Determination of emergency object coordinates by elevation angle and time doppler method

FIELD: space engineering; spacecraft flying in earth artificial satellite orbit, but for geostationary orbit stabilized by rotation along vertical axis.

SUBSTANCE: system used for realization of this method includes spacecraft case, infra-red horizon pulse sensor, receiving antenna, comparison unit, receiver, Doppler frequency meter, biased blocking oscillator, two AND gates, two rectifiers, pulse generator, pulse counter, switching circuit, magnetic storage, transmitter, transmitting antenna, onboard timing device, onboard master oscillator and emergency object transmitter. Doppler frequency meter includes 90-deg phase shifter, two mixers, two difference frequency amplifiers, 180-deg phase inverter, two AND gates and reversible counter. Frequency of received oscillations is preliminarily reduced in two processing channels.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of coordinates due to accurate measurement of minor magnitudes of Doppler frequency and recording its zero magnitude.

3 dwg

 

The proposed method belongs to the space technology and can be used on the spacecraft that are in orbit of an artificial Earth satellite, in addition to geostationary stabilized by rotation along the vertical axis.

Known methods and systems of determining the coordinates of the emergency object (RF patents №№2.155.352, 2.158.003, 2.040.860, 2.59.423, 2.174.092, 2.193.990, 2.201.601, 2.206.902, 2.226.479, 2.240.950; U.S. patent No. 4.161.730, 4.646.090, 4.947.177; Scuba R.A. and other Companion at the helm. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1989. - 168 C. and others).

Known methods and systems closest to the proposed is "Elevation time-Doppler method for determining coordinates of the emergency object (patent RF №2.174.092, 64G 1/10, 1999), which is selected as a prototype.

According to a known method searches for such a spatial position of the receiving antenna of the satellite in the event of operation of the transmitter of the emergency object, when the Doppler frequency of the received signal is equal to zero. At this point, measure the angle between the axis of the receiving antenna and the axis of the horizon sensor. The coordinates of the ground point of the track of the spacecraft at the time of measurement are calculated. The measurement is carried out twice. The coordinates of the two ground points and two dimensions of the specified angle determine the location of the emergency object.

There is a method provided the AET unambiguous definition and improving the accuracy of calculating the coordinates of the emergency object located on the Earth's surface, as well as the expansion of the area of the viewing surface and increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the receiving radio.

For the implementation of this method at the emergency object is a transmitter of signals having a high frequency stability. On Board the spacecraft (SC) is a measuring device, having in its composition a highly stable frequency standard, a frequency of which is equal to the frequency of the emergency transmitter or differs from it by a fixed amount. The comparison of the frequency of the received oscillations with a frequency reference allows you to set the value of the Doppler frequency offset and determine the speed.

However, it is necessary to provide very high frequency stability of the transmitter and the reference generator.

Really, only to notice the Doppler change in frequency that occurs when the motion of the SPACECRAFT with velocity V, it is necessary to provide a relative frequency instability of the radiated oscillations of not less than

where c is the speed of propagation of radio waves.

Provided that V=8 km/s, have

If you want not only to replace the Doppler shift frequency, but also to measure the velocity modulus with error ΔV, then carried ailnoth frequency should be significantly reduced, and it is at least V/Δ (V) times. General instability frequency of the radiated oscillations δ must be

Thus, for measuring small values of the Doppler frequency Fdand fixing its zero value when passing KA points abaft the beam frequency stability of the transmitter of the emergency object must be very high. This circumstance is a disadvantage of the known method and an obstacle to the wide use of no-request method of measuring the Doppler frequency.

An object of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measuring small values of the Doppler frequency and record its zero value by pre-reduction of the frequency of the received oscillations using heterogenerous two channels of processing.

The problem is solved by the fact that according to elevation and temporal Doppler method for determining coordinates of the emergency object placed on the surface of the Earth via spacecraft, stable rotation along the vertical axis, namely, that when the signal transmitter of the emergency object is displayed with a spacecraft strip on the surface of the Earth measured Doppler frequency no-request method, find the spatial location of kosmicheskogo apparatus at the moment when the Doppler frequency of the received signal is equal to zero, measure at this point in time, the angle between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor with reference measurements to the on-Board time, compute the coordinates of the sub-satellite point at the time specified dimension, and the measurement is carried out twice and the coordinates of the two ground points and two measurements of the angle between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor to determine the location of the emergency object on the Earth's surface, for measuring Doppler frequency no-request method uses two channels of processing, in which receive the signal, convert the frequency using a master oscillator, in the first processing channel voltage oscillator shift the phase by 90°allocate the voltage difference frequency, amplify and limit their amplitude, converting into clipped voltage of rectangular form, clipped voltage of the first channel processing is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative, and clipped the voltage of the second channel processing invert the phase by 180� received a short positive pulses quantuum neighboring positive voltage clipped voltage of the second channel processing, compares them with each other and automatically digitally determine not only the magnitude of the Doppler frequency, but also its sign, a value of zero Doppler frequency, which corresponds to the passage of the spacecraft points abaft the beam, forming a control pulse to permit further processing of the received signal.

