Device for measuring wheel's traction coefficient with airfield paving

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has registration unit and force transducer. Registration unit has processor, first and second aerials, radio modem, keyboard, GPS receiver and display. First aerial is connected with first input/output of processor through radio modem. Second input of processor is connected with keyboard. Second aerial is connected with third input of processor through GPS detector. Second output of processor is connected with display. Third output of processor is provided for connection with personal computer. Registration unit additionally has thermal printer, interface first converter and memory unit. Device also has measuring wheel and electromechanical force measuring unit. The latter has amplifier, two temperature detectors, micro-controller and interface second converter. Registration unit has memory unit connected with fourth input and output of processor, which processor has fifth output connected with thermal printer. Measuring wheel of device is mechanically connected with electro-mechanical force measuring unit. Measuring wheels traction force influences on force detector connected with first input of micro-controller through amplifier. Second and third inputs of micro-controller are connected with first and second temperature detectors. Output of micro-controller is connected with output of electromechanical force measuring unit through interface second converter. Output force measuring unit is connected with input of registration unit through cable. Input of registration unit is connected with fifth input of processor through interface first converter.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to systems and devices for assessing the status of airfield pavement.

The device is designed to determine the conditions for braking aircraft pneumatic wheels on artificial airfield pavements on the magnitude of the coefficient of coupling.

To assess the condition of airfield pavements at domestic aerodromes used decelerometer, which is a portable small-sized device. It consists of a buffered air of a pendulum connected to the arrow, which shows a negative acceleration.

For measurement of grip the car accelerates to the set speed, then the driver presses on the brake pedal. The pendulum of decelerometer together with the locking of the arrow is deflected in the direction of motion. Read the value of the negative acceleration. By this simple calculation is determined by the coefficient of coupling. This unit has a large error in the determination of the coefficient of adhesion (the structure and operation of decelerometer given in the Manual of civil airfields of the Russian Federation". M., Ed. Air transport, 1995).

Another known device for measuring adhesion factor is "airfield brake cart" ATT-2, which is a kit, with the present of the brake of the truck and the registration unit. The coefficient of coupling is determined in the process of movement. The operator monitors the readings of the microammeter and writes his testimony. However, this device has a large error in the determination of numerical values of the coefficient of adhesion (the structure and operation of the Airfield brake truck", refer to "user Guide for civil airfields of the Russian Federation". M., Ed. Air transport, 1995, str-157).

Closest to the claimed invention to the technical essence is "a Device for measuring the coefficient of adhesion of the wheels of the vehicle, having a constant degree of slip surface runway"with the maximum number of similar essential features with the features of the claimed device and therefore adopted for the prototype (Patent No. 2165610, EN 7 G01N 19/02). The known device is the prototype contains the registration unit 1 and the force sensor 2 (figure 1). The block register 1 contains: CPU 3, the first 4 and second 5 antenna unit 6, a keyboard 7, the GPS receiver 8, a display 9, a controller 10, a portable memory 11, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 12. The first 4 antenna via radio modem 6 is connected to the first input/output processor 3 to the second input of which is connected keyboard 7, 5 and the second antenna through the MSC GPS 8 is connected to the third input of the processor 3. The second output of the processor 3 is connected to the display 9, and a third output processor 3 is provided for connection to a personal computing machine. The fourth input and output processor 3 through the controller 10 is connected with the portable storage device 11. The force sensor 2 cable connects to the logging unit 1 and through an analog-to-digital Converter 12 is connected to the fifth input of the unit 3.

When this radio 6 through the first antenna 4 is carried out radio communication with the aerodrome, and the GPS receiver 8 through the second antenna 5 receives signals from navigation satellites.

The operation of the known device

The known device used in conjunction with the Airfield brake truck, and the recording unit 1 is placed in the cab of the vehicle, and the force sensor 2 is on the brake the truck. Airfield brake truck is a trailer with a leading and measuring wheels. The ratio of the diameters of the leading and measuring wheels to enable movement of the measuring wheel slippage 11-17%. Due to the measuring wheel slippage occurs the longitudinal strength of the coupling, which depends on the surface condition of the airfield pavement. Longitudinal adhesive force measuring wheel acts on the force sensor 2. When the dimension d is tcic force 2 converts the longitudinal grip force measuring wheel in voltage, the value of which depends on the condition of airfield pavements. The signal of the force sensor 2 cable enters the recording unit 1, where d / a Converter 12 is converted into a digital code is supplied to the CPU 3. In the processor 3 in accordance with the signal of the force sensor 2 and the results of the calibration device calculates the coefficient of adhesion (XCP) measuring wheel with airfield floor

XCP=RG/RV,

where WG is the longitudinal adhesive force measuring wheel, measured by the force sensor 2,

RV is the vertical force acting on the coating surface.

