Method for cytological diagnostics of puerperal pathology in cows
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with sampling a cow's vaginal smear followed by its staining and microscopic testing the cells. During microscopic testing one should count the cells of vaginal epithelium (surface, parabasal and basal) . In case of prevailing quantity of surface cells (49-60%) one should diagnose normal flow of puerperal period, in case of prevailing parabasal epithelial cells one should diagnose complicated puerperal period, moreover, if the quantity of surface and basal cells is similar or he difference is insignificant (15-20% against 15%, correspondingly) it is possible to diagnose uterine subinvolution, and at considerable difference in the quantity of surface and basal cells (0.5-11% against 20-22%) one should diagnose acute puerperal endometritis. The innovation enables to analyze and detect puerperal pathology in earlier terms.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
The invention relates to veterinary medicine, namely to veterinary obstetrics and gynecology.
There is a method of cytological diagnosis of postpartum pathology (Annacchino, 1974). To perform this method, perform the following manipulations:
1) take a swab from the cervix;
2) paint it Pappenheim;
3) count the number of neutrophils, the nature and degree of degenerative changes;
4) the number and status of neutrophils assess the condition of the sexual apparatus.
The method chosen for the prototype.
But it has serious disadvantages, namely, that:
1) a swab taken from the cervix, which makes study time-consuming, requires additional tools, skills veterinary specialist;
2) study material, you can get not earlier than 6-8 days after birth, because by that time the fence material is impossible because of pain research and the high likelihood of diagnostic error;
3) smear stained by the method of Pappenheim that restricts the use of the method in connection with the high cost of reagents for its implementation;
The objective of the invention is to develop a cheaper and more simple in execution of the diagnostic technique used to predict and identify postpartum pathology at an earlier date.
Those who practical result is the extension of the functionality of the method, expressed in the following:
1) the emergence of possible predictions of postpartum complications;
2) the possibility of early diagnosis and predictions, starting with the first day after calving;
3) ability to conduct research not only nagaragawa cows, but in heifers.
In addition, the technical result is to reduce the complexity and reduce the cost method.
To solve this problem, a method of cytological diagnosis of postpartum pathology in cows, as a prototype, is in taking a swab from the genital tract of the cow with its subsequent staining and microscopic examination of the cells, they will judge the nature of the flow of the postpartum period. Unlike the prototype, a swab is taken from the vagina, colouring make Romanovsky-Giemsa, and microscopic examination is considered cells of the epithelium of the vagina (surface, parabasal, basal, additionally considering the state of their nuclei) and their ratio determines the state of the reproductive system.
In General, the method is as follows. Material for cytological study is vaginal fluid, which is taken from the upper wall of the vagina to the rotational motion using a cotton buds soaked in sterile isotonic solution of sodium chloride. Received mater what al put on a skim glass slide dried in the air for 10-15 min, then fixed in 96% ethanol for 30 minutes Coloring carried out according to the method Romanovsky-Gimza. In one smear count 100 epithelial cells 25 cells in 4 fields of view.
Cytological composition of the vaginal mucus is determined by two indicators in percentage:
1) the number of surface, parabasal and basal epithelial cells;
2) nuclei of the above cells.
As a concrete example, we give the results of the research method proposed in 175 head of cattle black-motley breed at the age of 3-6 years, weighing 350-450 kg with an average milk yield of 3500 kg, divided into 3 groups according to the nature of the flow of the postnatal period (group 1 with normal during the postpartum period, 50 goals, group 2 with subinvolution of the uterus - 64 heads, group 3 with postpartum endometritis - 61 head).
The research results are summarized in the charts on the attached figure. It shows the percentage of epithelial cells in 3 groups: the first chart represents the ratio of the surface of epithelial cells, second - parabasal cells and third - basal epithelial cells. Black color indicates the columns reflecting the ratio of cells in subinvolution of the uterus, dark grey color - normalisation postpartum and white with postpartum endometritis.
As seen in the drawing, the percentage of epithelial cells in 3 different groups.
