Method of modification of the hydrophobic surfaces
FIELD: medical and biological instrumentation industry; methods of modification of the hydrophobic surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of modification of hydrophobic surfaces and may be used for upgrading the hydrophobic surfaces used in the scanning probe microscopy, in the immune-enzyme analysis, at development of the biochips. The method of modification of hydrophobic surfaces includes deposition on the surface of the modifying monolayer of the complex composition molecules containing the functional group, the section forming the hydrogenous ties and the hydrophobic section. At that as the functional group the molecule contains, at least, one group sampled from the following row:NH2, СООН, СНО,ONH2, SH; as the section forming the hydrogen ties the molecule contains the fragments -NH(CH2)nCO- ,where п=1-5, and as the hydrophobic section the molecule contains the fragment -(СН2)n , where n=5-12, or the similar fragment with one or several insertions of the heteroatoms sampled from the row of O, S, NH. In particular, such molecules may have the following composition[Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H20. The invention allows to ensure the high quality evenness of the modified surfaces, reproducibility of their properties and reduction of the time interval of the modification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the high quality evenness of the modified surfaces, reproducibility of their properties and reduction of the time interval of the modification.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to a method of modifying a hydrophobic surfaces, in particular of surface modification of high-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and may find applications in scanning probe microscopy, immunoassay analysis, creating biochips, as well as to impart hydrophobic surfaces other surface properties.
There is a method of modifying a hydrophobic surface, disclosed in the article:
"Manipulation and Overstretching of Genes on Solid Substrates" Nikolai Severin, Jolrg Barner, Tony A.Kalachev, and Julrgen P.Rabe, NANO LETTERS, 2004, Vol.4, No. 4, 577-579.
The authors modified HOPG surface by depositing a monolayer of octadecylamine and dodecylamine from chloroform or benzene using spinner.
The disadvantages of the method include the fact that damage to the monolayer contains water-insoluble molecules, between which there is only hydrophobic interactions, respectively, the modified surface exhibits hydrophobic properties. For applying a monolayer of octadecylamine and dodecylamine to the surface requires a special device - spinner. In addition, alkali on the surface form a lamella that demonstrates the heterogeneity of the monolayer.
The closest to the invention is a method of modifying a hydrophobic surface by applying to the surface of the monolayer of polymer molecular is, containing hydrophilic side chains and hydrophobic side chains (US 6759388, published. 06.07.2004). The polymer is a mixture of molecules of different molecular weight, and very large. First, it is not possible to obtain a surface with high smoothness, as in the known method, the roughness of the modified surface is 7-12 angstroms (in the claimed method - 1-2 Angstrom). Secondly, the volatility of the molecular structure of the polymer is not possible to obtain the same surface in the same conditions. In addition, the modification time of the molecules of the polymer is large - hours (in the claimed method.
The technical result of the claimed method is to provide high smoothness of the surface, the reproducibility of the properties of modified surfaces and reducing the time of the modification.
The technical result is achieved by the method of modifying a hydrophobic surface, comprising coating the surface modifier of the monolayer, according to which is applied a monolayer of molecules of complex composition, containing functional group, area, forming hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic region, thus:
as the functional group of the molecule contains at least one group selected from NH2, COOH, Cho, ONH2SH, as the site, forming hydrogen of light and - fragments-NH(CH2)nCO-, where n=1-5, and as the hydrophobic site of the molecule contains a fragment -(CH2)nor fragment(CF2)n-where n=5-12, or the same fragment with one or more inserts heteroatoms such as O, S, NH.
In the best embodiment of the invention is applied to the monolayer of molecules characterized by the formula [Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H10where Gly is a glycine residue.
In the private embodiment of the invention, the monolayer is applied to the surface of high-oriented pyrolytic graphite.
The essence of the proposed method is the use of individual molecules of a substance having the composition of a hydrophobic part and a hydrophilic part that carries the desired functional group (NH2, COOH, etc) and at the same time with the plot (part), capable of forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds.