At the same time from the GPS receiver 8 in the processor 3 receives geographic coordinates, speed and time.

The processor 3 is formed an array of data consisting of numeric values: coefficient of coupling, geographic coordinates brake trucks, speed and real-time. The array data is displayed on the display screen 9, is recorded in the portable memory 11 and the radio modem 6 is transferred to aerodrome service.

A disadvantage of the known device is a significant error in the determination of the coefficient of adhesion when receiving and converting signals from the force sensor 2. The length of the connecting cable force sensor 2 with the recording unit 1 is 7 m, which inevitably weakens the signal d is tcheka 2. The friction measurement is carried out in the presence of powerful electromagnetic radiation, and at such length of the connecting cable inevitable outside interference. Not taken into account the temperature dependence on the accuracy of the measurements.

The aim of the proposed device is to increase the accuracy of the measurement of the coefficient of adhesion by changing the reception and conversion of the signals of the force sensor 2.

The goal in the device definition of the friction wheel with the airfield coating is achieved by the fact that in it, as in the prototype, contains the registration unit and the force sensor. The block register contains the processor, the first and second antennas, radio modem, keyboard, receiver, global positioning system (GPS) and the display. The first antenna via radio modem is connected to the first input/output processor, a second input connected to the keyboard. The second antenna via the GPS receiver is connected to the third input of the processor, a second output of which is connected to the display, and the third output processor is provided for connecting personal computers (PC). According to information from the GPS receiver determines the location of the measuring device, and the radio is transmitting measurement results.

In addition, the registration unit included termor nter, the first interface Converter and the memory block, and the device is further provided with a measuring wheel and electro-mechanical force gauge, which further comprises an amplifier, first and second temperature sensors, the microcontroller and the second interface Converter. In the recording unit block of memory is connected to the fourth input / output processor, the fifth output of which is connected to thermal printer, and measuring wheel device mechanically connected with Electromechanical strength meter. Adhesive force measuring wheel with the surface of the aerodrome coating acts on the force sensor, which through an amplifier connected to the first input of the microcontroller, to second and third inputs of which are connected respectively to the first and second temperature sensors. The output of the microcontroller via a second interface Converter connected to the output of the Electromechanical force gauge. The output of the Electromechanical meter power cable is connected to the input of the recording unit, the entrance of which is through the first interface Converter connected to the fifth input of the unit.

In the known technical solutions signs, similar to the distinctive features of the claimed device is not detected, it is therefore considered that the proposed device complies with and is obiteljskom level.

The use of this device and its implementation will allow to increase safety during the landing of aircraft by using more accurate information about the condition of the runway of the airfield.

The essence of the proposed device for determining the coefficient of coupling is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 - structural diagram of the prototype;

figure 2 - structural diagram of the device;

figure 3 - algorithm Electromechanical strength meter;

figure 4 - algorithm recording unit.

The proposed device for determining the coefficient of traction wheels with airfield floor contains the registration unit 1 and the force sensor 2. The block register 1 contains the processor 3, the first 4 and second 5 antenna unit 6, a keyboard 7, a receiver 8 global positioning system (GPS) and the display 9. The first 4 antenna via radio modem 6 is connected to the first input/output processor 3, a second input connected to the keyboard 7, 5 and the second antenna via the GPS receiver 8 is connected to the third input of the processor 3, the second output of which is connected to the display 9, and a third output processor 3 is provided for connecting personal computers. With the information from the GPS receiver determines the location of the measuring device, and p is diomedea ensures the transmission of the measurement results.

In addition, the registration unit 1 entered thermal printer 13, the first interface Converter 14 and a memory 15. The device is further provided with a measuring wheel 16 and Electromechanical strength meter 17, which further comprises an amplifier 18, the first 19 and second 20 temperature sensors, the microcontroller 21 and the second interface Converter 22. In the registration unit 1, the memory unit 15 is connected to the fourth input / output processor 3, the fifth output of which is connected to thermal printer 13, and the measuring wheel 16 are mechanically connected with Electromechanical strength meter 17. Adhesive force measuring wheel 16 with the surface of airfield pavement affects the force sensor 2, which via the amplifier 18 is connected to the first input of the microcontroller 21 to the second and third inputs of which are connected respectively to the first 19 and second 20 temperature sensors. The output of the microcontroller 21 via the second interface Converter 22 is connected to the output of the Electromechanical force gauge 17. The output of the Electromechanical force gauge 17 cable is connected to the input of the recording unit 1, an input via the first interface Converter 14 is connected to the fifth input of the unit 3.

