Building member for wall erection and building member laying method

FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.

SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction, namely, the construction elements for walls with the required thermal resistance for different conditions of operation and the way of the walls of these elements.

Known building block for walls containing monolithic body in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with one vertical blind grooves (awts of the USSR № 985216, CL EV 2/14, 1981). This construction element has a light weight and superior heat resistance compared to conventional solid brick due to the presence in his body blind holes, forming a closed air voids in the wall.

However, the presence in the monolithic body of the construction element of voids reduces its strength and increases the complexity of its manufacture.

There is described and a method of construction of exterior walls of the known building elements, including laying rows with ligation of the vertical joints, and construction elements of adjacent rows are equipped with a combination of voids and bandaging of seams is carried out in two rows.

The disadvantage of this method lies in the complexity of work in the construction of walls, since it requires a specific orientation of building elements when they are laying in the block in two rows one above the other, aligning the holes, and the floor is obtained in this way integrated blocks only partially solve the problem to improve the insulating qualities of the wall in General, since the received blocks are placed on solution deposited on a solid bed adjacent block, formed of two building elements, which leaves the connection between two blocks of "cold bridges" and leads to increased consumption, masonry mortar, due to the presence of vertical cavities. Currently used for masonry construction elements in the form of bricks, masonry, blocks, etc. usually are connected with cement-sand mortar, which is the main conductor of cold ("cold bridge") in the capital walls, because the freezing wall occurs at the seams, and therefore, thermal requirements, you must multiply the full rows of bricks in the wall to compensate for significant heat losses through the mortar joints.

Also known element in the construction of building walls, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with a vertical end-to-end and one-sided blind cavities (Patent RF №2062843, CL EV 2/02, 1993).

This known construction element as compared with the previous analogue has reduced weight and improved heat resistance due to the presence of through vertical holes.

However, the presence in the monolithic body of the construction element of voids reduces its strength and took what increases the complexity of manufacturing through vertical holes.

There is described and a method of construction of exterior walls of the known building elements, including laying rows with ligation of the vertical joints.

The disadvantage of this method lies in the complexity of work in the construction of walls, as it also requires a specific orientation of building elements for their installation, as compared with the previous method of laying only partially improves the insulating qualities of the wall as a whole due to the presence of the through holes, forming air voids, but when building the walls of this method requires increased consumption masonry mortar and leaves in the presence of "cold bridges".

Closest to the claimed technical solution is the building block for walls in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the slots on the sides (Patent RF №2108430, prior, 20.11.1995, CL IS 2/04, EV 2/14).

This is the closest to the claimed construction element has superior heat resistance compared with the previous known construction element due to the presence of bed faces blind grooves, as close as possible to each other, and this construction element is more adaptable to fabrication by extrusion, by introducing into the closed volume of the mold of the additional volume of the hole-forming cores, if this is the compaction process is facilitated by the fact that the pressure on each pustotoobrazovatel equally and in the construction element does not occur plots "overclamping".

The disadvantage of this construction element that is closest to the claimed, is its low strength, due to the presence in the monolithic body of the construction element of a significant amount of voids, and the complexity of its manufacture.

There is described and the closest to the claimed known method of masonry walls, providing the binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements and the formation, thus, the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows walls by binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row.

This is the closest to the claimed method of masonry walls in comparison with the known previous method of masonry does not require orientation of building elements in relation to each other and only slightly reduces the area of education "cold bridges".

The disadvantage of this method lies in education as the wall of "cold bridges" and in the increased consumption of Klah is full of solution.

The invention solves the problem of improving thermal insulation properties of constructed buildings while ensuring high economic efficiency of construction due to its cheaper and faster.

The technical result from the use of the invention is to provide Ravnopravie and technology in the manufacture of the construction element, providing in the construction of walls, due to its structural features, the formation covering it parallel to the wall of the closed zones of masonry mortar, equidistant from the edges of the faces of the building element, excluding education in the cross-section of a wall of "cold bridges" between abutting construction elements and forming together with the surfaces of the faces of adjacent elements restricted to these zones, closed around each building element heat-retaining hollow channels covering each construction element and forming between each other in the erected wall one common closed branched heat-retaining hollow chamber, providing increased thermal insulation properties of the erected wall while ensuring the manufacturability of masonry, the thickness decrease of the erected walls, and reducing consumption of masonry mortar.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the construction element built for the I walls in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the slots on the sides, the surface of each of its faces, made with raised ridges forming parallel ridges with grooves under mortar, each of the ridges of the construction element is docked along the edges of the faces of the other ridges located on the surfaces of its adjacent faces, with the formation of a single girding its ridge parallel to its longitudinal section of one of its vertical faces, and each of the surfaces of the faces contains at least two parallel ridges, equidistant from its edges.

