Small-size hydroelectric power station with action turbine

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric power station is designed for power generation using energy of flow spring or river. Proposed hydroelectric power station includes diversion dam, diversion cone, head, conduit, action turbine, current generator with drive. Diversion cone is made only in horizontal plane, input of bottom spillway and input of diversion cone are arranged in one plane and heat room is installed over them on top of dam, whose wall pointed to side of water storage is arranged before dam, and its lower edge is deepened to value of freezing of water storage. Action turbine is made in form of disk with volute buckets. Each nozzle of head conduit is made in for, of cone connected with gate of head conduit trough intermediate link of conduit. Additional dc generator is used as braking system to stabilize speed of action turbine. Shaft of said generator is coupled with shaft of main generator, and current from three-phase circuit of main generator is supplied to field winding of additional generator through diode bridge. Moreover, rheostat is used in field winding control circuit of main generator controlled by centrifugal pusher, for instance, of Watt system whose shaft is also coupled with shaft of main generator.

EFFECT: increased power output and provision of constant frequency of current.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to engineering and can be used in the construction of small hydropower plants in any location.

Known for small hydro power plants (Patent No. 2162914/13 C2, application No. 98117019/1300 from 08.09.98, whose basic construction is the diversion channel, made in the form of a pressure conduit. At the end of the conduit is set active turbine. For hydroelectric small power installation of active turbines, instead of reactive, is preferred as the active turbines, compared to reactive, have a higher hydraulic efficiency and their use easier solves the problem of water hammer in the pipes of the conduit when a sudden change in load on the power generator.

Active turbine patent No. 2162914 made in the form of a wheel, the rim of which is fixed, with the possibility of rotation around the axis of its mounting buckets. Each bucket consists of two connected together divergent angle bent gutters.

In addition to choosing the type of turbines for small hydroelectric significant problem for them, no matter what type turbines are applied, is the problem of keeping a constant number of revolutions of the generator with the ever-changing high-speed pressure and loads on the generator from the consumer current.

Closest to the technical essence of the present invention is the Dam Hydroelectricty the Oia" in patent No. 2173745/13 C2, under the application №98123023/13 from 18.12.98, the Authors Gel and other

According to this invention HPP has the impulse turbine, the rim of which is attached blades, made in the form of buckets, a generator and a mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator, in which the mechanism of artificial braking the shaft of the generator, made in the form of a controllable hydrodynamic coupling, one impeller which is rigidly fixed on the shaft of the generator, and the second impeller mounted on this shaft is movable in the axial direction with the possibility of changing the gap between the cups impeller clutch for regulating the magnitude of the braking torque on the generator shaft from zero to maximum torque.

The purpose of the invention is improving the capacity of small hydro plants and ensuring the constancy of the frequency of the current with the changing loads on the generator from the consumer's current and changes speed at the water station.

This objective is achieved in that in a small hydropower plant with active turbine, which includes the dam water intake, cone intake, penstock, impulse turbine, a power generator with the drive according to the invention the cone intake performed by the cone only in the horizontal plane, the entrance of the bottom outlet and the entrance cone intake are situated in one plane and above them on the ridge PL is Tina intake installed a warm room, the wall which is facing the reservoir, is located in front of the dam and its lower edge recessed on the amount of freezing water reservoir, and the active turbine is made in the form of a disk rigidly mounted on the shaft of the turbine, both sides of which, on its periphery fixed buckets, made in the form of snails, twisting incident jet of water from nozzle pressure conduit so that waste water jet fell by the main jet, each nozzle pressure conduit is made in the form of a cone associated with the valve pressure conduit via an intermediate conduit, and as the brake system to stabilize the number revolutions of the turbine wheel and, consequently, the frequency of the current with the changing in the process station, the parameters of pressure and loads on the generator from customers current applied additional DC generator, which shaft is rigidly connected with the shaft of the main generator and the field winding through a diode bridge to feed current from the main three-phase circuit of the main generator, in addition, in the control circuit of the excitation winding of the main generator is applied to the rheostat, designed to change the current in the excitation winding driven centrifugal plunger, for example, systems of the vehicle, which shaft is also connected with the shaft the basis of the rate generator.

Figure 1 shows a General view of a Small hydropower plant with active turbine. (Side view)

Figure 2 shows a General view of a Small hydropower plant with active turbine. (View in plan).

Figure 3 shows the path of movement of the jet of water in the turbine blades.(Side view).

Figure 4 shows the path of movement of the streams of water in the turbine blades. (Side view). Small HPP with active turbine includes a dam intake 1, cone intake 3 gate 2, penstock 4, valve 5, an intermediate conduit 6, the nozzle 7 and the impulse turbine 8. Turbine 8 is mounted in the casing 9 and is closed by the cover 10.

A jet of water from the pressure conduit 4 is fed through the valve 5 on the turbine blades 8 through the nozzle 7. 8 turbine clutch 11 is connected with the shaft of the gearbox 12, at the ends of the high-speed shaft which on the one hand through the sleeve is attached to the shaft of the main generator 13, which generates alternating current, on the other hand, the auxiliary shaft of the generator, such as a constant current generator 14. Shaft of the gearbox 12, in this case through the variator 15, is connected with the shaft of the centrifugal plunger, for example, systems of the vehicle 16, the plunger of which is connected with the slider of rheostat built into the system to the excitation of the main generator.

