No-head chain hydroelectric station using energy of river flows and tides

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric station includes energy converter consisting of chain of hydraulic turbines. Hydraulic turbine is built on hollow carrying shaft-cylinder with conical fairings on bases inscribed into inner ends of blades-semicylinders whose outer ends are clamped together in several places over length of hydraulic turbine by narrow rings-hoops and form multiblade cylinder with hollow belts with ballast on end faces providing neutral buoyancy of hydraulic turbine. Adjustable ballast in hollow part of carrying shaft-cylinder provides variable buoyancy of hydraulic turbine to submerge hydraulic turbine in water completely at neutral buoyancy or rising to surface. Energy converter is connected with electric generators arranged on the bank through system transmitting rotation and arranged in bank cavities. Rotation transmitting system employs different modes of transmission of rotation and connection and movable power unit with travel motion mechanism by means of which it displaces inside cavity. Movable power unit is connected with energy converter and, moving vertically, can set power converter at required depth.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

4 dwg

 

Gravity chain hydroelectric (BIGGES) refers to small hydropower.

You know the invention of EN No. 2261360 C2, CL. F03B 13/00, 27.09.2005, in which the energy Converter (PE), which convert the energy of water flow motion into rotational energy, works effectively on the surface of the water, using the energy of not only flow, but also waves. In the submerged position, its efficiency decreases.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency when working at depth, the improvement of the design of the turbine (GT) foundations of PE.

BIGGES consists of three main parts: one or more PE, placed at a certain depth, power plants with generators or generators located on one or both sides of the river, and coastal systems torque transmission (SST), connecting the first two parts.

Figure 1 and 2 shows a General view and cross section of GT.

PE consists of one or more serially connected in garland GT.

GT is made in the form of a hollow rotor shaft of the cylinder 3 with the tapered fairing 2 on the grounds. To the shaft of the cylinder 3 is attached by forming his or at some angle thereto, the blade-semi-cylinders 5 so that the bearing shaft-cylinder 3 fits into the inner ends of the blades of the semi-cylinders 5. The outer ends of the blades of the semi-cylinders 5 are fastened together in a few the fir locations along the length of the GT narrow rings-hoops 4. With rings on the ends of the GT is made in the form of hollow volumetric zones 1 cylindrical, trapezoidal or other cross-sectional shapes. They do, on the one hand, the power role, having rigid connection with the upper ends of the blades of the semi-cylinders 5, and on the other, are containers for placement of ballast, providing neutral buoyancy GT. The heavier the design of the GT, the bigger will be the end zone, but the diameter of the bearing shaft-cylinder remains unchanged. Consequently, it is possible, without changing the effective length of the blades of the semi-cylinders to compensate for any weight GT and thereby to increase the efficiency of GT. Hollow belt should not cover the end surface of the GT fully. You need to ensure the free circulation of water inside the GT, to prevent clogging and occlusion megapath spaces. Thus, GT is a multi-cylinder, with variable buoyancy, adjustable ballast in the hollow part of the rotor shaft of the cylinder so that GT could completely immersed, having neutral buoyancy, or come out of it.

The use of GT with blades in the shape of a semi-cylinders allows not only to increase the effective area of the blades, but the number of them, are simultaneously involved in the work. There are blades that are in the II and III quadrants (figure 2), and the blades in the I and IV Quad is the ants with their convex surfaces will have a minimum braking. The direction of rotation of the GT does not change if the stream is to act with the opposite hand. Therefore, GT can work effectively not only on unidirectional flows of rivers, but also on the movements of the tides. Only in this case, the GT should be immersed below the level of low tide and below the sole of the waves under strong excitement during low tide. Then there would be a reliable work GT at low tide in any weather. On the same rivers deep dive GT will retain their performance in the winter time during the freeze-up and will not impede the navigation of the free water. To increase shaft power PE, GT are connected sequentially to the garland. PE in the form of garlands of GT can be installed between the abutments on the banks and are connected via a special transmission systems (SST) of the rotation generators or generators (GG), located in building power stations, forming thus BIGGES.

Figure 3 shows a plan unconfined chain of hydroelectric power.

It is built on the steep banks of the river. Shore 7, "dressed" in concrete cover, have niches 8, which are movable power blocks (PSB) 9 SST having a kinematic connection with PE 5 and generators or generators 13, located in buildings ES 11. PE has a few GT 5, the shafts of which soy is inany between a cross (flexible) of the compound 6. In addition, there existed a relationship through flexible hoses for compressed air in the hollow vessel bearing shaft-cylinder 3 (figure 3 not shown). PE its ends connected with the PSB 9 on the opposite sides 7. To compensate for the effort with the rapid currents can be applied rope guy 16 which is fixed to the abutments 7 and compensators tensioning 20 in figure 4, attached to the body of the PSB associated with the shafts PE connections, nephropathie their rotation. On ES 11 and 11a are mounted generators or generators 13. At the entrance of each BIENNIUM cost multipliers 14 with the calculated transmission coefficient of rotation. If one powerful BIENNIUM are several PE: a, b and C, then use the adder (differential with reverse function) 12 and overrunning clutch 26. If GG have different speeds with their agents, option separate connection to the corresponding PE. Figure 3 two same YEARS, with different speeds of rotation with their agents connected to its working shafts to separate PE: E and G, and their agents (low-power) - one common PE - F. For their own needs ES can have their PE and GH (D, figure 3) on both sides of the river, providing energy to all parts of BIGGES and workshops 15.

