Tool made of steel

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of steel containing as main structural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 35 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 4.3 x 10-3. Invention provides increased strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for hot and cold machining of various materials, mainly metals and their alloys, and can be made in the form of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, taps, etc.

A well-known tool, made of high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel R6M5 [1]. The disadvantage of the tool is made of steel R6M5, is a relatively small value of his strength.

Closest to the claimed tool is a tool made of tungsten steel HMF [2]. Tool steel HMF has higher strength compared to tool steel R6M5. However, in the case of severe conditions of mechanical treatment, the strength is insufficient.

The claimed invention is directed to increasing the strength and reducing the fragility of the main component of high speed steel HMP - ferrite α-Fe and, thereby, to increase tool life made of it.

This result is achieved in that the tool is made of steel HMF containing as a main component ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and molybdenum, the average size of the blocks α-Fe is not more than 35 nm, and the microstrain α-Fe is not more than 4,3·10-3.

Distinctive features of the claimed invention are:

- select the interval of medium size blocks of ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and molybdenum, semi-open interval bounded from above average size equal to 35 nm;

- selected as the upper limit of the interval of medium size blocks of ferrite α-Fe medium size equal to 35 nm;

- select the interval of the crystal lattice microstrains α-Fe half-open interval bounded from above by the value of microstrains, equal to 4.3·10-3;

- selected as the upper limit of the interval lattice microstrains α-Fe values of microstrains, equal to 4.3·10-3.

It is found experimentally that the average size of the blocks of ferrite α-Fe, implemented in the invention and is equal to from 30 to 35 nm, is 21,37-25,02% of the average size of the blocks of ferrite in the underlying instrument, which means the increase of the surface energy of the block boundaries [3] the main component - α-Fe steel HMF 4.0-4.7 times. Since the yield strength is inversely proportional to the square root of the average size of the blocks [4], the strength of the main component - α-Fe steel HMF increases in 2.0-2.17 times.

The average size of blocks α-Fe equal to from 30 to 35 nm, are minimally achievable under environmenta who eat ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. The average size of blocks, large 35 nm and implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller increase in strength as compared with the baseline tool. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement smaller average size of the blocks α-Fe. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of medium size units α-Fe unlimited.

It was established experimentally that the magnitude of the crystal lattice microstrains α-Fe, implemented in the invention is between 4.2·10-3to 4.3·10-3that 25.7-28,0% less than the value of microstrains in the underlying instrument. This means reducing the fragility of the main component of steel HMF.

The size of the crystal lattice microstrains α-Fe, varying from 4.2·10-3to 4.3·10-3that is the minimum achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. The microstrain, large 4,3·10-3implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller decrease in fragility compared to the underlying instrument. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement the smaller value is the microstrains α -Fe. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of microstrains α-Fe unlimited.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in the following description.

The tool is a single entity and has no moving parts, so the tool is not described and the drawings explaining the operation of the tool, not shown.

Check the claimed technical result was as follows. Core samples of steel HMF and samples of steel HMF subjected to radiation treatment, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. The parameters of the fine crystal structure, the average size of the blocks (crystallites) D and lattice microstrain main component of steel HMP - ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and molybdenum were determined using the method described in [3, 5].

Example.

Samples of cylindrical shape (s) of diameter 20 mm and thickness of 5 mm was irradiated from the side of one of the flat bases of the penetrating radiation. Samples as non-irradiated, and irradiated, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. The results of the experiments presented in the table.

Table

The size of the blocks D and microstrain ε crystalline lattice and the main component of steel HMP - ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and molybdenum, in the non-irradiated sample and the samples subjected to penetrating radiation
Parameter crystal structureUnirradiated sampleThe irradiated samples
Irradiated surfaceNon-irradiated surface
D, nm139,935,029,9
ε·1035,80or 4.314,17

From the table it is clear that due to radiation treatment in the main component of steel HMP - ferrite α-Fe average size of the blocks is reduced on average 4.3 times. Since the yield strength of the material is inversely proportional to the square root of the average size of the blocks [4], it is obvious that radiation treatment on average 2.08 times increases the strength of the main component of steel HMF.

From the table it is also clear that in phase α-Fe irradiation reduces the microstrain average of 27.6%. If we take into account that the elastic energy contained in the crystal lattice microstrains, is proportional to the square ε [6], we can conclude that the elastic energy of the crystal lattice α-Fe decreased to an average of 47.6%. Therefore, the fragility of the instrument, and is made from steel HMF, certainly decreases after irradiation, although the exact amount of reduction is difficult to make based on the data presented.

It should be noted that the table shows, moreover, that the effect of ionizing radiation on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces of the samples are almost identical. Hence we can conclude that, at least to a depth of 5 mm ionizing radiation has the same effect on steel properties HMF. Similar results were obtained previously in studies of the effects of electron irradiation on Fe-base alloys and aluminum alloys by the method of measuring the microhardness [7, 8].

Thus, summarizing the above, it can be argued that the service life of the tool is made of steel HMF and subjected to ionizing radiation, should be significantly increased compared with the baseline tool.