The geometric layout of the SPACECRAFT and two ground points shown in figures 1 and 2. Structural diagram of on-Board equipment SPACECRAFT is shown in figure 3.

Onboard equipment SPACECRAFT includes a housing 1, a pulsed infrared sensor 2 horizon and consistently included receiving antenna 3, is hosted on the same axis opposite to the infrared sensor 2 horizon mechanical axis which does not coincide with the axis of rotation of the SPACECRAFT, the receiving device 5, a second input connected to the output of the onboard oscillator 19, 6 meter Doppler frequency, the device 4 comparison inhibited the blocking generator 7, a diagram And 9, a second inlet through which the schema And 8 is connected to the second outputs of the receiving device 5 and the blocking-oscillator 7, the valve 10, the circuit 14 of the switching magnetic storage device 15, a transmitter 16, a second input which is outinen with the second output of the circuit 14 of the switching and transmitting antenna 17. The second output of the onboard oscillator 19 are connected in series side temporary device 18 and the valve 11, the second input is connected with the second output of the circuit And 9, and the output connected to the second input circuit 14 of the switching. The output pulse of the infrared sensor 2 horizon connected counter 13 pulses, a second input connected to the output of the pulse generator 12, and the output is connected to the second input of gate 10.

The 6 meter Doppler frequency contains two channels of processing, each of which consists of sequentially connected to the first output of the receiving device 5, the mixer 22 (23), a second input connected to the first output of the onboard oscillator 19 through the phase shifter 21 90° (and directly), amplifier 24 (25) of the difference frequency and the amplifier-limiter 26 (27). The output of the amplifier-limiter 26 connected in series shaper 28 pulses, the first circuit 30, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier-limiter 27, and a summing input of reversible counter 32, the output of which is connected to the input of the 4 comparisons. The output of the amplifier-limiter 27 serially connected inverter 29 180° and the second circuit And 31, the second input of which is connected to the output of the shaper 28 pulses, and the output is connected to wikitude is at the input of the reversible counter 32.

The proposed method is as follows.

The translational motion of the SPACECRAFT in its orbit is carried out with a linear velocity V. Small segment of the orbit close to the point And the beam will assume a straight line. The axis of rotation KA rejected from the local vertical, it does not coincide with the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3. Pulse transmitter 2 horizon placed on the same axis opposite to the reception antenna 3 (1, 2).

The translational motion of the SPACECRAFT, the axis of rotation of which is rejected from the local vertical, moves the scan line pattern of the receiving antenna 3 and consistent view of the strip on the surface of the Earth along the orbit of the spacecraft. The rotation frequency of the AC is selected from the viewing conditions of the Earth's surface without a badge. Receiving antenna 3 is chosen such that the axis of the beam coincides with the mechanical axis of the antenna. To disambiguate the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 spacecraft is shifted relative to the axis of rotation at an angle βequal to the width of the directional receiving antenna (1, 2).

When the signal

uc(t)=Uccos(ωct+ϕc), 0≤t≤Tc,

where Ucthat ωcthat ϕc, Tc- amplitude, carrier frequency, initial phase, and long is inost signal

the transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the viewed band on the surface of the Earth, it is from the output of the receiver 5 is supplied to the first input of the mixers 22 and 23 meter 6 Doppler frequency, to the second input of which is supplied the voltage of the onboard oscillator 19 through the phase shifter 21 90° and directly, respectively:

uG1(t)=UG·sin(ωgt+ϕg),

uT2(t)=UG·cos(ωgt+ϕg),

where UGthat ωGthat ϕGthe amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage reference generator 19.

At the output of the mixers 22 and 23 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. Amplifiers 24 and 25 are voltage difference frequency, i.e. the frequency detuning (frequency beating):

up1(t)=Up·sin(ωpt+ϕp),

up2(t)=Up·cos(ωpt+ϕp),

where

K1- gain mixers;

ωpcG- intermediate frequency;

ϕpwithG,

coming to the inputs of limiting amplifiers 26 and 27, respectively. If the frequency ωwiththe received signal is above the frequency ωGmaster oscillator 19, the voltage difference frequency up1(t) and up2(t), videla is by amplifiers 24 and 25 of the difference frequency, will be shifted relative to each other by 90°, otherwise -90°. Therefore, a phase shift of the difference frequency ωpjumps up to 180° with the change of sign of the detuning.