Thus, the surface of the cells in the group with normal during the postpartum period will be 49-60% of the total number of epithelial cells in the group of subinvolution of the uterus is 15-20%, and at endometritis - 0.5 to 11%.
Parabasal cells in normal course of smears there 28-38% of the total number of epithelial cells of the vagina, subinvolution of the uterus will be 53-63%, and at the postpartum endometritis - 40-55%.
Relative basal cells following picture: at physiological course of the postpartum period and their number is not more than 11% of the total number of epithelial cells; subinvolution of the uterus - 15%, and at the postpartum endometritis even more 20-22%. Differences between cells are reliable in all groups.
Thus, in the normal course of the postpartum period in smears of the epithelium of the vagina of cows prevail surface of the cell.
When subinvolution of the uterus greater percent parabasal epithelial, and the number of surface and basal cells are almost equal.
With postpartum endometritis picture smear another: the number of parabasal cells prevails over other types of epithelial cells, but there is a significant difference between the surface and the base is ranked on the cells (0.5 to 11% vs. 20-22%).
|Surface||49-60%||15-20%||0.5 to 11%|
Additional diagnostic indicator in predicting the course of the postpartum period on the first day after calving, is the condition of the cores of the above cells of the vaginal epithelium.
So, under normal during the postpartum period on the first day after birth the number of parabasal epithelial cells with normal kernel will be of 33.8% of the total number of epithelial cells, basal cells with a nucleus in a state of lysis in a smear is not marked.
About the possibility of slowing down the processes of involution of the uterus indicates the presence of smears on the first day postpartum superficial cells with normal kernel, their population is about 7-10% of the total number of epithelial cells, superficial cells with a nucleus in a state of picknose - 0.5 to 2%, of the surface cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis - 2-8%, parabasal cells of normal core - 12-17%, parabasal cells is to the kernel in a state of rexis - 7,5%.
When endometritis on the first day after birth registered parabasal cells with a nucleus in a state of lysis - 10% and 2% of basal cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis of the total number of epithelial cells.
|Parabasal cells with normal core of 33.8%||Superficial. cells with a normal kernel - 7-10%||Parabasal cells with a nucleus in a state of lysis -10%|
|Basal cell with a nucleus in a state of lysis - no||Superficial. cells with a nucleus in a state of picknose - 0,5-2%||Basal cell with a nucleus in a state of rexis - 2%|
|Superficial. cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis - 2-8%|
|Parabasal cells of normal core - 12-17%|
|Parabasal cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis - 7,5%|
Thus was established the following:
differences cytological composition of vaginal mucus in three groups according to the ratio of epithelial cells and nuclei of these cells are logged in the first day after birth, and that gives the opportunity to predict postpartum complications from the Directors on the first day after calving. The technique of the method, i.e. taking vaginal, and not cervical smear reduces the complexity of the method and allows to obtain material not only nagaragawa animals, but also in heifers. The study of epithelial cells of the vagina more easily performed, cheaper and more informative than the study of neutrophilic leukocytes in the method adopted for the prototype.
It is obvious that the study of the composition of the vaginal mucus can serve as a valuable way to predict the course of the postpartum period and differentially diagnose its complications.
1. Method of cytological diagnosis of postpartum pathology in cows, including taking a swab from the genital tract of the cow with its subsequent staining and microscopic examination of the cells, characterized in that the PAP smear is taken from the vagina, and microscopic examination is considered cells of the epithelium of the vagina (surface, parabasal and basal)and at the prevailing number of surface cells (49-60%) diagnosed normal during the postpartum period, when the predominance of parabasal epithelial cells diagnose the complication of the postpartum period, and if the number of surface and basal cells while the same or differs only slightly (15-20% versus 15% respectively), while the automotive technician strout the subinvolution of the uterus, but with considerable difference in the number of surface and basal cells (0.5 to 11% vs. 20-22%) diagnosed with acute postpartum endometritis.