The hydrophobic portion of the molecule interact with the hydrophobic surface, and the portion of the molecule that can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds, provides interaction between neighboring molecules. Thus, the hydrophobic surface is formed monomolecular film, in which each molecule interacts with neighboring in the monolayer molecules (through the formation of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic surface (through the Hydra is falnoga interaction), moreover, the orientation of the molecules in the layer (in the film) is strictly determined by these interactions, so that the functional group exposed at the opposite surface direction and available for further use.
Hereinafter the invention is described by examples with reference to figures 1-3.
Figure 1. The formula of the molecule, corresponding to one of the proposed structures of molecules.
Figure 2. The image of the HOPG surface after modification of the proposed method obtained by using atomic force microscope (AFM).
Figure 3. Image of DNA molecules adsorbed on the surface of high-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), modified the proposed method obtained using AFM.
The invention is carried out as follows.
For surface modification of high-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was used molecules: [Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H20(figure 1), where 1 - amino group, 2-4 glycine residue, 3 - hydrocarbon chain With10H20.
This molecule in aqueous solution is folded in half and forms a molecule with the proposed in this patent structure:
- the functional part (two amino);
- polyglycidol plot (4×2 glycine residue)that can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds;
hydrophobic the plot (hydrocarbon chain With 10H20).
An example of a specific implementation.
On a fresh cleaved HOPG put a drop of the solution [Gly4-NHCH2]2With10H20dissolved in water, with a volume of 50 μl and a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml was kept for 5-10 minutes and was removed by a stream of nitrogen or compressed air.
After this procedure, the surface of the graphite is completely covered by a monolayer of [Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H20.
After incubation sizescolors HOPG at 0.01 mg/ml aqueous solution of this substance on the surface of HOPG is formed almost defect-free monolayer of these molecules (figure 2). The AFM image shows the layer formed by these molecules are also small defects in the monolayer, but their number is small. The average roughness of the surface after deposition of the monolayer [Gly4-NHCH2]2With10H20is about 0.2 nm to modification, while to the modification of the surface sizescolors HOPG has a roughness of less than 0.05 nm, which indicates the formation of a monolayer. Changing the wettability of the surface after modification it becomes more hydrophilic, which can be seen in the spreading of water droplets deposited on the modified HOPG. Before modification the surface sizescolors HOPG fully namachivayam water. A surface roughness of less than 0.2 nm, visible atomar the e steps on the HOPG crystal.
The activity of the surface after modification was verified by deposition of DNA molecules. It is known that DNA molecules are not adsorbed on the HOPG surface due to its hydrophobicity and inertia. However, after modification of the proposed method the HOPG surface acquires a positive charge and the DNA molecules with a negative charge in water, contact with it (figure 3).
For the implementation of the proposed invention in a similar way we also used the following substances:
All these modifying substances allows the t to obtain the technical result because they are all individual substances (oligomers), the monolayer which provides a smooth surface (1-2 Angstrom) and the identity of samples obtained with one and the same substance under identical conditions. Modification time for all of these substances is a few minutes.
Likewise modified the surface of the mica, which was previously gidrofobizirovan using trimethylchlorosilane.
The procedure of waterproofing mica:
Svezhesmoloty the mica was aged in pairs of trimethylchlorosilane for 15-20 minutes, then was heated in an argon atmosphere to 100°and was maintained under these conditions for 10 minutes. After this procedure, the mica surface was water-resistant, i.e. hydrophobic. The procedure of modifying the hydrophobic surface of mica was completely similar to the modification of the graphite. The difference was slightly increased surface roughness of 0.2-0.4 nm. The ability to adsorb DNA molecules this surface coincides with the surface of HOPG.
It is also possible to modify the surface of the silicon and silicon oxide. The procedure is exactly the same as for mica, preliminary hydrophobization by trimethylchlorosilane. It may be of interest for microelectronics, as all technologies using silicon and silicon oxide (quartz).
You can also modify the surface of carbon nanotubes, as it is close to the surface of HOPG.