The design of the proposed device

The proposed device contains the lock register 1, measuring wheel 16 and Electromechanical strength meter 17.

The recording unit 1 is a high-impact plastic box with carrying handle, glass lid and the keyboard 7 of the eight switches. Under the cover is the front panel that has a display 9, thermal printer 13, the LEDs and a connector for connecting personal computers (PC). On the side of the block connector is placed Electromechanical force gauge 17. The processor 3, unit 6, the GPS receiver 8, the first interface Converter 14 and the memory unit 15 is placed on the boards under the front panel and provided with shielding. The recording unit 1 has a pocket in which to carry placed antennas 4 and 5 respectively of the radio modem 6 and the GPS receiver 8.

Electromechanical strength meter 17 is a metal construction stainless steel cable for connection to the recording unit 1. Inside metal structures Electromechanical force gauge 17 is set the force sensor 2, the amplifier 18, the first 19 and second 20 temperature sensors, the microcontroller 21 and the second interface Converter 22.

Measuring wheel 16 is equipped aircraft by bus.

Measuring and computing the channel proposed unit represents the VA series-connected channels: measuring and computing channel Electromechanical strength meter 17 and computing channel processor 3.

The operation of the device

Before commissioning and at intervals determined by the methodological instruction manual, calibration of the device. Calibration determines the dependence of the code at the output of the Electromechanical force gauge 17 and the magnitude of force acting on the force sensor 2. The results of the calibration are stored in the unit's non-volatile memory 15 of the recording unit 1.

In accordance with the software of the processor 3, the device operates in the following modes:

- calibration and device settings;

- manual input source information: date and time of measurement, the end and the position measuring device on the runway, the code of the operator who carried out the measurement;

- automated measurement of coefficient of adhesion, processing of measurement results, records the received information in the memory unit 15 with reference measurements to the position measuring device on the runway and issue real-time information about the status of the airfield to airfield services;

- manual input of visual assessment of the surface condition of the airfield pavement;

- documenting the results of measurements of the coefficient of adhesion;

control of the technical condition of the device during operation the purpose of the product or when connecting personal computers.

These modes are switched by the switches of the keyboard 7.

The proposed device is based brake truck, having a constant slippage of the measuring wheel 16, with the use of digital data Bank of the airfield and satellite navigation systems. The proposed device can be used with any other vehicle, which provides a constant preset slippage of the measuring wheel relative to the surface of the coating. Due to slippage of the measuring wheel 16 occurs longitudinal adhesive force. The magnitude of the friction depends on the surface condition of the airfield pavement. The specified longitudinal adhesive force measuring wheel 16, is applied to the Electromechanical strength meter 17, causes deformation of the force sensor 2, which is a strain gauge. At the output of the force sensor 2 is formed of a continuous signal proportional to the applied to the sensor 2 efforts. The amplifier 18 provides the desired amplification of the sensor signal strength 2. The first sensor 19 temperature is formed, the temperature coefficient of the force sensor 2, and the second sensor 20 temperature temperature coefficient of the electric circuit of the microcontroller 21. The principle of operation of the Electromechanical force gauge 17 is based on a uniform is about the time of the survey of 400 times per second signal from the output of the force sensor 2. When the microcontroller 21 converts the signals of the force sensor 2 and temperature sensors 19 and 20 into a digital code that performs digital signal processing to compensate for environmental influences, calculates the average value of the signal of the force sensor 2 for eight cycles of its survey and issues via the second interface Converter 22 processed information in a digital code 50 times per second. The algorithm works electro-mechanical force gauge 17 are presented in figure 3. Digital code Electromechanical force gauge 17 is fed to the input of the recording unit 1 and then through the first interface Converter 14 to the input of the processor 3, where came the digital code is compared with the calibration characteristic, which determines the strength of coupling of the measuring wheel 16 with the coating surface.

According to the obtained results, calculate the coefficient of adhesion (XCP) measuring wheel with the surface

XCP=RG/RV,

where WG is the longitudinal strength of coupling of the measuring wheel 16 with the surface of the airfield pavement;

RV is the vertical force acting on the coating surface.