Environmentally friendly PE at the same time, require the same treatment. Therefore, BIGGES desirable building is at the top of the flow from settlements, protecting their nets 17.

Transmission system rotation (SST) must exercise its functions under any provisions of PE. Figure 4 shows a scheme PSPV. It consists of bundles telescopic shaft 10, the ends of which hosted sites systems gears with crossed axes 18. Moreover, the top node 18 is rigidly connected with GH through the multiplier 14 (and possibly overrunning clutch 26 figure 3), and the bottom node 18, which is movable in the power unit 9 is connected to one side with PE managed through the coupling 21, and on the other, with the movement mechanism 22.

Mobile power block (PSB) 9 serves to establish PE to the depth required for the work or the needs of navigation, lifting it to the surface for prevention, repair or replacement, and compensation of all power loads created by the river on PE. PSB 9 made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, set vertically, with the rollers 19, allowing it to move along the guide rails within a niche 8. The length of the PSB should be such that when fully submerged to the desired depth of the top edge of it towered above the surface of the water. PSB sealed against water penetration. Below it is attached to the host system gears 18, the input shaft which is connected with the shaft PE 5 through the connection 6 and the driven clutch 21, located inside the PSB. Output PSB connected with ignem shaft 10 telescopic ligament SST shaft, and on the other, with the movement mechanism 22, which is shown in the Form And figure 4.

The mechanism of movement (MP) necessary to implement the movement of PSB on rails within a niche 8. It consists of three driven clutch 21, 21A and 21B, two gears 24, worm gear pair 25 and two outer walls, on the sides of the PSB, the toothed gear 23 included in engagement with the racks (not shown), mounted within a niche 8. MP is activated by connection of the coupling 21 and one of vzaimoisklyuchayushiye couplings 21A or 21B. Then the rotation from the Peh is transmitted to the worm gear pair 25 and the gear 23 mounted on the axis of the worm wheel. Depending on which of the clutches 21A or 21B is connected, the rotation of the worm gear pair will be clockwise or counterclockwise and the PSB will be displaced up or down by a recess 8. Using MP PSB together with PZ can be briefly descend, passing large vessel over PE without halting operation mode PE. Also PSB together with the PH can be raised to the surface for the implementation of the mooring PE with PSB. Of course, in all such operations must be observed synchrony of movements PSB on both ends of the PE.

Turbines in PE under the action of the currents can be at some angle to the front of the flow. To improve their efficiency, you can use GT with blades-poluchil is harami, set at an angle to the generatrix of the bearing shaft-cylinder. This is shown in the PE G.

Tidal power plant with a PE of this design differ from the river only coastal foundations. They can be natural: fjords, bays and other depressions and protrusions of land, and artificial as embankments, piers, trestles and other structures. Efficiency PE will be higher if using DPM to monitor the level of water, keeping the PH at the surface or in another area with the greatest velocity.

The principle of BIGGES next. Water flow acting on the open blades of the semicylinders GT, causes them to rotate. The rotation is transmitted through the clutch 21, the bottom node of the transmission system 18 in the PSB, a bunch of telescopic shafts SST 10 and the upper unit gear 18 to the multiplier 14 and the hydro generator 13 in ES 11.

BIGGES this design will find the widest application in large rivers of the Far East, Siberia, European part and in the tidal zones of the country. BIGGES environmentally friendly and cheap in construction can provide uninterrupted power supply and cities and coastal towns, large and small industrial enterprises located in remote locations, without the long lines.

Gravity chain hydroelectric power plant for the energy of the currents of the river tides, containing the energy Converter directly converts the energy of the translational motion of water flow into kinetic energy of rotation and consisting of one or more serially connected in garland turbines, each of which is made in the form of a hollow rotor shaft is a cylinder with a cone fairing on grounds attached along generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle thereto, the blade is semi-cylinders, so that the bearing shaft-cylinder fits into the inner ends of the blades of the semi-cylinders and their outer ends are tied together in several places by narrow rings hoops form a multi-cylinder, characterized in that at the ends of the cylinder is placed a hollow ballast tank in the form of rings of cylindrical form or in the form of hollow volumetric zones cylindrical shape, is rigidly connected with the upper ends of the blades of the semi-cylinders, but not fully covering the ends of the turbine, in which the ballast is to provide neutral buoyancy of the turbine and which together with the capacity in the hollow part of the rotor shaft is a cylinder and placed in her ballast, adjustable from the outside, allow the turbine to the surface of the water or sink in water, without compromising the speed and connection with the neighboring turbines in garland pre is brazaletes energy and communications of the energy Converter with a mobile power unit, located in a niche on the shore, by which the power Converter is installed to the desired depth and is transmitting rotation through the gear system and the mechanisms connections from the energy Converter to the power generators located on the coast, as well as to the mechanism of movement, located in the movable power unit and performing its moving up and down in an alcove.



 

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