese whey(1:1:0,25:0), while titratable acidity 355°T; the concentration of lactic acid to 31.9 g/DM3; active reaction (pH) 3,4; consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

In pikelny tub contribute 100% of the dairy composition, considering the mass of the party, a temperature of 32°C. Then put the sheepskin fur after degreasing in expanded form in the barge containing dairy composition. The processing time of 16 hours at AC mechanical action of the LCD 7, the temperature of the solution 32°C. Completion of pickling appreciate the magnitude of the temperature welding, which must be no more than 46°and the effect of "Sosenki".

Physico-chemical characteristics of fur sheepskin, after the biotechnological process of pickling presented in table 4.

Example 3. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after otkachki, pressing, degreasing, performed according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), is subjected to biotechnology pickling when the LCD 7, the temperature of 30°C for 16 h, at alternating mechanical action.

The composition pixellogo solution: milk composition obtained by culturing kurun the new starter in pasteurized fat-free milk(2:1:1:1), titratable acidity 335°T; the concentration of lactic acid to 30.1 g/DM3; active reaction (pH) of 3.5; the consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

In pikelny tub contribute 100% of the dairy composition, considering the mass of the party, a temperature of 32°C. Then put the sheepskin fur after degreasing in expanded form in the barge containing dairy composition. The processing time of 16 hours at AC mechanical action of the LCD 7, the temperature of the solution 28°C. Completion of pickling appreciate the magnitude of the temperature welding, which must be no more than 46°and the effect of "Sosenki".

Physico-chemical characteristics of fur sheepskin, after the biotechnological process of pickling presented in table 4.

Example 4. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after otkachki, pressing, degreasing, performed according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), is subjected to biotechnology pickling when the LCD 7, the temperature of 30°C for 16 h, at alternating mechanical action.

The composition pixellogo solution: milk composition obtained by culturing krugovoy ferment in pasteurized cheese whey(2:0,5:0,5:0,5), titratable acidity 360°T; the concentration of lactic acid 32,4 g/DM3; active response cf the water (pH) 3,2; consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.

In pikelny tub contribute 100% of the dairy composition, considering the mass of the party, a temperature of 32°C. Then put the sheepskin fur after degreasing in expanded form in the barge containing dairy composition. The processing time of 16 hours at AC mechanical action of the LCD 7, the temperature of the solution 30°C. Completion of pickling appreciate the magnitude of the temperature welding, which must be no more than 46°and the effect of "Sosenki".

Physico-chemical characteristics of fur sheepskin, after controlling for the (typical) and experienced pickling is shown in table 4.

Table 4
ExampleThe average thickness of the leather, mmElongation at a voltage of 4.9 MPaLoad at break, NElongation at break, mmUltimate tensile strength, MPaThe bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy cloth, MPa
Control0,9617 mm/34%58,82711,30,95
Example 11,119 mm/38%63,73612,60,98
Example 2/td> 1,1819 mm/38%98,04216,60,91
Example 31,1627 mm/54%68,64212,80,93
Example 41,0821 mm/42%88,23616,30,99

The results presented in table 4 show that all methods of biotechnological pickling optimum loosening of the collagen fibers of the leather fur sheepskin. After performing these operations sheepskin unloaded and subjected to tanning-creasing with the consumption of the necessary ingredients according to the processing Technology of fur (1988). As can be seen from the examples, the proposed method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials allows optimal loosening of the collagen fibers of the leather fur sheepskin. The optimal loosening is achieved without supplemental pikelny tub of organic and/or mineral acids, and reducing by 50% the consumption of sodium chloride. Physico-chemical characteristics of sheepskin, after the biotechnological process of pickling show improvement in her elastic-plastic properties, as evidenced by higher values of load and elongation at which ADrive, as well as ultimate tensile strength. Sheepskin was characterized by a powdery white hair, no sunset, which is associated with the absence of pikelner solution based on milk composition, strong acids, in particular sulfuric.

On the basis of the foregoing that the claimed method of pickling sheepskin-fur raw material meets the condition of "industrial applicability".

Method of pickling sheepskin and fur raw materials, which consists in processing pikelny solution, characterized in that as pixellogo solution using milk composition having a value of titratable acidity of not less than 300°T, the concentration of lactic acid is not less than 25 g/DM3or a pH of not more than 3.5, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 30±2°, duration 16 h, AC mechanical impact, liquid ratio, equal to 7, the consumption of sodium chloride 20 g/DM3.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.

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EFFECT: enhanced quality of tanning.

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FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

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FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: fur industry.

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14 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

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4 tbl, 4 ex

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