2. Method of cytological diagnosis of postpartum pathology in cows according to claim 1, characterized in that the staining of the smear produced by Romanovsky-Giemsa and, in addition, examine the condition of the cores of the above cells of the vaginal epithelium, and when the number of parabasal cells with normal kernel and 33.8% of the total number of cells and the absence of basal cells with a nucleus in a state of lysis diagnose normal during the postpartum process, when the number of surface cells with normal kernel 7-10%superficial cells with a nucleus in a state of picknose 0.5 to 2%, of the surface cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis 2-8%, parabasal cells with normal kernel 12-17%and parabasal cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis 7.5% of diagnosed subinvolution of the uterus, and when the number of parabasal cells with a nucleus in a state of lysis 10%, and basal cells with a nucleus in a state of rexis 2% diagnose acute endometritis.
FIELD: medicine, possible use for performing external quality check of clinical laboratory research results, primarily on regional level.
SUBSTANCE: method for evaluating quality of clinical laboratory research includes preparing a sample using patient bio-materials, dividing the sample into a number of separate parts corresponding to number of laboratories - participants of evaluation, sending of samples of divided samples to each one of participating laboratories, measurement in each laboratory of characteristics of provided divided sample and, on basis of results of measurements, comparison of result quality evaluation, while one of the laboratories is chosen to be curator laboratory, all divided samples are preserved at the temperature of -20°C to -25°C for performing measurements of each bio-material parameter, two standard patient samples are used, first one of which has high concentration of analyte, and second one - a lower concentration, in each one of participating laboratories, each one of first and second sample is measured from 6 to 10 times, on basis of received data, curator laboratory produces regression graphs and research data are compared using the graphs, and quality of laboratory research is evaluated using resulting parameters of the graphs.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of clinical laboratory research quality evaluation due to increased trustworthiness of resulting laboratory research data, decreased time and costs of their realization.
6 cl, 27 dwg
FIELD: veterinary science.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with detecting positively reacting animals in RID, then in blood plasma of infected animals it is necessary to determine the substances of average molecular weight and at their content being 12.7-15.2 U of optic density one should diagnose symptom-free stage and at their content being 19 and more U of optic density - hematological stage of leucosis process. The innovation provides higher significance and accuracy of diagnostics while evaluating leucosis degree in virus-infected animals.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of differential diagnostics.
5 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: molecular biology, clinical genetic, medicine.
SUBSTANCE: genetic polymorphysm is analyzed by amplification of polymorph gene fragments by two-step PCR and hybridization of obtained products on bioarray followed by registration and interpretation of obtained data. Specific primer kit is used for amplification of polymorph gene fragments. As bioarray in hybridization step substrate with set of specific oligonucleoide immobilized thereon is used.
EFFECT: method for detection of functional polymorph locus.
12 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes ultrasound action on fat thymus. After 1-2 days immunodeficiency is modeled by free swimming in water at 18-20°C for 20 min every day for 3 days, and after 5 days spleen mass (SM), thymus mass (TM) in mg, content of antibody-forming cells in spleen (AFC), phagocyte activity of neurophyles in periphery blood (PAL), tyroxine (T4) in blood serum are determined and prophylaxis effect of ultrasound action is evaluated by calculation of stress prophylaxis coefficient (SPC) according to equation: SPC = (SM.AFC.PAL)/(TM.T4), and wherein said value is more than 137 prophylaxis effect is fixed.
EFFECT: improved method evaluation of prophylaxis of post-stress immunopathology in experiment.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking 10-100 samples of about 1 g large weight. They are thoroughly mixed with water and precipitated in single laboratory glass, filtering twice, washing the filtered suspension 3-5 times, centrifuging the precipitate 1-2 times at 1500 rpm, pouring the supernatant out and adding combined floatation fluid to the precipitate. Saturated ZnCl2 (2 kg per 1 l), NaCl (0.42 kg per 1 l) and sugar (1.67 kg per 1 l) solutions taken in 2:1:1 proportion are used as the floatation fluid. After having added floatation fluid, the floatation fluid precipitate is shaken up to produce suspension and centrifuged repeatedly in the same mode. The supernatant liquid is poured out and the floatation fluid is added to obtain convex meniscus. It is covered with object-plate for 3-5 min. Then, the liquid is studied with microscope on glass.
