Tool made of high-speed steel

FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, screw taps and so on.

SUBSTANCE: tool is made of quick cutting steel P18 containing ferrite a-Fe alloyed with chrome and tungsten and carbide Fe3W3C of quick cutting steel. Mean size of blocks cc-Fe is no more than 42 nm; of Fe3 W3C blocks - no more than 32 nm. Micro-deformations of crystal lattice oc-Fe are no more than 4.7 x10-3 and micro-deformations of crystal lattice of Fe3W3C are no more than 6.5 X10-4.

EFFECT: increased strength of steel, increased useful life period of tool.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for hot and cold machining of various materials, mainly metals and their alloys, and can be made in the form of different types of cutters, milling cutters, drills, taps, etc.

Well known tool made of high speed tungsten steel P9 [1]. The disadvantage of the tool is made of steel P9, is the deterioration of lifemost: occurs when the grinding prizhogi and buildup of machined metal on the tool.

Closest to the claimed tool is a tool made of high speed tungsten steel R18 [2]. Lack of tool steel R18 is the high content of carbides in the steel, resulting in lower values of strength and ductility in comparison with steels with a lower content of tungsten.

The claimed invention is directed to increasing the strength and reducing the fragility of the components of high-speed steel R18 and thus to increase the service life of tools made of it.

This result is achieved in that the tool made of high speed steel R18 containing ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten and carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C, the average size of the blocks α-Fe is not bolee nm, Fe3W3C - no more than 32 nm, microstrain α-Fe is not more than 4.7·10-3, Fe3W3With not more than 6.5·104.

Distinctive features of the claimed invention are:

- select the interval of medium size blocks of ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten, semi-open interval bounded from above an average size of 42 nm;

- selected as the upper limit of the interval of medium size blocks of ferrite α-Fe medium size, equal to 42 nm;

- select the interval of medium size blocks carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C half-open interval bounded from above an average size of 32 nm;

- selected as the upper limit of the interval of medium size block of carbide Fe3W3With the medium size equal to 32 nm;

- select the interval values of the crystal lattice microstrains α-Fe half-open interval bounded from above 4,7·10-3;

- selected as the upper limit of the interval lattice microstrains a-Fe values of microstrains, 4.7·10-3;

- select the interval values of the crystal lattice microstrains carbide Fe3W3With half-open interval bounded from above a 6.5·10-4;

- selected as the top limit of the interval lattice microstrains Fe 3W3With the magnitude of microstrains, 6.5·10-4.

It is found experimentally that the average size of the blocks of ferrite α-Fe, implemented in the invention and is equal to 40 to 42 nm, almost twice less than the average size of the blocks of ferrite in the underlying instrument, which means the increase of the surface energy of the block boundaries [3] almost in 2 times. Since the yield strength is inversely proportional to the square root of the average size of the blocks [4], the strength of the main component - α-Fe high-speed steel R18 increases by approximately 40%.

The average size of blocks α-Fe equal to 40 to 42 nm, are as low as achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. The average size of blocks, large 42 nm and implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller increase in strength as compared with the baseline tool. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement smaller average size of the blocks α-Fe. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of medium size units α-Fe is not limited.

It is found experimentally that the average size of the blocks carbide high speed steel Fe3W3With implemented in the invention and izmenyayushie is from 26 to 32 nm, less than half the average size of the blocks of Fe3W3Since, in the basic instrument, which means the increase of the surface energy of the block boundaries [3] 2 times. Since the yield strength is inversely proportional to the square root of the average size of the blocks [4], the strength of this component of high speed steel R18 increases by 40%. The average block size of Fe3W3C, equal to 26 to 32 nm, are as low as achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. The average size of blocks, large 32 nm and implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller increase in strength as compared with the baseline tool. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement smaller average size of the blocks of Fe3W3C. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of the average sizes of the blocks of Fe3W3C is not limited.

It was established experimentally that the magnitude of the crystal lattice microstrains α-Fe, implemented in the invention and equal 4,6÷4,7·10-317% less than the value of microstrains in the underlying instrument, which means decreasing the fragility of the main component of high-speed steel R18.

The magnitude of the microstrains of the crystal lattice and α -Fe is (4,6-4,7)·10-3that is the minimum achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. The microstrain, large 4.7·10-3implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller decrease in fragility compared to the underlying instrument. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement smaller values of microstrains α-Fe. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of microstrains α-Fe is not limited.

It was established experimentally that the magnitude of the crystal lattice microstrains carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C, implemented in the claimed invention and is equal to 4.5·10-46.5·10-4several times less microstrains Fe3W3C basic tool that also means the reduction of the fragility of the carbide phase of high speed steel R18 several times.