Thus the number of revolutions of the high-speed shaft of the gearbox 12 is controlled by the centrifugal plunger 16 and the value of the braking torque on the shaft of the additional brake is of generator 14. Due to the fact that the centrifugal plunger, due to their design, can monitor the change in speed of the turbine only when a sudden and large load fluctuations, for smooth and immediate braking of the turbine wheel, with small changes in load current consumers, provides additional braking generator and DC generator 14, the winding of which is collected on the independent circuit through a diode bridge (or bridge thyristors, in large power stations) with the basic, 3-phase winding of the main generator 13 is supplied with direct current power which is embedded in its scheme resistor or rheostat. Although the strength of this current can be regulated, it does not affect the nature of its changes from the load in the network user current, as well as a brake generator mounted on the same shaft with key and they both through the reduction gear connected with the shaft of the turbine 8, even a slight change of current in the network of current consumers, instantly reflected on the change in the value of torque on the turbine shaft 8. All this allows to keep the number of revolutions of the turbine wheel in a wide range of loads in the network of current consumers. Itself the active turbine 8 is a solid disk 19, is rigidly fixed to the turbine shaft 20 to which is on the periphery on both sides welded buckets 18, shaped like a snail. Figure 3 and 4 shows the flow of a jet of water in the bucket 18 active turbine 8. Falling into the bucket from the nozzle 7 of the conduit 4, it is twisted 360 degrees and is discarded from the main jet. In order to maximize the impact of the jet on the turbine, the nozzle 7 is made in the form of a cone. So HES worked steadily and in winter, the dam's water intake 1, over its gates, built a warm room 17, the wall of which, facing the reservoir, brought before the dam and its lower edge recessed in the reservoir at the rate of freezing ice. The space between the wall and the edge of the dam remains and is supported ice-free during the whole time with negative temperatures. When the HPS performance at low temperatures its conduit all over". Dam 1 has in addition to cone intake 3 bottom outlet 21 and the upper Weir 22. Prerequisite - valves bottom outlet 21 and cone intake 3 must be in the same vertical plane. An intermediate conduit 6 is used for quick change nozzle 7 that allows you to increase or decrease the capacity of the plant depending on the volume of water in a stream or river, on which is built the hydroelectric power station.

Works SHP with active turbine as follows.

With the open the m valve 5 water through the penstock 4 enters the nozzle 7 and it hits the turbine blades 8. What cone intake performed by the cone only in the horizontal plane, allows hydro to operate at very low water elevations and at the same time to provide the turbine with the necessary amount of water. A jet of water getting into the turbine from the nozzle 7, is divided into two equal parts, each of which strikes in your bucket 18, twists and falls past the main jet back in the stream or drainage chute station.

8 turbine, rotating from water pressure, rotates the shaft 12, at the ends of the high-speed shaft whose one side is fixed to the shaft of the main generator 13, on the other shaft brake generator 14 and the actuator inertia of the pusher 16. Since the actuator inertia of the follower is rigidly connected with the shaft of the turbine, any change in the number of revolutions of the turbine affects the speed of the inertia of the plunger, and hence the position of the slider of the rheostat, with which it is associated and which is integrated in the circuit of the excitation winding of the main generator. Upon reaching the main generator required speed and frequency the operation of the inertia of the pusher means in the automatic mode. In addition, when turning on or off electrical consumers in the network of the main generator automatically adjusts the amount of braking torque on the shaft of the brake generator.

When the electrical braking torque n is the shaft of the brake generator is reduced, when disconnecting increases. Two independent from each other, the system changes the current in the windings of the excitation core and the brake generators provide stable maintenance in automatic mode, the constancy of the speed of the turbine wheel and the frequency of the current in a wide range of loads in the network of current consumers.

Small hydropower plant with active turbine, which includes the dam water intake, cone intake, penstock, the impulse turbine, the generator current to the actuator, characterized in that the cone intake performed by the cone only in the horizontal plane, the entrance of the bottom outlet and the entrance to the taper of the conduit are situated in one plane and above them on the crest of the dam water intake installed a warm room, a wall which is facing the reservoir, is located in front of the dam and its lower edge recessed on the amount of freezing water reservoir, and the active turbine is made in the form of a disk rigidly mounted on the shaft of the turbine, on both the parties on its periphery fixed buckets, made in the form of snails, twisting incident jet of water from nozzle pressure conduit so that waste water jet fell by the main jet, each nozzle pressure conduit is made in the form of a cone associated with the valve naporn the first conduit through an intermediate conduit, and as the brake system to stabilize the speed of the turbine wheel and, consequently, the frequency of the current with the changing in the process station, the parameters of pressure and loads on the generator from customers current applied additional DC generator, which shaft is rigidly connected with the shaft of the main generator and the field winding through a diode bridge to feed current from the main, three-phase circuit of the main generator, in addition, in the control circuit of the excitation winding of the main generator is applied to the rheostat, designed to change the current in the excitation winding driven centrifugal plunger, such as a system vehicle, which shaft is also connected with the shaft of the main generator.



 

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