EFFECT: accelerated diagnosis method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining mononuclear blood cells containing nucleic acid of given individuum, measuring at least one nucleic acid content selected from a group containing the nucleic acid(s), its fragment or a nucleic acid complementary to the given one, determining gene(s) showing expression changed when schizophrenia is available, nucleic acid(s), its fragment or a nucleic acid complementary to the given one, determining gene(s) showing expression changed when schizophrenia is in progress, in said mononuclear blood cells. Statistical significance of quantitative level(s) is to be determined.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.
20 cl, 11 tbl
FIELD: forensic medicine.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining total glucose and lactic acid amount calculated as glucose equivalent in blood taken from different peripheral venous system compartments of cadaver like femoral vein and dura mater of brain. Total difference between values obtained in femoral vein blood and blood taken from dura mater sinus of brain being greater than 4.5mmole/l, mechanical asphyxia caused by neck organs compression with loop is diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis set in long-term postmortem period.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining angiotensin-transforming enzyme activity level before operation in patients possessing proliferative diabetic retinopathy in lacrimal fluid using spectrophotometric method. Its activity being above 54х 10 mcmole/min•l, favorable outcome of surgical treatment is to be predicted. The value being below 54х 10 mcmole/min•l, progressing proliferation into vitreous body and decreased visual functions after surgical treatment is to be predicted.
EFFECT: high accuracy in forecasting surgical treatment outcome; improved anatomic and functional operation results.
FIELD: analytical chemistry, clinical laboratory diagnosis.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods used in determination of phenothiazine derivatives in biological objects by thin layer chromatography method. Method involves treatment of analyzed biological fluid sample with alkali, extraction of analyzed substances, dosing extract in inert gas flow and chromatography separation of phenothiazine derivatives. Treatment of biological fluid sample is carried out with ethanol and alkali taken in the ratio = 10:1:1, respectively, to pH value 10-13. Extraction of analyzed substances is carried out on solid sorbent using supercross-linked polystyrene, extract is washed out from sorbent with chloroform taken in the amount 8 ml, not above and dried again in nitrogen flow. Chromatography separation of phenothiazine derivatives is carried out by thin layer chromatography method wherein a mixture acetone and ammonia taken in the ratio = 100:1, respectively, is used. Invention provides simplicity, availability, effectiveness and high selectivity of method.
EFFECT: improved assay method.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with measuring blood clinical parameters: in a patient under prediction it is necessary to detect the quantity of hemoglobin, percentage of oxyhemoglobin, the quantity of erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and standardized deviations of these parameters against average statistic ones in the group of healthy individuals. One should form a patient's factor diagram due to applying the above-mentioned standardized deviations of parameters into factor expressions with weight loadings pre-obtained in the group of healthy individuals while processing the same parameters due to factor analysis technique. Initial degree of the disease or pre-pathological state should be diagnosed if factor values come beyond the interval 0-2 by the factor where such parameters as the quantity of erythrocytes and percentage of oxyhemoglobin are observed; light-degree anemia should be diagnosed at deviation of values by this factor being 2-10, moderate-degree anemia should be diagnosed at deviation of values of this factor ranged 10-15, severe-degree anemia should be diagnosed at the deviation of values by this factor being above 15. The innovation is more accurate and requires no complicated equipment.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.
3 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with detecting the composition of non-disintegrated (in vivo) urinary calculi. According to density value H determined due to the method of spiral roentgen computed tomography one should establish potential composition of single-phase or mixed urinary calculi. Then it is important to calculate the calculus' density value ρ (g/cu. cm) by the following formula: ρ=1.539+0.000485H, where H - the density determined due to the method of spiral roentgen computed tomography (rel. U) to be compared with known density values for separate components of urinary calculi. Then, one should choose the most probable combinations of components, calculate potential compositions of urinary calculi in weight% and taking into account the results of urinary analysis and roentgenoscopy it is possible to determine the single variant of urinary calculus composition in vivo that provides the chance to prescribe corresponding therapy.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.