The use of water-soluble drug in contrast to solutions in benzene or chloroform more environmentally harmless and does not require special conditions (ventilation, for example).
Additional interaction between the molecules by means of hydrogen bonds makes the coating more durable. So, if you are scanning using AFM DNA molecules do not move the probe, and in the following similar they can move.
The modification is achieved by simple immersion or wetting of the sample in solution and requires no additional equipment spinner or centrifuges.
The modification of the surface with the use of water-soluble molecules leads to the formation on the surface of self-organised monolayer without the formation of lamellae, and functional groups in the monolayer are oriented from the surface up to the solution. Modified surface does not introduce additional distortion in the shape of the observed DNA molecules.
The wettability or partial wettability allows to significantly extend the use of these substrates, for example, you can apply other biomolecules or viral particles, which cannot be deposited on a hydrophobic surface.
The invention is not limiting what is shown by the example, and can also be used in the following areas:
1. The surface modification of HOPG for use as a substrate for observing biopolymers and other biological objects by scanning probe microscopy.
2. The surface modification of plastic and glass for adsorption of cells or antibodies, for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
3. When using special functional groups capable of specific binding to create biochips. I.e. from solution on the surface will be deposited only those groups that have an affinity to these functional groups.
4. The surface coating of implants for better biocompatibility.
5. To impart hydrophobic surfaces other surface properties - increase in the sorption capacity or improve the wettability. For example, in the textile industry, for better staining dyes wool or other fabrics.
1. A method of modifying a hydrophobic surface, comprising coating the surface modifying monolayer of molecules of complex composition, containing functional group, area, forming hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic region, the functional groups of the molecule contains at least one group selected from a number of NH2, COOH, Cho, ONH2SH, is the quality of the site, forming a hydrogen bond, the molecule contains fragments-NH(CH2)nCO-, where n=1-5, and as the hydrophobic site of the molecule contains a fragment -(CH2)n-, where n=5-12, or the same fragment with one or more inserts heteroatoms selected from the series O, S, NH.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that put a monolayer of molecules characterized by the formula [Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H20where Gly is a glycine residue.
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of manufacture of the composite materials on the basis of the expanded graphite.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used at manufacture of the adsorbents, the porous carbon carriers and the metal=containing catalytic agents. The method provides, that first prepare the 1-2 % cellulose solution in the 5-8.5 % sodium hydroxide water solution. The produced solution is mixed with the expanded graphite in the mass ratio of the graphite to the cellulose of (1-2.5) : (2-1) accordingly. The composition prepared this way is carbonize with heating rate of 4°С per a minute up to 600°С maintaining this temperature within 1 hour. To impart the composite material the catalytic and adsorption properties the cellulose solution may be added with 2-5 mass % of the modifying compound of the transition metal in terms of the metal. The invention ensures simplification of the composite material production process, the improvement of its quality due to the homogeneity of allocation of the active carbon in the lower die of the expanded graphite.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the composite material production process, the improvement of its quality.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: building materials industry; metallurgy industry; other industries; methods of production of the initial refractory materials and the refractory products manufactured with their usage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the refractory products and may be used in building materials industry, metallurgy industry, other industries for production of the refractory materials and products. The refractory materials are produced by molding the composition, which contains the refractory filler and the initial refractory material with the graphite grains having the average size of 500 nanometers or less, or with the graphite grains produced by the graphitization of the carbonic carbon black. The graphite grains contain at least one component selected from the group consisting of metals, boron and silicon. The refractory materials alongside with the refractory filler may contain also the carbon grains (A), selected from the carbonic carbon black and the graphite grains produced by the graphitization of the carbonic carbon black and having absorption - DBP (x) 80 ml/100g or more; the carbon grains () selected from the carbonic carbon black and the graphite grains produced by the graphitization of carbonic carbon black, and having absorption -DBP (x) less than 80 ml/100g. The invention allows to improve the thermal impact stability of the refractory materials, their corrosion resistance and the oxidation resistance.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved thermal impact stability of the refractory materials, their corrosion resistance and the oxidation resistance.