The location of the ridges on the bed faces with the formation between at least two rectangular shapes in plan helps to ensure the masonry walls of the easy orientation of each building element relative to the lower set.

Implementation of all of the ridges on the faces of the same shape with the same dimensions contributes to the manufacturability of the construction element and the creation of sustainable and durable wall construction.

In addition, in the body of the construction element on his bed face channels, perpendicular to its surface, or performance of the building element of porous material allows not only to simplify the structure and improve its insulating qualities.

This technical result is also achieved by the fact that the act is both masonry walls, providing linking mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements and the formation, thus, the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows walls by binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row, masonry mortar spread on the faces of each building element in the grooves encircling its ridges, parallel to its longitudinal section of the erected wall and masonry building elements produced so that the ridges on the sides of adjacent elements are aligned between themselves and filled these grooves ridges of mortar formed on the inside wall of cold surrounds each construction element of the closed zone, located parallel to the wall, associated with similar zones adjacent building elements and forming together with the surfaces of the faces adjacent building elements limited to these zones, heat-retaining hollow channels covering each construction element and forming together in one common wall closed branched thermal storage postato the camera.

The design of the building element and examples of execution of the masonry wall is represented in the drawings:

Figure 1 - General view of the building element in a perspective view;

Figure 2 - General view of the building element from the end (on the stretcher faces);

Figure 3 - General view of the construction element at the top and bottom (on the bed face);

4 is a General view of the building element from the side (on the stretcher bond faces);

5 is a broken-out section I of figure 3;

6 is a General view of the building element with channels perpendicular to the surface of the bed faces;

7 is a General view of the construction element made of porous material;

Fig the corner of the building erected in a perspective view;

Fig.9 - second row styling of the building erected;

Figure 10 - section a-a figure 9.

The construction element 1 (Fig.1-4) in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped made of, for example, clay or silicates, or of foam or polystyrene concrete or cellular concrete or other wall building materials with bed faces 2 and 3, stretcher bond faces 4 and 5 and stretcher faces 6 and 7. On the surface of each faces are equidistant from the edges of the embossed protrusions 8, forming parallel ridges 9 with grooves 10 for masonry mortar (figure 5). The number of ridges 9 with the protrusions 8 and the distance between them is f and the depth of grooves "h" between the tabs and the width "b" depend on the destinations the Oia structure, for the construction of which is construction element, but also on the physico-mechanical characteristics of the material of this building block. In this case, all of the ridges 9 on the faces have the same shape with the same dimensions, which contributes to the manufacturability of the construction element 1 and the creation of sustainable and durable wall construction.

Each of the ridges 9 (1, 6, 7 and 8) on each of the faces of the building element 1 is docked along the edges of the faces of the other ridges 9, located on the surfaces of its adjacent faces, with the formation of a single ring ridge, parallel to each section of one of the vertical edges: stretcher or stretcher bond. The number encircling element in the construction of ridges pick up so located on the bed faces 2 and 3 ridges 9 could form at least two rectangular shapes in plan 11 and 12 (figure 3), providing in the wall of the easy orientation of each building element relative to the lower set.

The body of the construction element 1 can have additional channels 13 (6), perpendicular to the bedding surfaces of the faces, or may be made of porous material 14 (7), which allows to simplify the erected wall and further improve its insulating qualities.

For manufacture of the population of the proposed building element does not require complex moulds.

Masonry walls (Fig, 9 and 10) with the required thermal resistance for different conditions is carried out in the following sequence.

The formation of the lower horizontal row 15 wall starting from the corner of the building (Fig), fill mortar grooves 10 of the ridges 9 (figure 5)located on the bottom bed face 3, then bonder faces 6 and 7 (figure 2) of each successively stacked in the number of construction element. Laying of building elements thus leading to the ridge 9, located on the bonder faces 6, 7 of the adjacent building elements are aligned between themselves, docking, thus, all the construction elements of this row.

Then form the other horizontal rows 16, 17 (Fig), etc. located above the lower horizontal near 15.

While laying next to a height of some 16, 17, etc. fill mortar grooves 10 of the ridges 9, located on the bed 2, 3 and bonder 6, 7 faces of adjacent building elements already arranged in each horizontal row and from the other, forming a new number (Fig), stacking sequentially one after the other construction elements so that the ridges on the surfaces of the bed 2, 3 and bonder 6, 7 faces of adjacent building elements coincide with each other.

Masonry mortar, filling the grooves 10 grad on faces of adjacent building elements, solidification forms equidistant from the edges of the faces encircling each construction element enclosed belt 18 (Fig, 9 and 10), parallel in his section of the erected wall. These closed belt 18 are rigidly connected with the same closed zones 18 adjacent building elements and create, because of this, the effect monolithic walls, providing a reliable fixation of the building elements in the wall and her strength.