3 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, obstetrics.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with predicting efficiency of conventional therapy of fetal development delay syndrome (FDDS) in the 3d trimester of pregnancy due to detecting the value of relative content of AnnexinV+PI+ lymphocytes in female peripheral venous blood in case of FDDS and at its value being under 10% one should predict the efficiency of conventional therapy of the syndrome in question. The innovation provides higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the method suggested and enables to choose another tactics of therapy.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of prediction.
4 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, therapy, pulmonology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with predicting the development chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smoking persons. It is necessary to detect clinical symptoms and risk factors out of life anamnesis: the index of packs/yr - A1; smoking intensity degree - A2; the number of cigarettes smoked out daily - A3; what cigarette are smoked out - A4; the experience of smoking in years - A5; the availability of dyspnea or crepitation - A6; how much has been smoked out against the cigarette's length - A7; whether the quantity of smoked out cigarettes has been changed during the last years - A8; inhalation of cigarette smoke - A9; the availability of sputum - A10; how often sputum is separated - A11; the degree of nicotinic addiction in points by Fagerstrem's test - A12 to establish their digital values and determine prognostic coefficients F1, F2, F3 by the following formulas: F1=-3.04-0.23*A1-2.11*A2-2.57*A3-0.60*A4-0.97*A5+0.44*A6-0.37*A7+0.19*A8+0.28*A9+0.16*A10-0.08*A11+0.29*A12; F2=-1.82-2.03*A1+1.45*A2+2.61*A3-0.17*A4+1.64*A5-0.29*A6+0.29*A7-0.19*A8-0.20*A9-0.16*A10-0.06*A11-0.49*A12; F3=-13.99+8.30*A1+3.08*A2+0.75*A3+3.04*A4-2.09*A5-0.71*A6+0.40*A7-0.08*A8-0.37*A9-0.02*A10+0.56*A11+0.64*A12. At F3 or F2 being above F1 one should predict high risk of COPD development, at F1 being above F2 or F3 one should predict low risk for COPD development. The innovation enables to evaluate the risk of COPD development more efficiently among smoking persons and simplify the method for its prediction.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of prediction.
3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, therapy, pulmonology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with predicting the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), determining clinical symptoms and risk factors out of life anamnesis: dyspnea, passive smoking, sputum production, cough, crepitation in lungs, episodes of cough with sputum being more than 3 wk, sex, snore. It is necessary to establish their gradations and digital values. Then one should estimate prognostic coefficients F1, F2, F3 by the following formulas: F1=-4.10-3.35*A1-2.68*A2-1.74*A3-1.22*A4-0.48*A5-0.10*A6-0.20*A7-0.32*A8; F2=-5.69-3.32*A1+4.62*A2-1.21*A3-0.08*A4-0.79*A5-0.08*A6-0.25*A7+0.01*A8; F3=-8.14+7.47*A1-1.79*A2-1.16*A3-0.95*A4-0.19*A5-0.76*A6+0.69*A7+0.38*A8; F4=-12.4+3.90*A1-0.05*A2+5.87*A3+3.17*A4+2.14*A5+0.98*A6+0.09*A7+0.20*A8. At F4 being above F1 or F2 or F3 or F4 one should predict high risk for COPD development. At F2 being above F1, or F3, or F4 - low risk for COPD development. The innovation enables to carry out early onset of prophylactic measures.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of prediction.
3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine; diagnostics of diseases.