19 cl, 7 ex, 2 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods and devices for production of the thermo-extended graphite.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used at manufacture of the flexible articles, composites, gaskets, compactions, coatings, antifriction and thermal-protective materials, sorbents. The heating chamber (4), the bottom of which is made in the form of the inverted cone, is charged with the oxidizing catalyst from the hopper (1) having the batcher (2) and the branch-pipe (3). Then fill the hopper (1) with the oxidized graphite and switch on the heating components (5). After reaching the temperature of 600-800°C they switch off the heating. Feed the working oxygen-containing gas through the branch-pipe (10), the gas-carrier - the fuel gas feed through the branch-pipe (3), at their volumetric ratio equal to the stoichiometric value so ensuring the fluidization of the catalytic agent. The oxidized graphite from the hopper (1) is fed into the chamber (4) and passes through the fluidized layer of the catalytic agent. Then it is fed into the chamber of rarefaction (8), the lower part of which is made in the form of the funnel out of the porous gas-permeable material at the simultaneous chilling by the stream of the gas-thinner fed through the nozzle (6). The refrigerated expanded graphite is fed in the collector (7). The invention allows to intensify the process and to increase the efficiency of the installation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the production process intensification and the increased efficiency of the installation.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: atomic industry; chemical industry; metallurgy; heat power engineering; methods and reactors for graphite treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the atomic industry, chemical industry, metallurgy and heat power engineering and may be used for production the flexible graphite foil, sorbents, catalytic agents, chemical sources of electric current. Suspension of the graphite in the electrolyte, for example, in the nitric acid having the electronic conduction from the hopper (15) through the branch pipe (8) load into the reaction chamber formed by the cathode (3) and the consumed anode (7) from the anode-soluble in the electrolyte metal or its alloy. The anode (7) is arranged in the lower part of the body of the reactor(1) and is made in the form of the movable band, which ends are consolidated on the unwinding drum (10) and the winding drum (11). On the exterior side of the cathode (3) the diaphragm (5) is disposed. Conduct an anodic oxidation of the graphite with production of the compounds of the anodic oxidation containing the compounds of embedding in the graphite (CEG) and the cations of the metal of the anode (7) at the suspension movement through the reaction chamber. The products of the anodic oxidation are cleared off from the surface of the cathode (3) by the fluoroplastic knife (16) and through the branch pipe (9) unload it into the hopper-collector (17). Then they are subjected to the hydrolysis or they are added with the alkali or the soda ash, flushed and dried with production of the oxidized graphite with the hydroxides of metal or without them. After that they conduct the thermal expansion. The invention allows to make the technological process cheaper and to dilate the production capabilities due to production both of the conventional foam graphite and the composite material based on the foam graphite with addition of the metals or their oxides.
EFFECT: the invention allows to make the technological process cheaper, to dilate the production of the conventional foam graphite and the composite material based on the foam graphite with addition of the metals or their oxides.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: metallurgy; semiconductor and aeronautical engineering; manufacture of electrodes, seals for aircraft engines and super clean articles.