In addition, the use for a bunch of construction of the belt elements 18 reduces several times the need for cement-sand mortar solution, because masonry mortar in the construction of walls not distribute over the entire surface of adjacent construction elements, but only in the grooves 10 of the ridges 9.

These belts 18 form, together with the surfaces of the faces of adjacent elements restricted to these zones, closed around each building element heat-retaining hollow channels 19, which are interconnected along the length of the wall and forming together in one common wall closed branched heat-retaining hollow chamber.

The tight heat-retaining hollow channels 19 in the wall around each building element prevents the cooling air inside the wall in any of its sections, providing the effect of a thermos, their permeability increases, i.e. improving sposobnosti effectively to "breathe". Resulting in a natural way adjustable humidity of the air inside buildings in the inner areas there is a favorable microclimate close to the microclimate of wooden houses.

Education in the construction of walls of equal size zones of masonry mortar covering along the walls of each building number, ensures uniform distribution of heat-retaining hollow channels in the walls and to achieve uniform distribution of teplopotreblenija on the cross-sectional area of the walls, but also to increase the area formed by these channels total closed branched heat-retaining hollow chamber, and to provide thermal insulation at the seams pair of building elements and to increase thermal resistance of the walls, excluding them from freezing, due to the absence of "cold bridges".

In addition, placing heat-retaining cavities in the inner space of the walls eliminates formation within them condensate.

However, the document SNiP II - 3-79 "Construction firing" set energy efficiency standards for masonry walls of different wall materials. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the wall material, attesting to that.

Table 1
MaterialDensity, kg/m3Coefficient of thermal conductivity W/MSThe wall thickness at R0PR=3.15 mThe mass of 1 m2wall, kg
Clay brick solid17000,812,54250
Clay brick, voidness 20%14000,431,351900
Silicate brick18000,872,74860
Clay brick, porysowany8000,180,55450
Aerated concrete (AAC)500-6000,16-0,190,5-0,6250-360
The claydite-concrete500-12000,23-0,520,72-1,64360-1970
Polystyrene concrete150-400the 0.05-0.10,16-0,3224-128

Using the proposed design building element for walls of any material will reduce the standard thickness of the walls of the building erected in comparison with established standards.

Thus, the creation of Ravnopravie and is adaptable to manufacture the AI building element, providing in the construction of walls due to its structural features forming the inside wall parallel to it is equidistant from the edges of the faces of the building element of the closed zones of masonry mortar, encircling each construction element parallel to the wall and forming on the surfaces of their faces heat-retaining hollow channels, eliminates cross-section of the wall of the formation of "bridges" between abutting construction elements, increases thermal insulation properties of constructed walls, reducing their thickness and accordingly load the bases, but also reduces the expense masonry mortar without complicating the method of laying.

In addition, the construction of the walls of the proposed building element provides good sound insulation and attaches to the walls of the optimal dynamic performance, providing the ability to withstand prolonged vibration.

Prepared structural texture of the walls of the proposed building elements with ridges allows for the plastering work to provide a high coefficient of coupling of the plaster wall that contributes to the quality of these works and durability of the coating. In addition, for plastering is not required additional training walls, which significantly reduces their trudee the bone.

Using the proposed method of erection of walls of the proposed building element allows you to maintain the pre-set construction norms and rules thermotechnical parameters of construction of the walls of the building, to improve their thermal insulation and sound absorption properties, and to ensure the economic efficiency of construction due to its cheaper and faster.

1. Construction element for walls in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the slots on the sides, characterized in that the surface of each of its faces, made with raised ridges forming parallel ridges with grooves under mortar, each of the ridges of the construction element is docked along the edges of the faces of the other ridges located on the surfaces of its adjacent faces, with the formation of a single girding its ridge parallel to its longitudinal section of one of its vertical faces, and each of the surfaces of the faces contains at least two parallel ridges, equidistant from its edges.

2. Construction element for walls according to claim 1, characterized in that the ridge located on the bed sides, form between them at least two rectangular shapes in plan.

3. Construction element for walls according to claim 1, characterized in that all of the ridges on the faces have the same shape and size is s.

4. Construction element for walls according to claim 1, characterized in that in his body on the bed face is made perpendicular to the surface of the channels.

5. Construction element for walls according to claim 1, characterized in that its body is made of a porous material.

6. The way masonry walls, providing the binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements and the formation so the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows walls by binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row, characterized in that the mortar spread on the faces of each building element in the grooves encircling its ridges, parallel to its longitudinal section of the erected wall and masonry building elements produced so that the ridges on the adjacent faces elements are aligned between themselves and filling the grooves of these ridges of mortar formed on the inside wall of cold surrounds each construction element of the closed zone, located parallel to the wall associated with the same posameznih building elements and forming together with the surfaces of the faces adjacent building elements, limited these belts, heat-retaining hollow channels covering each construction element and forming together in one common wall closed branched heat-retaining hollow chamber.



 

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