At the same time from the GPS receiver 8 in the processor 3 receives the information of the navigation satellites (NIST): geographical coordinates, speed and time. Geographical coordinates of priem the GPS SC 8 determine the location of the measuring device on the runway, such information is necessary for the head of operations.

In the processor 3 of the registration unit 1 in accordance with the software every second is the average of the definition of the coefficient of adhesion by fifty readings from the Electromechanical force gauge 17. Information received package data, which is stored in non-volatile memory block 15. The data packet includes the following information: the average of the coefficient of adhesion for each second, the grip on the third runway, geographical coordinates and speed, current time and accompanying information about the operation mode of the recording unit 1. Information of the data packet may be supplemented by visual assessment of the surface condition of the runway, which is entered into the CPU 3 switches the keyboard 7. The algorithm recording unit 1 is presented in figure 4.

Radio 6 transfer information of the data packet, which arrives in ground services, providing flights and services, controlling the state of the runway. The accumulated information from the recording unit 1 is brought to the aerodrome services and formulary status field on heat-sensitive paper, obtained what about using thermal printer 13, built-in front panel block register 1 or by direct connection of the registration unit 1 to the personal electronic computing machine. Information about the operation mode of the device is displayed on the display screen 9.

Distinctive features of the proposed device

In the prototype, and known devices for measuring friction force sensor removed analog signals. The analog signal depends on the surface condition of the coating. On the surfaces of wet, dirty, covered with ice or snow adhesive force measuring wheel with the surface of the coating is small and the level of the wanted signal power becomes comparable with the noise transmitting and receiving channels of the measurement of the coefficient of adhesion. Small value of the analog signal of the force sensor is sensitive to temperature and humidity, the change of dielectric properties and resistance of the connecting cable, the quality of electrical work in its manufacture, operation time of the cable, the loss of its shielding properties and contamination of the connectors. All this leads to uncontrolled errors in the measurement of the friction measuring wheel with the surface.

The electro-mechanical force gauge 17 having the best characteristics for accuracy and and linearity compensation of the influence of the ambient temperature, as well as measurement and signal processing of sensor power 2 digital way, and then transmitting the signal to a digital code in the recording unit 1, allow to increase the accuracy of the measurement of the longitudinal friction (WG) measuring wheel with airfield pavement, which increases the accuracy of the estimate of the coefficient of adhesion (CSCP).

The proposed device for determining the coefficient of traction wheels with airfield coating can be implemented as follows.

The processor 3 - type CPU188-5MX.

Unit 6 - device software radio, type RSSS-1, 1600/2400.

The GPS receiver 8 receiver of a global navigation system, type LS-EF.

Display 9 - LCD display, AC-204BYILY-18-H.

thermal printer 13 - type SAM 1245.

The first 14 and second 22 converters interface - chip - ADM202.

The memory unit 15 - chip non-volatile memory ATMEL, type MD2200-D16-X-PI.

The amplifier 18 - IC - AD8552.

The first 19 and second 20 temperature sensors - semiconductor temperature sensors with high accuracy and linearity, type TMR.

The microcontroller 21 - chip type D812.

Device for determination of the friction wheel with airfield coating containing the recording unit and the force sensor, and the recording unit includes: a processor, the first and second antennas, radio modem, keyboard,receiver, global positioning system (GPS) and the display, with the first antenna via radio modem is connected to the first input/output processor, a second input connected to the keyboard, and the second antenna via the GPS receiver is connected to the third input of the processor, a second output of which is connected to the display, the third processor output is provided for connecting personal computers (PC), and according to the information from the GPS receiver determines the location of the measuring device, and the radio is transmitting measurement results, wherein the recording unit further introduced thermal printer, the first interface Converter and the memory block, and the device is further provided with a measuring wheel and electro-mechanical force gauge, which further comprises an amplifier, first and second temperature sensors, the microcontroller and the second interface Converter, the registration unit memory block is connected to the fourth input / output processor, the fifth output of which is connected to thermal printer, and measuring wheel device mechanically connected with electro-mechanical force gauge, force grip measuring wheel with the surface of the aerodrome coating acts on the force sensor, which through an amplifier connected to the first input of the microcontroller, to the second and third the inputs of which are connected respectively to the first and second temperature sensors, and the output of the microcontroller via a second interface Converter connected to the output of the Electromechanical meter power, output Electromechanical meter power cable is connected to the input of the recording unit, the entrance of which is through the first interface Converter connected to the fifth input of the unit.



 

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