SUBSTANCE: prediction is fulfilled due to analyzing 1-th particular diagnostic factors Xi(tj), where I=1, 2, 3..., n; tj=t0, t1, t2 - moments of time of getting of particular diagnostic factors during diagnostic procedures and of calculated generalized factors of predicted effectiveness before treatment at t0 time moment and after first and second procedures of treatment at time moments of t1 and t2. Analysis of particular diagnostic factors and of generalized factors of predicted effectiveness is performed at any selected time moment t as outside t0-t2 time interval and inside it while taking priorities of criticality of their values into account. Method allows predicting effectiveness of treatment at any random time moment as within t0 to t2 interval and outside it due to representation of functional dependence of relative particular diagnostic factors. Method also allows representing particular diagnostic factors in form of obvious and convenient order of priority for usage in mathematical computer programs for degree of criticality of their values by means of supplied mathematical conversion formula from form with physical dimensions to relatively dimensionless form. Method allows precise measuring of degree of disease for any chosen time moment by calculated generalized coefficient of effectiveness of treatment. Method can be used for prediction of effectiveness of any methods of treatment for any diseases and for any number particular diagnostic factors due to universal approach used for derivation of mathematical formulas used for described method.
EFFECT: improved reliability; higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: veterinary science.
SUBSTANCE: the method deals with studying animal's blood serum with antigen in reaction of immunodiffusion. Moreover, as an antigen one should apply O-PS M-antigen prepared out of vaccinic strain B.melitensis Rev.-1. The innovation enables to increase considerably the sensitivity of the technique applied.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of diagnostics.
3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: biopsy instruments.
SUBSTANCE: device holds biopsy material in biopsy needle-cannula provided with fixing mechanism. Fixing mechanism is introduced into proximal end of biopsy needle-cannula, which end is pushed through between internal wall of biopsy cannula and cylindrical fragment of biopsy material. Distal end of fixing mechanism is provided with wire having cut. Wire has angle of preliminary shift, length, which length corresponds to biopsy cannula and ends up directly at its end. Device can be successfully used for performing through-skin biopsy of tissues, especially of solid tissue and marrow tissue.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
12 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves evaluating the following clinical course signs with scores. Time passed since disease onset, nature and amount of exudate into he abdominal cavity, available abdominal sepsis are evaluated as the clinical course signs by scoring. Each sign receives score value. Each hour of time passed since disease onset receives +1 score; peritonitis generalization degree is assessed with +1 score per each 100 ml of exudate; peritonitis evaluation with exudate nature is made with +0 in gastric content and serous exudate cases, +5 scores in serofibrinous exudate cases, +10 scores in pyofibrinous exudate cases; peritonitis evaluation with clinical manifestation severity is carried out by giving +0 scores in cases with no abdominal sepsis phenomena, +10 scores are given in cases with abdominal sepsis phenomena being available. Score sum being equal to or less than 11, mini-laparotomic access operation is considered to be advisable.
EFFECT: high objectivity level in evaluating inflammatory peritoneum changes severity degree, in determining contraindications to surgical treatment with mini-laparotomic access.
FIELD: veterinary science.
SUBSTANCE: the innovation deals with blood sampling in an animal to be put into a tube with 5%-sodium citrate solution followed by blood centrifuging with distilled water to study the residue for the presence of mesocercaria. The innovation enables to detect alariosis at earlier stage of invasion.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of diagnostics.
FIELD: medicine, surgery.
SUBSTANCE: one should detect the perfusion in ulcerous edge due to endoscopic laser doppleroflowmetry both before and after irrigating the ulcer with 1 ml 0.1%-adrenaline solution. In case of no decrease in perfusion after irrigating the ulcer with 1 ml 0.1%-adrenaline it is possible to predict the relapse of hemorrhage. Being more simplified the method suggested provides the chance for preventive impact at diagnostics of pre-relapse syndrome.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of prediction.
FIELD: poultry farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing iodous starch into portion of 28-day aged broiler chickens by single subcutaneous injection, with iodine dose making 2-4 mg/head.
EFFECT: increased live weight gain of broiler chickens per unit of consumed feed and improved quality of product.
2 tbl, 2 ex