The values of the crystal lattice microstrains Fe3W3With, from 4.5·10-46.5·10-4are the minimum achievable under the influence of ionizing radiation under the conditions of our experiments. Microdeformation, large 6,5·10-4implemented with other modes of ionizing radiation, lead to a smaller reduction groupc the STI compared to the underlying instrument. So their use in the inventive instrument is impractical. It is likely that other irradiation conditions will be able to implement smaller values of microstrains Fe3W3C. Therefore, in the invention the lower limit of microstrains Fe3W3Not limited.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in the following description.

The tool is a single entity and has no moving parts, so the tool is not described and the drawings explaining the operation of the tool, not shown.

Check the claimed technical result was as follows. Core samples from high-speed steel R18 and samples of steel R18 subjected to radiation treatment, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. The parameters of the fine crystal structure, the average size of the blocks (crystallites) D and microstrain of the lattices of high speed steel components P18: ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten and carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C was determined using the method described in [3, 5].

Example.

Samples of cylindrical shape (s) of diameter 20 mm and thickness of 5 mm was irradiated from the side of one of the flat bases of the penetrating radiation. Samples as non-irradiated (base), and the region is Chennai, were studied using x-ray diffractometry. The results of the experiment are presented in table 1.

From table 1 it is clear that due to radiation treatment, the average block size is reduced in the phase α-Fe is almost 2 times, and in the phase of Fe3W3With exactly 2 times. Since the yield strength of the material is inversely proportional to the square root of the average size of the blocks [4], it is obvious that radiation processing by 40% increases the strength of the components of high-speed steel R18.

From table 1 it is also clear that in phase α-Fe irradiation reduces the microstrain on both planes, both irradiated and non-irradiated, by approximately 17%. At the same time, in the phase of Fe3W3C irradiated on the surface of the microstrain decreases by 2.4 times, and the non-irradiated surface in 3,48 times. If we take into account that the elastic energy contained in the crystal lattice microstrains, is proportional to the square ε [6], we can conclude that the elastic energy of the crystal lattice α-Fe as a result of irradiation decreased by 31%, and the elastic energy of the crystal lattice of Fe3W3With 5.8-12.1 times. Therefore, the fragility of the tool made of high speed steel R18 certainly decreases after irradiation, although the exact amount of reduction is difficult to give, according as the x data.

Table 1
The average size of the blocks D and microstrain ε crystal lattices components high speed steel brand P18: ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten and carbide high speed steel Fe3W3In non-irradiated sample and the samples subjected to penetrating radiation
The setting of the fine crystal structureUnirradiated sampleThe irradiated samples
Irradiated surfaceNon-irradiated surface
α-FeFe3W3Cα-FeFe3W3α-FeFe3W3
D, nm76,352,142,431,640,226,0
E·10455,915,6446,76,546,34,5

It should be noted that from table 1 it follows, furthermore, that the effect of ionizing radiation on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces of the samples prakticheskaya. Hence we can conclude that, at least to a depth of 5 mm ionizing radiation has the same effect on the properties of high speed steel R18. Similar results were obtained previously in studies of the effects of electron irradiation on Fe-base alloys and aluminum alloys by the method of measuring the microhardness [7, 8].

Thus, summarizing the above, it can be argued that the service life of tools made of high speed steel R18 and subjected to ionizing radiation, should be significantly increased compared with the baseline tool.

Sources of information

1. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - S-355.

2. Geller YG Tool steels. M.: metallurgy, 1968. - 568 S. - S.353. (Prototype)

3. Kites A.B. Analytical method for the determination of parameters of thin crystalline structure on the broadening of x-ray lines // Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostics of materials. - 2004. - T, No. 2. - P.27-32.

4. Mirkin LI Physical basis of strength and plasticity. M.: Moscow state University, 1968. - 540 S.

5. RF patent №2234076 from 10.08.2004, "method for determining the parameters of the fine crystal structure of the polycrystalline material" / Patentee: research Institute of mechanics of Moscow state University is and them. After M.V. Lomonosov. Authors: kites A.B., Ivanov A.N.

6. Indenbom V.L. Structure of real crystals. // Modern crystallography. Vol.2. Crystal structure. - M.: Nauka, 1979. - S-341.

7. RF patent №2221056 from 10.01.2004, "Method of processing products from metal alloys based on iron / Patent: Federal state unitary enterprise Scientific research Institute of instruments, kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other Authors: kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other

8. RF patent №2225458 from 10.03.2004, "Method of treatment of aluminum alloys" / Patentees: Federal state unitary enterprise Scientific research Institute of instruments, kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other Authors: kites A.B., Zhukov, Y., Cabbage IV and other

Tool made of high speed steel R18, the structure of which contains a ferrite α-Fe alloyed with chromium and tungsten and carbide high speed steel Fe3W3C, characterized in that the average size of the blocks α-Fe is not more than 42 nm, and Fe3W3C - no more than 32 nm, the size of the lattice microstrain α-Fe is not more than 4.7·10-3and Fe3W3C - not more than 6.5·10-4.



 

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