SUBSTANCE: coke at yield of volatile agents of 4.0-12.0 mass-% in which fraction of size lesser than 0.09 mm is no less than 97 mass-% and fraction of size lesser than 0.045 mm is no less than 91 mass-% is mixed with 30-40 mass-% of coal-tar pitch, 0.015-2.0 mass-% of sterically hindered phenols and/or phenyl phosphites and 0.015-2.0 mass-% of stearic acid. Mass ratio of stearic acid to sterically hindered phenols and/or phenyl phosphites ranges from 1:1 to 2:1. Mixing with coal-tar pitch is performed at temperature of 110-160°C. Mass thus obtained is cooled to room temperature, crushed, ground and blanks at density of 1.01-1.25 g/cm3 are molded and roasted at 1000°C. Roasted blanks are graphitized at temperature rise by the following scheme: to 800°C, 30-60°C/h; to 1500, 5-25°C/h; to 2200°C, 15045°C/h. Holding time at each stage is equal to 3/7 h. Material thus obtained has apparent density of 1650-1870 kg/m3 at compressive strength of 103-160 Mpa and bending strength of 81-88 Mpa.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of sorbent on base of thermally expanded graphite used for extraction of water-insoluble compounds from water, soil and hard surfaces; gathering concentrated acids.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes loading bin, proportioner, branch pipe for delivery of carrier gas, branch pipe for delivery of starting raw material (oxidized graphite), expansion chamber, separator with vertical partition and receiving bin. Proposed plant is also provided with ejector and tangential flow swirler combined with it; branch pipe for delivery of starting raw material is provided with external envelope for passing the coolant; ejector is mounted at expansion chamber inlet under outlet hole of starting material delivery branch pipe.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements with no reduction in productivity; improved quality of sorbent.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: atomic industry; chemical industry; metallurgy; heat-and-power engineering; production of the oxidized black lead.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used is pertaining to the methods of production of the oxidized black lead and may be used in atomic industry, chemical industry, metallurgy, heat-and-power engineering at production of heat-insulating and refractory materials, a flexible graphite foil, sorbents. Prepare a non-laminated, having electronic conductivity suspension of black lead in 70-98 % H2SO4. The suspension may be further added with H3PO4 orCH3COOH. The gained suspension is fed into to the reactor 1 of the hopper 12 through a branch-pipe 3 by means of a piston 13. In the reaction chamber 9 it is moved by gravity flow along the hollow perforated cathode 7 and gets in contact with the anode 5. The anodic oxidation of the black lead conduct without its prepressing to the anode in absence of a free electrolyte with production of the electrical power in amount of no less than 30 A·h/kg of black lead at a constant value of the electric current or at a constant anode potential. Excess of an acid passes through a separator made out of a filtering fabric 8 and enters in the internal cavity of the cathode 7, one end 11 of which is open and then - into a collector 17. The ionic bond between the cathode 7 and the anode 8 is conducted through the separator 8, preventing an occurrence of a possible short circuit. The ring-type design of the reaction chamber 9 ensures uniformity of treatment of the anode and the least hydraulic resistance. The oxidized black lead is discharged through a branch-pipe 4, hydrolyzed, flushed, filtered and dried. The invention allows to boost productivity and to produce a foam-graphite after its frothing at the temperature of 900°C with a high degree uniformity and a bulk density of 1.5-3.2 g/l.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased productivity and production of a foam-graphite with a high degree uniformity and a good bulk density.
22 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: manufacture of articles from carbon materials, electrodes for example.
SUBSTANCE: articles made from carbon materials are heated in electrical furnace and are held to preset degree of graphitization. During heating and holding at heat, present magnitudes of temperature of characteristic point of articles located in end face of blank in center section of upper row is recorded. Moment of discontinuation of holding at heat and switching-off electric power is found from the following formula: : where γ is degree of graphitization; τ1-τ2 is time interval where graphitization takes place, h; F is function characterizing the time dependence of isothermal holding, h required for obtaining preset degree of graphitization versus graphitization temperature; T (τ) is present temperature of characteristic point of articles, °C; is present time, h.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements down to 5% at scheduled graphitization and down to 13% at forced graphitization.