Measurement of the difference frequency ωpis electron-counting method. For this voltage difference frequency up1(t) and up2(t) is converted with the help of limiting amplifiers 26 and 27 in the clipped voltage of rectangular shape. Moreover, the voltage of the rectangular shape from the output of the amplifier-limiter 26 using the shaper 28 pulses is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative. The voltage of the rectangular shape from the output of the amplifier-limiter 27 is inverted in phase by 180° with the help of the inverter 29. The short positive pulses are received on the input schema matching And 30 and 31, the second input of which is supplied a voltage of rectangular shape with the output of the amplifier-limiter 27. Short positive pulses appear at the output of the pattern matching And 30 and 31, the output of which the moments of occurrence of short positive pulses coincide with the positive rectangular voltage is Oia, and their number will be determined by the frequency detuning ωp. Indications reversible counter 32 will correspond to the size and sign of the detuning (Doppler frequency).

Thus, the 6 meter Doppler frequency allows to automatically determine not only the magnitude of the Doppler frequency, but also its sign.

The advantage of this meter is a high accuracy of measurement and presentation of measurement results in binary code.

When reaching the Doppler frequency value of zero, the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 is located at the point of beam. At this point, the device 4 comparison of the generated impulse control to permit further processing of the received signal. At the same time measured the angle between the axis of the sensor 2 of the horizon and the position of the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 (angle α). Measurements are linked to the onboard time device 18 and stored in the magnetic storage device 15 or transmitted via the transmitter 16 on the surface receiving the item. To determine the coordinates of the emergency object you want to measure the angle α and calculating the coordinates of ground point. The coordinates of the two ground points and two measured angles α1and α2is uniquely determined by the location of the emergency object is A.

Calculating the coordinates of the emergency object may on Board the SPACECRAFT in the presence of on-Board digital computing machine or on the surface receiving the item.

In the initial state before getting signal from the transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the directivity pattern of the receiving antenna 3 at the output of receiver 5 no signal. The output schema matching And 8 is zero. Schema matching And 9 is closed, the outputs of schema matching And 9 - zero. Pulse or infrared sensor 2 horizon at the moment of crossing the track of the spacecraft produces a pulse which resets the counter to zero 13 pulses. From generator 12 pulses pulses are received by the counter 13. Schema matching And 9 is closed, the valves 10, 11 are closed.

When the signal from the transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the band of the earth's surface that is viewed by the directivity of the receiving antenna 3, a signal at the output of the receiver 5. The output schema matching And 8 - unit. Upon reaching the values of the Doppler frequency at the output of the meter 6, is equal to zero, opens the device 4 comparison that generates a control pulse. Recent launches inhibited the blocking generator 7, the outputs of schema matching And 9, you receive the unit. Open the valves 10, 11. Information about the angle α (the number of pulses stored in the counter 13 pulses) and time and the measurement is recorded through the circuit 14 switching on a magnetic storage device 15. In the reception area ground control station spacecraft information is reset to the magnetic storage device 15 through the transmitter 16 and the transmitting antenna 17.

When the trigger pulse of the sensor 2 of the horizon system is returned to its original state.

The sequence of the above operations allow us to determine the coordinates of the emergency site, to reduce the time of search, to increase the area of the viewing surface of the Earth due to the scanning of the receiving beam, to increase the ratio signal/noise radio reception through the use of receiving antennas with a narrow radiation pattern.

Thus, the proposed method is compared with the prototype and other technical solutions for a similar purpose to improve the accuracy of measuring small values of the Doppler frequency and the fixation of its zero value. This is achieved by pre-reduction of the frequency of the received oscillations using heterogenerous two channels of processing. The advantage of the proposed method is also the representation of the result of measurement in binary code.

In the system that implements the proposed method does not exhibit any specific stringent requirements for stability of the carrier frequency ωwithemitted by a transmitter and a receiver is om of the emergency object. This is a significant advantage.

Elevation time-Doppler method for determining coordinates of the emergency object placed on the surface of the Earth, with the spacecraft stabilized by rotation along the vertical axis, namely, that when the signal transmitter of the emergency object is displayed with a spacecraft strip on the surface of the Earth measured Doppler frequency no-request method, find the spatial location of the spacecraft at the time when the Doppler frequency of the received signal is equal to zero, measure at this point in time, the angle between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor with reference measurements to the on-Board time, compute the coordinates of the sub-satellite point at the time specified dimension when this measurement is carried out twice and the coordinates of the two ground points and two measurements of the angle between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor to determine the location of the emergency object on the Earth's surface, characterized in that for measuring the Doppler frequency no-request method uses two channels of processing in which the received signal transform for the frequency using the on-Board oscillator, whereas the om in the first processing channel voltage oscillator shift the phase by 90° allocate the voltage difference frequency, amplify and limit their amplitude transform in the clipped voltage of rectangular form, clipped voltage of the first channel processing is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative, and clipped the voltage of the second channel processing invert the phase by 180°received short positive pulses quantuum neighboring positive voltage clipped voltage of the second channel processing, compares them with each other and automatically digitally determine not only the magnitude of the Doppler frequency, but also its sign, a value of zero the Doppler frequency, which corresponds to the passage of the spacecraft points abaft the beam, forming a control pulse to permit further processing of the received signal.



 

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6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.

EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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