Sources of information

1. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - S-368.

2. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - Page 287-292. (Prototype).

3. Kites A.B. Analytical method for the determination of parameters of thin crystalline structure on the broadening of x-ray lines. // Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostics of materials. - 2004. - T, No. 2. - P.27-32.

4. Mirkin LI F. the physical basis of strength and plasticity. M.: Moscow state University, 1968. - 540 S.

5. The patent of Russian Federation №2234076 from 10.08.2004, "method for determining the parameters of the fine crystal structure of the polycrystalline material" / Patentee: research Institute of mechanics of Moscow state University. After M.V. Lomonosov. Authors: kites A.B., Ivanov A.N.

6. Indenbom V.L. Structure of real crystals. // Modern crystallography. Vol.2. Crystal structure. - M.: Nauka, 1979. - S-341.

7. The patent of Russian Federation №2221056 from 10.01.2004, "Method of processing products from metal alloys based on iron / Patent: Federal state unitary enterprise Scientific research Institute of instruments, kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other Authors: kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other

8. The patent of Russian Federation №2225458 from 10.03.2004, "Method of treatment of aluminum alloys" / Patentees: Federal state unitary enterprise Scientific research Institute of instruments, kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other Authors: kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other

The tool is made of steel HMF containing as a main structural component ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and molybdenum, wherein the average size of the blocks α-Fe is not more than 35 nm, and the value of the lattice microstrain α-Fe is not over4,3· 10-3.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of high speed steel P6M5 containing as main strutural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome, tungsten and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 47 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 5.2 x10-3. Invention provides improved strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of quick cutting steel P18 containing ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and tungsten and carbide Fe3W3C of quick cutting steel. Mean size of blocks cc-Fe is no more than 42 nm; of Fe3 W3C blocks - no more than 32 nm. Micro-deformations of crystal lattice oc-Fe are no more than 4.7 x10-3 and micro-deformations of crystal lattice of Fe3W3C are no more than 6.5 X10-4.

EFFECT: increased strength of steel, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 ex

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2 tbl

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EFFECT: enhanced machinability of merchant shapes; enhanced ductility and toughness.

1 ex

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1 ex

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EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics and corrosion resistance.

2 cl, 4 tbl

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2 tbl

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SUBSTANCE: tool is made of high speed steel P6M5 containing as main strutural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome, tungsten and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 47 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 5.2 x10-3. Invention provides improved strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: tool making industry branch, namely plastic working of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in order to improve metal using factor, to increase wear resistance of tool, steel (P6M5) blank. Is heated up to 830°C and it is deformed in isothermal mode at rate 10-3 s -1 and at deformation degree 60%. Then blank is subjected to deformation at 765°C at rate 10-3 s-1 and at deformation degree 40%. According to invention strength of tool made of deformed blanks exceeds by two times strength of tool made in accordance with well known process.

EFFECT: improved strength of tool made of worked steel blank.

1 dwg, 6 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: treatment of the wear-resistant hardware products of the wear-resistant hardware products of an instrumental designation.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase almost in two times of the wear resistance of the cemented-carbide tools or hardware products.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

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where - the critical deformation causing an intensive growth of grains of a microstructure of the steel; and - additional optimal deformations of compression and shift ensuring the maximum increase of the steel wear resistance. Application of the given invention in an industry will allow to increase rather efficiently the steel wear resistance of the steel, that may be used for production of cutting and measuring tools.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the maximum increase of wear resistance of the steel, that may be used for production of cutting and measuring tools.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

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EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease labor input, to increase productivity and to speed up production process.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method providing an increase of wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels by magnetic-pulse treatment with a preheating and an installation for its realization. The invention is dealt with the field of mechanical engineering, in particular with production of metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels by preheating and magnetic-pulse treatment. The technical result is increased wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels due to removal of internal stresses, increase of thermal conductivity, ordering of magnetic structure of a material. For achievement of the technical result conduct a preheating of the tools by high-frequency currents (HFC) with consequent action by a pulse of a magnetic field of high magnetic intensity. The method is realized by an installation containing a combined inductor with windings. At that a winding of the inductor, powered by high-frequency currents, is placed inside the winding powered by a magnetic-pulse device.

EFFECT: the invention allows to increase wear-resistance of the metal-cutting tools made out of tool steels.

3 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the technology of surface hardening a metal tool and can be applied in engineering

The invention relates to the field of engineering and is used to reduce the surface roughness of the crystallizing melt, increasing the density of the emerging structures and formation of residual compression stress in the processing of highly concentrated sources of radiation energy by controlling the hydrodynamic condition of the melt, while ensuring a stable laminar (close to hospital) flow regime

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of high speed steel P6M5 containing as main strutural component ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome, tungsten and molybdenum. Mean size of a-Fe blocks is no more than 47 nm; micro-deformations of crystal lattice of a-Fe are no more than 5.2 x10-3. Invention provides improved strength and lowered embrittlement of ferrite a-Fe.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl

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