FIELD: atomic industry; chemical industry; metallurgy; heat-and-power engineering; a method and a device for production of the oxygenated graphite.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of production of the oxygenated graphite and a device for its realization and may be used in atomic, a chemical industry, in metallurgy and heat power engineering at production of a flexible graphite foil, heat-insulating and fire-proof materials, sorbents. Graphite suspension is prepared in 30-98 % sulfuric acid or nitric acid. The ratio of the electroconductivities of the suspension and each acid exceeds 1. The suspension may additionally contain H3POorCH3COOH. The produced suspension is continuously or discretely is discharged through a branch pipe 3 in the reaction chambers 11 of the merry-go-round type reactor 1 with a cylindrical body 2, an annular anode 6 made in the form of a chute and cathodes 10 made the form of vanes. The anode 6 is mounted in the body 2 coaxially with it and is supplied with a jacket of chilling 7. Cathodes 10 are supplied with the separation casings and fixed to a bracket 9 fixed on the shaft 8 of the rotary drives. Anodic oxidizing of graphite conduct without compacting of the anode 6 in absence of the free electrolyte at a constant value of the electric current or at a constant potential of the anode with a message confirming that the current value in both cases is no less than 30 A·h/kg graphite. Cathodes 10 transfer the suspension by a chute of the anode 6. The formed compound of implantation is unloaded through a branch pipe 4, hydrolyzed, flushed, filtered and dried. The invention allows to increase productivity and to produce a foamed graphite after dilatation at 900°C with a high degree of homogeneity and bulk density of 1.1-3.4 g/dm3.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased productivity and production of the foamed graphite with a high degree homogeneity and good bulk density.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry and special-purpose technique; manufacture of large-sized blanks of shaped articles for chemical and heat-exchange apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: starting coke-filler is mixed with coal-tar pitch and is impregnated with it; then mixture is calcined at temperature of 1100°C and ground to size not exceeding 1.25 mm at content of particles of no more than 0.07 mm in the amount not exceeding 50%. For obtaining fine-grained materials, grinding is continued till particles of 0.5 mm have been obtained. Powder thus obtained is mixed with pitch and blanks are molded from hot coke-pitch mass by extrusion through tip or in mold, after which blanks are subjected to roasting and graphitization. After roasting and graphitization, blanks may be again impregnated with coal-tar pitch and subjected to repeated roasting. Density of material thus made ranges from 1.65 to 1.78 g/cm3, compressive strength ranges from 30.0 to 51.3 Mpa and bending strength ranges from 16 to 26.4 Mpa.
EFFECT: avoidance of rejects.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly construction material production, namely coverings for ceramic articles, preferably for silicate and ceramic face bricks.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cleaning article surface; covering cleaned article surface with dizyan bisphenol ester in amount of 30-40 g per one m2 of article surface; applying powdered paint and heating the article at 180°C temperature for 20 minutes for covering obtaining.
EFFECT: increased covering quality due to increased strength and powdered paint adhesion with article surface to be covered.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: sorbents and water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to ion-exchange sorbents based on naturally occurring zeolites modified with synthetic polymers and can be used in a variety of industry fields and when solving environmental problems associated with purification of natural water and waste waters to remove cesium and strontium radionuclids, heavy metals and ammonium, petroleum derivatives and other organics. Invention provides a method of preparing organomineral sorbent via polymerization of olefin on the surface of fine mineral particles under the influence of a catalytic system comprising metal-containing catalyst and alumoxane cocatalyst fixed on the surface of mineral particles as a result of interaction of organoaluminum compound of general formula AlRnX3-n, where R is C2-C4-alkyl, X is Cl or H, and n=2-3, with water of the fine mineral, which is notably natural zeolite with particle size below 60 μm and containing 9-15% water, above-said metal-containing catalyst being vanadium compound or zirconocene. Polymerization of olefin is conducted high-molecular weight polyolefin coating forms on the surface of zeolite in amount of 2-10% by weight. Resulting sorbent is characterized by high ion-exchange and sorption properties allowing employment thereof in carrying out sorption processes under dynamic conditions. Sorbent further possesses hardness and high chemical inertness allowing repetitive utilization thereof. Plasticity of polyolefin coating, in turn, allows manufacturing sorbent samples with desired shape and dimensions.
EFFECT: improved sorption capacity and other performance characteristics of sorbent.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; sanitary cleaning of gas ejection.
SUBSTANCE: chemical absorber can be used for dry rendering gas mixtures harmless. Chemical absorber has timber chips processed by mixture of hydroxide water solution and sulphur-containing salt of one or more alkali metal. Degree of oxidation of sulphur in sulphur-containing salt doesn't exceed +4. Content of alkali metal hydroxide in absorber equals to 10-40 mass percent; content of sulphur is absorber equals to 1,5-6,5 mass percent. Timber chips used in absorber have thickness less or equal to 1 mm, width of 2 mm and wider and length of 50 mm and longer. To prepare chemical absorber, timber chips are soaked in hydroxide and sulfite and/or thiosulphate of alkali metal solution, kept in till swelling, impregnated and are subject to drying.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
8 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; sanitary cleaning of gas ejection.
SUBSTANCE: chemical absorber has base of timber chips processed by hydroxide water solution of one and more alkali metal till achieving alkali metal content in absorber up to 10-50 mass percent. Timber chips have thickness less or equal to 1 mm, width of 2 mm and wider and length of 50 mm and longer. To prepare chemical absorber, timber chips are soaked in solution, kept in till swelling, impregnated by alkali agent and are supposed to drying till achieving humidity of 10-15 mass percent. Absorber is capable of catching HF, SO2, CO2, HCl and other sore gases.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
5 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: production of composite sorption materials on base of fibrous carbon material and natural bio-polymer-chitosan.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes electrochemical treatment of carbon fibrous material at cathode or anode polarization at interval of potentials of (+1.5) to (-1.5) V relative to comparison silver chloride electrode by 0.05-0.5% chitosan solution in diluted hydrochloric acid in presence of sodium chloride, holding it at preset potential for 20-180 min for forming chitosan film on surface of carbon fibrous material followed by washing the material with water and drying.
EFFECT: possibility of producing materials at varying properties due to performance of process in wider range of polarization potentials.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: water treatment and sorbents.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for treating drinking or industrial water with high levels of heavy metal ions and polar organics, in particular dyes. Method comprises treatment of naturally occurring aluminosilicate (zeolite, swollen vermiculite, or mixture thereof) with chitosan solution in dilute acetic acid at aluminosilicate-to-chitosan solution weight ratio 1:1 and final supernatant pH value 8-9. Resulting plastic mass is granulated by extrusion through specified-size dies, granules obtained are dried and then treated with solution of humin acids taken in amount ensuring full binding of chitosan amino groups. Thereafter, sorbent granules are separated from solution and polymer layer formed on the surface of granules is hardened.
EFFECT: achieved combination of high sorbent capacity and good sorbent workability parameters, namely high filterability and strength caused by hardened surface layer on granules.
7 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: liquid waste treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides complexion structure containing conducting or semiconducting substrate, to which organic polymer film is grafted containing monomer selected from 4-vinylpyridine and vinylbipyridine plus cross-linking agent, namely divinylbenzene. Preparation method includes step, in which above electrically neutral organic polymer is grafted, said polymer being able of complexion ions via electropolymerization while electric grafting is performed on conducting or semiconducting substrate in presence of above cross-linking agent.
EFFECT: enhanced waste treatment efficiency.
2 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: gas-treatment materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption engineering, particularly to process gas drying processes and to individual and collective respiratory apparatus protection systems. Proposed method comprises impregnation of silica gel with aqueous solution containing 380 g/L calcium chloride and 480 g/L lithium bromide at solution temperature 10-20°C and ratio of silica gel pore volume to solution volume 1:(0.9-1.0); stirring for 15-20 min; drying at 300-450°C for 0.8 h; screening and recovery of fraction with granule diameter 1.0-3.0 mm.
EFFECT: increased strength and workability of drier.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: polymeric sorbents.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides complexing sorbent containing active polymer layer condensed with complexons and immobilized on a solid support selected from the following group: .epoxated cellulose, styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers, activated with chloromethyl, hydroxymethyl, sulfone chloride groups, and sulfone group-activated phenol-formaldehyde resins. Active sorption layer contains ethylenediamine or diethylenetriamine, or triethylenetetramene, or polyethylenepolyamine with copolymers, whereas complexons are selected from group including carboxyl-containing complexons, hydroxyl-containing complexons, and phosphone-containing complexons.
EFFECT: enabled sorption of unlike-valent ions of a variety of metals from aqueous solutions within a wide pH range and regeneration of sorbent by treatment with dilute mineral acid.
18 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl